Abstract

OCT angiography is a functional extension of OCT that allows for non-invasive imaging of retinal microvasculature. However, most current OCT angiography systems are tabletop systems that are typically used for imaging compliant, seated subjects. These systems cannot be readily applied for imaging important patient populations such as bedridden patients, patients undergoing surgery in the operating room, young children in the clinic, and infants in the intensive care nursery. In this manuscript, we describe the design and development of a non-contact, handheld probe optimized for OCT angiography that features a novel diverging light on the scanner optical design that provides improved optical performance over traditional OCT scanner designs. Unlike most handheld OCT probes, which are designed to be held by the side of the case or by a handle, the new probe was optimized for ergonomics of supine imaging where imagers prefer to hold the probe by the lens tube. The probe’s design also includes an adjustable brace that gives the operator a point of contact closer to the center of mass of the probe, reducing the moment of inertia around the operator’s fingers, facilitating stabilization, and reducing operator fatigue. The probe supports high-speed imaging using a 200 kHz swept source OCT engine, has a motorized stage that provides + 10 to −10 D refractive error correction and weighs 700g. We present initial handheld OCT angiography images from healthy adult volunteers, young children during exams under anesthesia, and non-sedated infants in the intensive care nursery. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first reported use of handheld OCT angiography in non-sedated infants, and the first handheld OCT angiography images which show the clear delineation of key features of the retinal capillary complex including the foveal avascular zone, peripapillary vasculature, the superficial vascular complex, and the deep vascular complex.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

A. P. Finn, R. J. House, S. T. Hsu, A. S. Thomas, M. A. El-Dairi, S. Freedman, M. A. Materin, and L. Vajzovic, “Hyperreflective Vitreous Opacities on Optical Coherence Tomography in a Patient With Bilateral Retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 50(1), 50–52 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, H. T. Ngo, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, L. B. Enyedi, M. A. Materin, M. A. El-Dairi, S. F. Freedman, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Imaging Infant Retinal Vasculature with OCT Angiography,” Ophthalmol. Retina 3(1), 95–96 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (4)

S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Visualizing Macular Microvasculature Anomalies in 2 Infants With Treated Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(12), 1422–1424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Kim, J. Yang, G. Liu, D. Huang, and J. P. Campbell, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography in a Child With Incontinentia Pigmenti,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 49(4), 273–275 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Shaozhen, J. Xu, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Miniature hand-held OCT probe for wide-field retinal angiography for prematurity and pediatric applications,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59, 5203 (2018).

L. Sheck, W. I. L. Davies, P. Moradi, A. G. Robson, N. Kumaran, A. C. Liasis, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, and M. Michaelides, “Leber Congenital Amaurosis Associated with Mutations in CEP290, Clinical Phenotype, and Natural History in Preparation for Trials of Novel Therapies,” Ophthalmology 125(6), 894–903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (5)

M.-T. Tsai, Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, B.-H. Huang, N. H. Trung, Y.-J. Lee, and Y.-L. Wang, “Noninvasive structural and microvascular anatomy of oral mucosae using handheld optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5001–5012 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, L. Liu, J. P. Campbell, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2287–2300 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, C. Viehland, O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, L. Vajzovic, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Operating Room in Young Children With Retinal Vascular Disease,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(5), 483–486 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (8)

A. Vinekar, L. Chidambara, C. Jayadev, M. Sivakumar, C. A. Webers, and B. Shetty, “Monitoring neovascularization in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. AAPOS 20(3), 271–274 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, C. A. Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, R. Qian, N. Gahm, J. Migacz, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Long working distance OCT with a compact 2f retinal scanning configuration for pediatric imaging,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 4891–4894 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Viehland, B. Keller, O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, D. Nankivil, L. Shen, S. Mangalesh, T. Viet, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Enhanced volumetric visualization for real time 4D intraoperative ophthalmic swept-source OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1815–1829 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, G. Waterman, B. Todorich, C. Shieh, P. Hahn, S. Farsiu, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Live volumetric (4D) visualization and guidance of in vivo human ophthalmic surgery with intraoperative optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31689 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Yarmohammadi, L. M. Zangwill, A. Diniz-Filho, M. H. Suh, P. I. Manalastas, N. Fatehee, S. Yousefi, A. Belghith, L. J. Saunders, F. A. Medeiros, D. Huang, and R. N. Weinreb, “Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT451 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Seider, D. S. Grewal, and P. Mruthyunjaya, “Portable optical coherence tomography detection or confirmation of ophthalmoscopically invisible or indeterminate active retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 47(10), 965–968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bowl, M. Andrassi-Darida, K. Holve, S. Schweinfurth, R. Knobloch, and B. Lorenz, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography in Paediatric Ophthalmology: Experience of the Department of Ophthalmology in Giessen,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 233(10), 1142–1148 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (14)

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of type 1 neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Carrasco-Zevallos, D. Nankivil, B. Keller, C. Viehland, B. J. Lujan, and J. A. Izatt, “Pupil tracking optical coherence tomography for precise control of pupil entry position,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3405–3419 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, G. Waterman, C. Chukwurah, P. Hahn, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time 4D Stereoscopic Visualization of Human Ophthalmic Surgery with Swept-Source Microscope Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4085 (2015).

D. Nankivil, G. Waterman, F. LaRocca, B. Keller, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Handheld, rapidly switchable, anterior/posterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4516–4528 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Y. Tong, M. El-Dairi, R. S. Maldonado, A. L. Rothman, E. L. Yuan, S. S. Stinnett, L. Kupper, C. M. Cotten, K. E. Gustafson, R. F. Goldstein, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Evaluation of optic nerve development in preterm and term infants using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(9), 1818–1826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

2012 (2)

L. Kong, M. Fry, M. Al-Samarraie, C. Gilbert, and P. G. Steinkuller, “An update on progress and the changing epidemiology of causes of childhood blindness worldwide,” J. AAPOS 16(6), 501–507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, O. Tan, J. Tokayer, B. Potsaid, Y. Wang, J. J. Liu, M. F. Kraus, H. Subhash, J. G. Fujimoto, J. Hornegger, and D. Huang, “Split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4710–4725 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lepore, F. Molle, M. M. Pagliara, A. Baldascino, C. Angora, M. Sammartino, and G. E. Quinn, “Atlas of fluorescein angiographic findings in eyes undergoing laser for retinopathy of prematurity,” Ophthalmology 118(1), 168–175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Scott, S. Farsiu, L. B. Enyedi, D. K. Wallace, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 364–373 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2003 (1)

A. Cook, S. White, M. Batterbury, and D. Clark, “Ocular growth and refractive error development in premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(3), 953–960 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Foroosh, J. B. Zerubia, and M. Berthod, “Extension of phase correlation to subpixel registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11(3), 188–200 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agemy, S. A.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Samarraie, M.

