Abstract

In vivo imaging of prostate cancer with photoacoustic tomography is currently limited by the lack of sufficient local fluence for deep tissue penetration and the risk of over-irradiation near the laser-tissue contact surface. We propose the design of a transurethral illumination probe that addresses those limitations. A high energy of 50 mJ/pulse is coupled into a 1000-µm-core diameter multimode fiber. A 2 cm diffusing end is fabricated, which delivers light in radial illumination. The radial illumination is then reflected and reshaped by a parabolic cylindrical mirror to obtain nearly parallel side illumination with a doubled fluence. The fiber assembly is housed in a 25 Fr cystoscope sheath to provide protection of the fiber and maintain a minimal laser-tissue contact distance of 5 mm. A large laser-tissue contact surface area of 4 cm2 is obtained and the fluence on the tissue surface is kept below the maximum permissible exposure. By imaging a prostate mimicking phantom, a penetration depth of 3.5 cm at 10 mJ/cm2 fluence and 700 nm wavelength is demonstrated. The results indicate that photoacoustic tomography with the proposed transurethral probe has the potential to image the entire prostate while satisfying the fluence maximum permissible exposure and delivering a high power to the tissue.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

B. Bungart, Y. Cao, T. Yang-Tran, S. Gorsky, L. Lan, D. Roblyer, M. O. Koch, L. Cheng, T. Masterson, and J. X. Cheng, “Cylindrical illumination with angular coupling for whole-prostate photoacoustic tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(3), 1405–1419 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Moradi, S. Tang, and S. E. Salcudean, “Toward intra-operative prostate photoacoustic imaging: configuration evaluation and implementation using the da Vinci research kit,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 38(1), 57–68 (2019).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (3)

M. Li, B. Lan, W. Liu, J. Xia, and J. Yao, “Internal-illumination photoacoustic computed tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(3), 1–4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Huang, Y. Qin, Y. Chen, J. Pan, C. Xu, D. Wu, W. Y. Chao, J. T. Wei, S. A. Tomlins, X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, Q. Cheng, and G. Xu, “Interstitial assessment of aggressive prostate cancer by physio-chemical photoacoustics: An ex vivo study with intact human prostates,” Med. Phys. 45(9), 4125–4132 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Siegel, K. D. Miller, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2018,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 68(1), 7–30 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

A. Horiguchi, M. Shinchi, A. Nakamura, T. Wada, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “Pilot Study of Prostate Cancer Angiogenesis Imaging Using a Photoacoustic Imaging System,” Urology 108, 212–219 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ai, W. Shu, T. Salcudean, R. Rohling, P. Abolmaesumi, and S. Tang, “Design of high energy laser pulse delivery in a multimode fiber for photoacoustic tomography,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17713–17726 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

S. Tang, J. Chen, P. Samant, K. Stratton, and L. Xiang, “Transurethral photoacoustic endoscopy for prostate cancer: A simulation study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(7), 1780–1787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Peng, Y. Peng, J. Guo, and H. Li, “Laser Illumination Modality