L. Kong, M. Fry, M. Al-Samarraie, C. Gilbert, and P. G. Steinkuller, “An update on progress and the changing epidemiology of causes of childhood blindness worldwide,” J. AAPOS 16(6), 501–507 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, L.

Andrassi-Darida, M.

W. Bowl, M. Andrassi-Darida, K. Holve, S. Schweinfurth, R. Knobloch, and B. Lorenz, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography in Paediatric Ophthalmology: Experience of the Department of Ophthalmology in Giessen,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 233(10), 1142–1148 (2016).
[PubMed]

Angora, C.

D. Lepore, F. Molle, M. M. Pagliara, A. Baldascino, C. Angora, M. Sammartino, and G. E. Quinn, “Atlas of fluorescein angiographic findings in eyes undergoing laser for retinopathy of prematurity,” Ophthalmology 118(1), 168–175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arathorn, D. W.

Armour, R. L.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldascino, A.

D. Lepore, F. Molle, M. M. Pagliara, A. Baldascino, C. Angora, M. Sammartino, and G. E. Quinn, “Atlas of fluorescein angiographic findings in eyes undergoing laser for retinopathy of prematurity,” Ophthalmology 118(1), 168–175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bansal, M.

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of type 1 neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Batterbury, M.

A. Cook, S. White, M. Batterbury, and D. Clark, “Ocular growth and refractive error development in premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(3), 953–960 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Belghith, A.

A. Yarmohammadi, L. M. Zangwill, A. Diniz-Filho, M. H. Suh, P. I. Manalastas, N. Fatehee, S. Yousefi, A. Belghith, L. J. Saunders, F. A. Medeiros, D. Huang, and R. N. Weinreb, “Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT451 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berendschot, T.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berthod, M.

H. Foroosh, J. B. Zerubia, and M. Berthod, “Extension of phase correlation to subpixel registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11(3), 188–200 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonini Filho, M. A.

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of type 1 neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowl, W.

W. Bowl, M. Andrassi-Darida, K. Holve, S. Schweinfurth, R. Knobloch, and B. Lorenz, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography in Paediatric Ophthalmology: Experience of the Department of Ophthalmology in Giessen,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 233(10), 1142–1148 (2016).
[PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Cable, A.

Cable, A. E.

Campbell, J. P.

S. J. Kim, J. Yang, G. Liu, D. Huang, and J. P. Campbell, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography in a Child With Incontinentia Pigmenti,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 49(4), 273–275 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, L. Liu, J. P. Campbell, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2287–2300 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrasco-Zevallos, O.

O. Carrasco-Zevallos, D. Nankivil, B. Keller, C. Viehland, B. J. Lujan, and J. A. Izatt, “Pupil tracking optical coherence tomography for precise control of pupil entry position,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3405–3419 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, G. Waterman, C. Chukwurah, P. Hahn, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time 4D Stereoscopic Visualization of Human Ophthalmic Surgery with Swept-Source Microscope Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4085 (2015).

Carrasco-Zevallos, O. M.

X. Chen, C. Viehland, O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, L. Vajzovic, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Operating Room in Young Children With Retinal Vascular Disease,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(5), 483–486 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, G. Waterman, B. Todorich, C. Shieh, P. Hahn, S. Farsiu, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Live volumetric (4D) visualization and guidance of in vivo human ophthalmic surgery with intraoperative optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31689 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Viehland, B. Keller, O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, D. Nankivil, L. Shen, S. Mangalesh, T. Viet, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Enhanced volumetric visualization for real time 4D intraoperative ophthalmic swept-source OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1815–1829 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, R. Qian, N. Gahm, J. Migacz, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Long working distance OCT with a compact 2f retinal scanning configuration for pediatric imaging,” Opt. Lett. 41(21), 4891–4894 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, R. V. P.

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaney, E. J.

W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chavala, S. H.

S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

J. Chen and L. E. Smith, “Retinopathy of prematurity,” Angiogenesis 10(2), 133–140 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, H. T. Ngo, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, L. B. Enyedi, M. A. Materin, M. A. El-Dairi, S. F. Freedman, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Imaging Infant Retinal Vasculature with OCT Angiography,” Ophthalmol. Retina 3(1), 95–96 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Visualizing Macular Microvasculature Anomalies in 2 Infants With Treated Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(12), 1422–1424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, C. Viehland, O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, L. Vajzovic, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Operating Room in Young Children With Retinal Vascular Disease,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(5), 483–486 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chiang, M. F.

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chidambara, L.

A. Vinekar, L. Chidambara, C. Jayadev, M. Sivakumar, C. A. Webers, and B. Shetty, “Monitoring neovascularization in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. AAPOS 20(3), 271–274 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, S. J.

Choi, W.

Chui, T.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chukwurah, C.

O. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, G. Waterman, C. Chukwurah, P. Hahn, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time 4D Stereoscopic Visualization of Human Ophthalmic Surgery with Swept-Source Microscope Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4085 (2015).

Clark, D.

A. Cook, S. White, M. Batterbury, and D. Clark, “Ocular growth and refractive error development in premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(3), 953–960 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cook, A.

A. Cook, S. White, M. Batterbury, and D. Clark, “Ocular growth and refractive error development in premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(3), 953–960 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooney, M. J.

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A. P. Finn, R. J. House, S. T. Hsu, A. S. Thomas, M. A. El-Dairi, S. Freedman, M. A. Materin, and L. Vajzovic, “Hyperreflective Vitreous Opacities on Optical Coherence Tomography in a Patient With Bilateral Retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 50(1), 50–52 (2019).
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S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, H. T. Ngo, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, L. B. Enyedi, M. A. Materin, M. A. El-Dairi, S. F. Freedman, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Imaging Infant Retinal Vasculature with OCT Angiography,” Ophthalmol. Retina 3(1), 95–96 (2019).
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A. W. Scott, S. Farsiu, L. B. Enyedi, D. K. Wallace, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 364–373 (2009).
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S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
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A. Yarmohammadi, L. M. Zangwill, A. Diniz-Filho, M. H. Suh, P. I. Manalastas, N. Fatehee, S. Yousefi, A. Belghith, L. J. Saunders, F. A. Medeiros, D. Huang, and R. N. Weinreb, “Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT451 (2016).
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A. P. Finn, R. J. House, S. T. Hsu, A. S. Thomas, M. A. El-Dairi, S. Freedman, M. A. Materin, and L. Vajzovic, “Hyperreflective Vitreous Opacities on Optical Coherence Tomography in a Patient With Bilateral Retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 50(1), 50–52 (2019).
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R. J. House, S. T. Hsu, A. S. Thomas, A. P. Finn, C. A. Toth, M. A. Materin, and L. Vajzovic, “Vascular Findings In A Small Retinoblastoma Tumor Using OCT-A,” Ophthalmol. Retina (2018).

Flaxel, C. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
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A. P. Finn, R. J. House, S. T. Hsu, A. S. Thomas, M. A. El-Dairi, S. Freedman, M. A. Materin, and L. Vajzovic, “Hyperreflective Vitreous Opacities on Optical Coherence Tomography in a Patient With Bilateral Retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 50(1), 50–52 (2019).
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R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
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Freedman, S. F.

S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, H. T. Ngo, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, L. B. Enyedi, M. A. Materin, M. A. El-Dairi, S. F. Freedman, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Imaging Infant Retinal Vasculature with OCT Angiography,” Ophthalmol. Retina 3(1), 95–96 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Tong, M. El-Dairi, R. S. Maldonado, A. L. Rothman, E. L. Yuan, S. S. Stinnett, L. Kupper, C. M. Cotten, K. E. Gustafson, R. F. Goldstein, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Evaluation of optic nerve development in preterm and term infants using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(9), 1818–1826 (2014).
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A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
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Fry, M.

L. Kong, M. Fry, M. Al-Samarraie, C. Gilbert, and P. G. Steinkuller, “An update on progress and the changing epidemiology of causes of childhood blindness worldwide,” J. AAPOS 16(6), 501–507 (2012).
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Fujimoto, J. G.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Image artifacts in optical coherence angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2163–2180 (2015).
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C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
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Gao, S. S.

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Garcia, P. M.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
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Gattey, D. M.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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Gentile, R. C.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
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Gilbert, C.

L. Kong, M. Fry, M. Al-Samarraie, C. Gilbert, and P. G. Steinkuller, “An update on progress and the changing epidemiology of causes of childhood blindness worldwide,” J. AAPOS 16(6), 501–507 (2012).
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Goldstein, R. F.

A. Y. Tong, M. El-Dairi, R. S. Maldonado, A. L. Rothman, E. L. Yuan, S. S. Stinnett, L. Kupper, C. M. Cotten, K. E. Gustafson, R. F. Goldstein, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Evaluation of optic nerve development in preterm and term infants using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(9), 1818–1826 (2014).
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Goncharov, A. V.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Grewal, D. S.

M. I. Seider, D. S. Grewal, and P. Mruthyunjaya, “Portable optical coherence tomography detection or confirmation of ophthalmoscopically invisible or indeterminate active retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 47(10), 965–968 (2016).
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Gruber, A.

Gustafson, K. E.

A. Y. Tong, M. El-Dairi, R. S. Maldonado, A. L. Rothman, E. L. Yuan, S. S. Stinnett, L. Kupper, C. M. Cotten, K. E. Gustafson, R. F. Goldstein, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Evaluation of optic nerve development in preterm and term infants using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(9), 1818–1826 (2014).
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Hahn, P.

O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, G. Waterman, B. Todorich, C. Shieh, P. Hahn, S. Farsiu, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Live volumetric (4D) visualization and guidance of in vivo human ophthalmic surgery with intraoperative optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31689 (2016).
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O. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, G. Waterman, C. Chukwurah, P. Hahn, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time 4D Stereoscopic Visualization of Human Ophthalmic Surgery with Swept-Source Microscope Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4085 (2015).

Hanson, S. R.

Hee, M. R.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Hendargo, H. C.

Holve, K.

W. Bowl, M. Andrassi-Darida, K. Holve, S. Schweinfurth, R. Knobloch, and B. Lorenz, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography in Paediatric Ophthalmology: Experience of the Department of Ophthalmology in Giessen,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 233(10), 1142–1148 (2016).
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Hornegger, J.

House, R. J.

S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, H. T. Ngo, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, L. B. Enyedi, M. A. Materin, M. A. El-Dairi, S. F. Freedman, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Imaging Infant Retinal Vasculature with OCT Angiography,” Ophthalmol. Retina 3(1), 95–96 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. P. Finn, R. J. House, S. T. Hsu, A. S. Thomas, M. A. El-Dairi, S. Freedman, M. A. Materin, and L. Vajzovic, “Hyperreflective Vitreous Opacities on Optical Coherence Tomography in a Patient With Bilateral Retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 50(1), 50–52 (2019).
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S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Visualizing Macular Microvasculature Anomalies in 2 Infants With Treated Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(12), 1422–1424 (2018).
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R. J. House, S. T. Hsu, A. S. Thomas, A. P. Finn, C. A. Toth, M. A. Materin, and L. Vajzovic, “Vascular Findings In A Small Retinoblastoma Tumor Using OCT-A,” Ophthalmol. Retina (2018).

Hsiao, Y.-S.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
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Hsu, S. T.

A. P. Finn, R. J. House, S. T. Hsu, A. S. Thomas, M. A. El-Dairi, S. Freedman, M. A. Materin, and L. Vajzovic, “Hyperreflective Vitreous Opacities on Optical Coherence Tomography in a Patient With Bilateral Retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 50(1), 50–52 (2019).
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S. J. Kim, J. Yang, G. Liu, D. Huang, and J. P. Campbell, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography in a Child With Incontinentia Pigmenti,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 49(4), 273–275 (2018).
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N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
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Jayadev, C.

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J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
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Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
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Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
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W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
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O. Carrasco-Zevallos, D. Nankivil, B. Keller, C. Viehland, B. J. Lujan, and J. A. Izatt, “Pupil tracking optical coherence tomography for precise control of pupil entry position,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3405–3419 (2015).
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S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, H. T. Ngo, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, L. B. Enyedi, M. A. Materin, M. A. El-Dairi, S. F. Freedman, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Imaging Infant Retinal Vasculature with OCT Angiography,” Ophthalmol. Retina 3(1), 95–96 (2019).
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S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Visualizing Macular Microvasculature Anomalies in 2 Infants With Treated Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(12), 1422–1424 (2018).
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Khurana, M.

Kim, J.

W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
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S. J. Kim, J. Yang, G. Liu, D. Huang, and J. P. Campbell, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography in a Child With Incontinentia Pigmenti,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 49(4), 273–275 (2018).
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A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
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L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of type 1 neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
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C. Viehland, B. Keller, O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, D. Nankivil, L. Shen, S. Mangalesh, T. Viet, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Enhanced volumetric visualization for real time 4D intraoperative ophthalmic swept-source OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1815–1829 (2016).
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D. Nankivil, G. Waterman, F. LaRocca, B. Keller, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Handheld, rapidly switchable, anterior/posterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4516–4528 (2015).
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A. Y. Tong, M. El-Dairi, R. S. Maldonado, A. L. Rothman, E. L. Yuan, S. S. Stinnett, L. Kupper, C. M. Cotten, K. E. Gustafson, R. F. Goldstein, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Evaluation of optic nerve development in preterm and term infants using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(9), 1818–1826 (2014).
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Lauer, A. K.

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, A. C.

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C.-Y.

Lee, J. G.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-J.

Lenis, T. L.

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of type 1 neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lepore, D.

D. Lepore, F. Molle, M. M. Pagliara, A. Baldascino, C. Angora, M. Sammartino, and G. E. Quinn, “Atlas of fluorescein angiographic findings in eyes undergoing laser for retinopathy of prematurity,” Ophthalmology 118(1), 168–175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leung, M. K.

Li, X. T.

Li, Y.

S. Shaozhen, J. Xu, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Miniature hand-held OCT probe for wide-field retinal angiography for prematurity and pediatric applications,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59, 5203 (2018).

Liasis, A. C.

L. Sheck, W. I. L. Davies, P. Moradi, A. G. Robson, N. Kumaran, A. C. Liasis, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, and M. Michaelides, “Leber Congenital Amaurosis Associated with Mutations in CEP290, Clinical Phenotype, and Natural History in Preparation for Trials of Novel Therapies,” Ophthalmology 125(6), 894–903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

S. J. Kim, J. Yang, G. Liu, D. Huang, and J. P. Campbell, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography in a Child With Incontinentia Pigmenti,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 49(4), 273–275 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, L. Liu, J. P. Campbell, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2287–2300 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

J. Yang, L. Liu, J. P. Campbell, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2287–2300 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lombardi, L.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lombardi, L. H.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorenz, B.

W. Bowl, M. Andrassi-Darida, K. Holve, S. Schweinfurth, R. Knobloch, and B. Lorenz, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography in Paediatric Ophthalmology: Experience of the Department of Ophthalmology in Giessen,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 233(10), 1142–1148 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lu, C. D.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lujan, B. J.

Ma, Z.

Maldonado, R.

S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maldonado, R. S.

A. Y. Tong, M. El-Dairi, R. S. Maldonado, A. L. Rothman, E. L. Yuan, S. S. Stinnett, L. Kupper, C. M. Cotten, K. E. Gustafson, R. F. Goldstein, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Evaluation of optic nerve development in preterm and term infants using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(9), 1818–1826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mallipatna, A.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manalastas, P. I.

A. Yarmohammadi, L. M. Zangwill, A. Diniz-Filho, M. H. Suh, P. I. Manalastas, N. Fatehee, S. Yousefi, A. Belghith, L. J. Saunders, F. A. Medeiros, D. Huang, and R. N. Weinreb, “Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT451 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mangalesh, S.

Mariampillai, A.

Materin, M. A.

S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, H. T. Ngo, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, L. B. Enyedi, M. A. Materin, M. A. El-Dairi, S. F. Freedman, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Imaging Infant Retinal Vasculature with OCT Angiography,” Ophthalmol. Retina 3(1), 95–96 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. P. Finn, R. J. House, S. T. Hsu, A. S. Thomas, M. A. El-Dairi, S. Freedman, M. A. Materin, and L. Vajzovic, “Hyperreflective Vitreous Opacities on Optical Coherence Tomography in a Patient With Bilateral Retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 50(1), 50–52 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. House, S. T. Hsu, A. S. Thomas, A. P. Finn, C. A. Toth, M. A. Materin, and L. Vajzovic, “Vascular Findings In A Small Retinoblastoma Tumor Using OCT-A,” Ophthalmol. Retina (2018).

McClintic, S. M.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Medeiros, F. A.

A. Yarmohammadi, L. M. Zangwill, A. Diniz-Filho, M. H. Suh, P. I. Manalastas, N. Fatehee, S. Yousefi, A. Belghith, L. J. Saunders, F. A. Medeiros, D. Huang, and R. N. Weinreb, “Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT451 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehta, P.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michaelides, M.

L. Sheck, W. I. L. Davies, P. Moradi, A. G. Robson, N. Kumaran, A. C. Liasis, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, and M. Michaelides, “Leber Congenital Amaurosis Associated with Mutations in CEP290, Clinical Phenotype, and Natural History in Preparation for Trials of Novel Therapies,” Ophthalmology 125(6), 894–903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Migacz, J.

Molle, F.

D. Lepore, F. Molle, M. M. Pagliara, A. Baldascino, C. Angora, M. Sammartino, and G. E. Quinn, “Atlas of fluorescein angiographic findings in eyes undergoing laser for retinopathy of prematurity,” Ophthalmology 118(1), 168–175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, A. T.

L. Sheck, W. I. L. Davies, P. Moradi, A. G. Robson, N. Kumaran, A. C. Liasis, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, and M. Michaelides, “Leber Congenital Amaurosis Associated with Mutations in CEP290, Clinical Phenotype, and Natural History in Preparation for Trials of Novel Therapies,” Ophthalmology 125(6), 894–903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moradi, P.

L. Sheck, W. I. L. Davies, P. Moradi, A. G. Robson, N. Kumaran, A. C. Liasis, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, and M. Michaelides, “Leber Congenital Amaurosis Associated with Mutations in CEP290, Clinical Phenotype, and Natural History in Preparation for Trials of Novel Therapies,” Ophthalmology 125(6), 894–903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moriyama, E. H.

Morrison, J. C.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mruthyunjaya, P.

M. I. Seider, D. S. Grewal, and P. Mruthyunjaya, “Portable optical coherence tomography detection or confirmation of ophthalmoscopically invisible or indeterminate active retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 47(10), 965–968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Munce, N. R.

Nagaoka, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nankivil, D.

Ngo, H. T.

S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, H. T. Ngo, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, L. B. Enyedi, M. A. Materin, M. A. El-Dairi, S. F. Freedman, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Imaging Infant Retinal Vasculature with OCT Angiography,” Ophthalmol. Retina 3(1), 95–96 (2019).
[Crossref]

Nicholas, P.

Nudleman, E.

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Connell, R. V.

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Omae, T.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pagliara, M. M.

D. Lepore, F. Molle, M. M. Pagliara, A. Baldascino, C. Angora, M. Sammartino, and G. E. Quinn, “Atlas of fluorescein angiographic findings in eyes undergoing laser for retinopathy of prematurity,” Ophthalmology 118(1), 168–175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palejwala, N. V.

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parikh, M.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pechauer, A. D.

L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pennesi, M. E.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Potsaid, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, R.

Qin, J.

Quinn, G. E.

D. Lepore, F. Molle, M. M. Pagliara, A. Baldascino, C. Angora, M. Sammartino, and G. E. Quinn, “Atlas of fluorescein angiographic findings in eyes undergoing laser for retinopathy of prematurity,” Ophthalmology 118(1), 168–175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robson, A. G.

L. Sheck, W. I. L. Davies, P. Moradi, A. G. Robson, N. Kumaran, A. C. Liasis, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, and M. Michaelides, “Leber Congenital Amaurosis Associated with Mutations in CEP290, Clinical Phenotype, and Natural History in Preparation for Trials of Novel Therapies,” Ophthalmology 125(6), 894–903 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Romano, A.

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roorda, A.

Rosen, R. B.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rothman, A. L.

A. Y. Tong, M. El-Dairi, R. S. Maldonado, A. L. Rothman, E. L. Yuan, S. S. Stinnett, L. Kupper, C. M. Cotten, K. E. Gustafson, R. F. Goldstein, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Evaluation of optic nerve development in preterm and term infants using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(9), 1818–1826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sadda, S. R.

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of type 1 neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sammartino, M.

D. Lepore, F. Molle, M. M. Pagliara, A. Baldascino, C. Angora, M. Sammartino, and G. E. Quinn, “Atlas of fluorescein angiographic findings in eyes undergoing laser for retinopathy of prematurity,” Ophthalmology 118(1), 168–175 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarin, N.

A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarraf, D.

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of type 1 neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saunders, L. J.

A. Yarmohammadi, L. M. Zangwill, A. Diniz-Filho, M. H. Suh, P. I. Manalastas, N. Fatehee, S. Yousefi, A. Belghith, L. J. Saunders, F. A. Medeiros, D. Huang, and R. N. Weinreb, “Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT451 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

E. A. Swanson, J. A. Izatt, M. R. Hee, D. Huang, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “In vivo retinal imaging by optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 18(21), 1864–1866 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweinfurth, S.

W. Bowl, M. Andrassi-Darida, K. Holve, S. Schweinfurth, R. Knobloch, and B. Lorenz, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography in Paediatric Ophthalmology: Experience of the Department of Ophthalmology in Giessen,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 233(10), 1142–1148 (2016).
[PubMed]

Scott, A. W.

A. W. Scott, S. Farsiu, L. B. Enyedi, D. K. Wallace, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 364–373 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scripsema, N. K.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seider, M. I.

M. I. Seider, D. S. Grewal, and P. Mruthyunjaya, “Portable optical coherence tomography detection or confirmation of ophthalmoscopically invisible or indeterminate active retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 47(10), 965–968 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, C. M.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shaozhen, S.

S. Shaozhen, J. Xu, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Miniature hand-held OCT probe for wide-field retinal angiography for prematurity and pediatric applications,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59, 5203 (2018).

Sheck, L.

L. Sheck, W. I. L. Davies, P. Moradi, A. G. Robson, N. Kumaran, A. C. Liasis, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, and M. Michaelides, “Leber Congenital Amaurosis Associated with Mutations in CEP290, Clinical Phenotype, and Natural History in Preparation for Trials of Novel Therapies,” Ophthalmology 125(6), 894–903 (2018).
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Trung, N. H.

Tsai, M.-T.

Vajzovic, L.

A. P. Finn, R. J. House, S. T. Hsu, A. S. Thomas, M. A. El-Dairi, S. Freedman, M. A. Materin, and L. Vajzovic, “Hyperreflective Vitreous Opacities on Optical Coherence Tomography in a Patient With Bilateral Retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 50(1), 50–52 (2019).
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A. Vinekar, L. Chidambara, C. Jayadev, M. Sivakumar, C. A. Webers, and B. Shetty, “Monitoring neovascularization in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. AAPOS 20(3), 271–274 (2016).
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Waheed, N. K.

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S. Shaozhen, J. Xu, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Miniature hand-held OCT probe for wide-field retinal angiography for prematurity and pediatric applications,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59, 5203 (2018).

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Wang, Y.-L.

Waterman, G.

O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, G. Waterman, B. Todorich, C. Shieh, P. Hahn, S. Farsiu, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Live volumetric (4D) visualization and guidance of in vivo human ophthalmic surgery with intraoperative optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31689 (2016).
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D. Nankivil, G. Waterman, F. LaRocca, B. Keller, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Handheld, rapidly switchable, anterior/posterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4516–4528 (2015).
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Wilson, B. C.

Wilson, D. J.

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

S. Shaozhen, J. Xu, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Miniature hand-held OCT probe for wide-field retinal angiography for prematurity and pediatric applications,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59, 5203 (2018).

Yadav, N. K.

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, J.

S. J. Kim, J. Yang, G. Liu, D. Huang, and J. P. Campbell, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography in a Child With Incontinentia Pigmenti,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 49(4), 273–275 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yang, L. Liu, J. P. Campbell, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2287–2300 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Yang, V. X.

Yarmohammadi, A.

A. Yarmohammadi, L. M. Zangwill, A. Diniz-Filho, M. H. Suh, P. I. Manalastas, N. Fatehee, S. Yousefi, A. Belghith, L. J. Saunders, F. A. Medeiros, D. Huang, and R. N. Weinreb, “Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT451 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yokota, H.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoshida, A.

A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yousefi, S.

A. Yarmohammadi, L. M. Zangwill, A. Diniz-Filho, M. H. Suh, P. I. Manalastas, N. Fatehee, S. Yousefi, A. Belghith, L. J. Saunders, F. A. Medeiros, D. Huang, and R. N. Weinreb, “Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT451 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, E. L.

A. Y. Tong, M. El-Dairi, R. S. Maldonado, A. L. Rothman, E. L. Yuan, S. S. Stinnett, L. Kupper, C. M. Cotten, K. E. Gustafson, R. F. Goldstein, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Evaluation of optic nerve development in preterm and term infants using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(9), 1818–1826 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zangwill, L. M.

A. Yarmohammadi, L. M. Zangwill, A. Diniz-Filho, M. H. Suh, P. I. Manalastas, N. Fatehee, S. Yousefi, A. Belghith, L. J. Saunders, F. A. Medeiros, D. Huang, and R. N. Weinreb, “Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT451 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zerubia, J. B.

H. Foroosh, J. B. Zerubia, and M. Berthod, “Extension of phase correlation to subpixel registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11(3), 188–200 (2002).
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Zhang, A.

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

S. Shaozhen, J. Xu, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Miniature hand-held OCT probe for wide-field retinal angiography for prematurity and pediatric applications,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59, 5203 (2018).

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
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Am. J. Ophthalmol. (3)

L. Kuehlewein, M. Bansal, T. L. Lenis, N. A. Iafe, S. R. Sadda, M. A. Bonini Filho, T. E. De Carlo, N. K. Waheed, J. S. Duker, and D. Sarraf, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of type 1 neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(4), 739–748 (2015).
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A. Ishibazawa, T. Nagaoka, A. Takahashi, T. Omae, T. Tani, K. Sogawa, H. Yokota, and A. Yoshida, “Optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy: a prospective pilot study,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 160(1), 35–44 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Scott, S. Farsiu, L. B. Enyedi, D. K. Wallace, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging the infant retina with a hand-held spectral-domain optical coherence tomography device,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 364–373 (2009).
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Angiogenesis (1)

J. Chen and L. E. Smith, “Retinopathy of prematurity,” Angiogenesis 10(2), 133–140 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (11)

H. C. Hendargo, R. Estrada, S. J. Chiu, C. Tomasi, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Automated non-rigid registration and mosaicing for robust imaging of distinct retinal capillary beds using speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 803–821 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, W. Choi, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. Hornegger, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Handheld ultrahigh speed swept source optical coherence tomography instrument using a MEMS scanning mirror,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(1), 293–311 (2014).
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B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(1), 51–65 (2013).
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O. Carrasco-Zevallos, D. Nankivil, B. Keller, C. Viehland, B. J. Lujan, and J. A. Izatt, “Pupil tracking optical coherence tomography for precise control of pupil entry position,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3405–3419 (2015).
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C. Viehland, B. Keller, O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, D. Nankivil, L. Shen, S. Mangalesh, T. Viet, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Enhanced volumetric visualization for real time 4D intraoperative ophthalmic swept-source OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(5), 1815–1829 (2016).
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M.-T. Tsai, Y. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, B.-H. Huang, N. H. Trung, Y.-J. Lee, and Y.-L. Wang, “Noninvasive structural and microvascular anatomy of oral mucosae using handheld optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5001–5012 (2017).
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F. Larocca, D. Nankivil, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “Handheld simultaneous scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography system,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(11), 2307–2321 (2013).
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D. Nankivil, G. Waterman, F. LaRocca, B. Keller, A. N. Kuo, and J. A. Izatt, “Handheld, rapidly switchable, anterior/posterior segment swept source optical coherence tomography probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(11), 4516–4528 (2015).
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J. Yang, L. Liu, J. P. Campbell, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2287–2300 (2017).
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J. Tokayer, Y. Jia, A.-H. Dhalla, and D. Huang, “Blood flow velocity quantification using split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1909–1924 (2013).
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A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
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IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

W. Jung, J. Kim, M. Jeon, E. J. Chaney, C. N. Stewart, and S. A. Boppart, “Handheld optical coherence tomography scanner for primary care diagnostics,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(3), 741–744 (2011).
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IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

H. Foroosh, J. B. Zerubia, and M. Berthod, “Extension of phase correlation to subpixel registration,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 11(3), 188–200 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Indian J. Ophthalmol. (1)

A. Mallipatna, A. Vinekar, C. Jayadev, S. Dabir, M. Sivakumar, N. Krishnan, P. Mehta, T. Berendschot, and N. K. Yadav, “The use of handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography in pediatric ophthalmology practice: our experience of 975 infants and children,” Indian J. Ophthalmol. 63(7), 586–593 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Int. J. Retina Vitreous (1)

T. E. de Carlo, A. Romano, N. K. Waheed, and J. S. Duker, “A review of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA),” Int. J. Retina Vitreous 1(1), 5 (2015).
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Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (5)

A. Yarmohammadi, L. M. Zangwill, A. Diniz-Filho, M. H. Suh, P. I. Manalastas, N. Fatehee, S. Yousefi, A. Belghith, L. J. Saunders, F. A. Medeiros, D. Huang, and R. N. Weinreb, “Optical coherence tomography angiography vessel density in healthy, glaucoma suspect, and glaucoma eyes,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT451 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, G. Waterman, C. Chukwurah, P. Hahn, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-time 4D Stereoscopic Visualization of Human Ophthalmic Surgery with Swept-Source Microscope Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 56, 4085 (2015).

A. Cook, S. White, M. Batterbury, and D. Clark, “Ocular growth and refractive error development in premature infants without retinopathy of prematurity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44(3), 953–960 (2003).
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R. S. Maldonado, J. A. Izatt, N. Sarin, D. K. Wallace, S. Freedman, C. M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Optimizing hand-held spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging for neonates, infants, and children,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(5), 2678–2685 (2010).
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S. Shaozhen, J. Xu, Y. Li, Q. Zhang, and R. K. Wang, “Miniature hand-held OCT probe for wide-field retinal angiography for prematurity and pediatric applications,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59, 5203 (2018).

J. AAPOS (2)

A. Vinekar, L. Chidambara, C. Jayadev, M. Sivakumar, C. A. Webers, and B. Shetty, “Monitoring neovascularization in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity using optical coherence tomography angiography,” J. AAPOS 20(3), 271–274 (2016).
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L. Kong, M. Fry, M. Al-Samarraie, C. Gilbert, and P. G. Steinkuller, “An update on progress and the changing epidemiology of causes of childhood blindness worldwide,” J. AAPOS 16(6), 501–507 (2012).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. Zhang, Q. Zhang, C. L. Chen, and R. K. Wang, “Methods and algorithms for optical coherence tomography-based angiography: a review and comparison,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(10), 100901 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

JAMA Ophthalmol. (5)

S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Visualizing Macular Microvasculature Anomalies in 2 Infants With Treated Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 136(12), 1422–1424 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, C. Viehland, O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, L. Vajzovic, J. A. Izatt, and C. A. Toth, “Microscope-Integrated Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in the Operating Room in Young Children With Retinal Vascular Disease,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(5), 483–486 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Campbell, E. Nudleman, J. Yang, O. Tan, R. V. P. Chan, M. F. Chiang, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Wide-Field Optical Coherence Tomography in Retinopathy of Prematurity,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 135(9), 977–981 (2017).
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R. F. Spaide, J. M. Klancnik, and M. J. Cooney, “Retinal vascular layers imaged by fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography angiography,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 45–50 (2015).
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L. Liu, Y. Jia, H. L. Takusagawa, A. D. Pechauer, B. Edmunds, L. Lombardi, E. Davis, J. C. Morrison, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of the peripapillary retina in glaucoma,” JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(9), 1045–1052 (2015).
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Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. (1)

W. Bowl, M. Andrassi-Darida, K. Holve, S. Schweinfurth, R. Knobloch, and B. Lorenz, “Handheld Optical Coherence Tomography in Paediatric Ophthalmology: Experience of the Department of Ophthalmology in Giessen,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 233(10), 1142–1148 (2016).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. LaRocca, D. Nankivil, T. DuBose, C. A. Toth, S. Farsiu, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo cellular-resolution retinal imaging in infants and children using an ultracompact handheld probe,” Nat. Photonics 10(9), 580–584 (2016).
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Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina (3)

S. J. Kim, J. Yang, G. Liu, D. Huang, and J. P. Campbell, “Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography and Ultra-Widefield Optical Coherence Tomography in a Child With Incontinentia Pigmenti,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 49(4), 273–275 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Finn, R. J. House, S. T. Hsu, A. S. Thomas, M. A. El-Dairi, S. Freedman, M. A. Materin, and L. Vajzovic, “Hyperreflective Vitreous Opacities on Optical Coherence Tomography in a Patient With Bilateral Retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 50(1), 50–52 (2019).
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M. I. Seider, D. S. Grewal, and P. Mruthyunjaya, “Portable optical coherence tomography detection or confirmation of ophthalmoscopically invisible or indeterminate active retinoblastoma,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 47(10), 965–968 (2016).
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Ophthalmol. Retina (1)

S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, H. T. Ngo, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, L. B. Enyedi, M. A. Materin, M. A. El-Dairi, S. F. Freedman, C. A. Toth, and L. Vajzovic, “Imaging Infant Retinal Vasculature with OCT Angiography,” Ophthalmol. Retina 3(1), 95–96 (2019).
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Ophthalmology (6)

D. Lepore, F. Molle, M. M. Pagliara, A. Baldascino, C. Angora, M. Sammartino, and G. E. Quinn, “Atlas of fluorescein angiographic findings in eyes undergoing laser for retinopathy of prematurity,” Ophthalmology 118(1), 168–175 (2011).
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S. H. Chavala, S. Farsiu, R. Maldonado, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Insights into advanced retinopathy of prematurity using handheld spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging,” Ophthalmology 116(12), 2448–2456 (2009).
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A. Y. Tong, M. El-Dairi, R. S. Maldonado, A. L. Rothman, E. L. Yuan, S. S. Stinnett, L. Kupper, C. M. Cotten, K. E. Gustafson, R. F. Goldstein, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Evaluation of optic nerve development in preterm and term infants using handheld spectral-domain optical coherence tomography,” Ophthalmology 121(9), 1818–1826 (2014).
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L. Sheck, W. I. L. Davies, P. Moradi, A. G. Robson, N. Kumaran, A. C. Liasis, A. R. Webster, A. T. Moore, and M. Michaelides, “Leber Congenital Amaurosis Associated with Mutations in CEP290, Clinical Phenotype, and Natural History in Preparation for Trials of Novel Therapies,” Ophthalmology 125(6), 894–903 (2018).
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Y. Jia, E. Wei, X. Wang, X. Zhang, J. C. Morrison, M. Parikh, L. H. Lombardi, D. M. Gattey, R. L. Armour, B. Edmunds, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic disc perfusion in glaucoma,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1322–1332 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, T. S. Hwang, S. M. McClintic, S. S. Gao, M. E. Pennesi, C. J. Flaxel, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, J. Hornegger, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography of vascular abnormalities in the living human eye,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 112(18), E2395–E2402 (2015).
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Retina (4)

S. A. Agemy, N. K. Scripsema, C. M. Shah, T. Chui, P. M. Garcia, J. G. Lee, R. C. Gentile, Y.-S. Hsiao, Q. Zhou, T. Ko, and R. B. Rosen, “Retinal vascular perfusion density mapping using optical coherence tomography angiography in normals and diabetic retinopathy patients,” Retina 35(11), 2353–2363 (2015).
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N. V. Palejwala, Y. Jia, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, C. J. Flaxel, T. S. Hwang, A. K. Lauer, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and S. T. Bailey, “Detection of non-exudative choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2204–2211 (2015).
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A. C. Lee, R. S. Maldonado, N. Sarin, R. V. O’Connell, D. K. Wallace, S. F. Freedman, M. Cotten, and C. A. Toth, “Macular features from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography as an adjunct to indirect ophthalmoscopy in retinopathy of prematurity,” Retina 31(8), 1470–1482 (2011).
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O. M. Carrasco-Zevallos, B. Keller, C. Viehland, L. Shen, G. Waterman, B. Todorich, C. Shieh, P. Hahn, S. Farsiu, A. N. Kuo, C. A. Toth, and J. A. Izatt, “Live volumetric (4D) visualization and guidance of in vivo human ophthalmic surgery with intraoperative optical coherence tomography,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 31689 (2016).
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J. P. Campbell, M. Zhang, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, Y. Jia, and D. Huang, “Detailed vascular anatomy of the human retina by projection-resolved optical coherence tomography angiography,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 42201 (2017).
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Science (1)

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S. T. Hsu, X. Chen, H. T. Ngo, R. J. House, M. P. Kelly, L. B. Enyedi, M. A. Materin, M. A. El-Dairi, S. F. Freedman, and C. A. Toth, “Imaging infant retinal vasculature with optical coherence tomography angiography,” Ophthalmology Retina

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics for a 4F (top) and our novel 5F (bottom) retinal OCT scanner design. The solid red lines denote the location of the intermediate image plane of the respective scanner. Red arrows denote the collimating lenses. The distance between the fiber tip and the collimating lens is increased in the 5F design to produce diverting light on the scanner.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Curvature of the intermediate and retinal image planes for the 4F scanner (blue) and novel 5F scanner (red) designs. The slight negative curvature of the 4F scanner in the intermediate image plane resulted primarily from the use of an offset galvonometer pair and lens aberrations.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Zemax spot diagrams for the 4F scanner (top) and the novel 5F scanner (bottom) as a function of angle (measured as the angle between the chief ray and the optic axis in the eye). The circle denotes the airy radius (12.0 µm for both systems at 0°). The background grid is 30µm x 30µm. For the 5F system the 15° spot shows performance being limited by clipping on a lens aperture.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Demonstration of the grip used for a conventional gun-style OCT probe design for supine imaging of infants in the Duke ICN. The pictured system is the Leica (Bioptigen) Envisu C2300.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Left: Rendering of the HH-OCTA optomechanics from the side. Center: Rendering of the HH-OCTA optopmechanics stabilization brace, and enclosure from the side. Right: Rendering of the HH-OCTA optopmechanics, adjustable stabilization brace, and enclosure from the front.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Left: The novel HH-OCTA probe being used to image an infant in the ICN. Right: Picture of the operator grip employed with the HH-OCTA probe.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Selected B-scans and volume renders of the retina from research HH-SSOCT imaging of non-sedated infants. a) In a premature-born infant imaged in the outpatient clinic one week after estimated date for term birth, CME elevates the central macula (red star). b) In a premature infant imaged in the intensive care nursery weeks before estimated date for term birth, the fovea has a normal depression without edema (yellow star), but there are large superficial vessels on the surface of the retina (yellow arrow). c) Peripheral images from the same infant as b) reveal preretinal neovascular elevations (purple star) and a ridge at the vascular/avascular junction (purple arrow). All images were acquired at 950 A-scans/B-scan and 128 averaged B-scans/volume. Each B-scan was averaged twice.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Representative OCTA images from a healthy adult volunteer. Left: ~1.5x1.5mm angiogram of the fovea showing the FAZ with well-demarcated capillaries at the margin. Center: ~3x3mm angiogram of the optic nerve head showing multiple levels of large to small vessels of the optic nerve head (upper right corner) and retina. Right: ~1.5x1.5mm angiogram of nasal retina. The red arrows denote the location of artifacts caused by saccades while the yellow arrows denote the location of artifacts caused by operator hand motion.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Comparison of FA to HH-OCTA during EUA from an infant with a history of ROP. HH-OCTA from a) the optic nerve (red), b) peripapillary region (blue), c) perifoveal region (purple), d) and the margin of the fovea (green). The red arrows denote examples of tortuous blood vessels. OCTA images were taken with 300 A-scans/B-scan, 4 repeated B-scans, and 300 lateral locations sampled per volume e) FA from the same infant. Colored boxes denote the location of the corresponding HH-OCTA scans. f,g) image from b) separated into superficial f) and deep g) layers. Representative B-scans with the manually corrected segmentations superimposed on the image are shown below the respective angiograms
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Imaging of vascular plexuses with HH-OCTA in a child undergoing EUA due to a family history of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Left: Projection of all vascular layers in the outer retina. Center: Projection of the SVC. Right: projection of the DVC. Images show relatively normal vascular patterns in each projection and were taken with 500 A-scans/B-scan, 4 repeated B-scans, and 500 lateral locations sampled per volume.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 HH-OCTA images from a 41 week PMA infant with a history of ROP, imaged without sedation during a follow up clinic visit. Top: Overlaid angiograms of all vascular layers showing the optic nerve head, peripapillary vasculature, and the edge of the fovea. The red star denotes the edge of the fovea near which are several bulb-like vascular terminations. The inset image is a magnified view of these bulbs with the corresponding regions marked by the red boxes. Bottom: the peripapillary/foveal angiogram of SVC (left) and DVC (right). Selected B-scans with and without OCTA flow superimposed are shown below the angiograms. The horizontal dashed yellow line denotes the location of the selected B-scan. The vertical dashed blue lines denote the same lateral location on the angiograms and selected B-scans. The green line on the B-scans denotes the manually corrected IPL. Images were taken with 500 A-scans/B-scan, 4 repeated B-scans, and 500 lateral locations sampled per volume.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Vascular structure of a preretinal neovascular elevation in a 41 week PMA infant who was treated for ROP. Infant was imaged without sedation in the ICN. a) OCTA image of all retinal vasculature. Yellow line denotes the location of the B-scan shown in (b). b) Selected B-scan with manually corrected segmentations. White – surface of the retina including the neo-vascular plaque. Purple – surface of the retina excluding the neo-vascular plaque. Teal – IPL. Yellow – RPE c) OCTA of the vasculature excluding the neo-vascular plaque (purple to yellow). d) OCTA of the neo-vascular plaque (white to purple). e) The neo-vascular plaque divided into slices that are 25% of the total thickness of the plaque. The red arrow denotes the location of the “trunk” within the neovascular plaque.

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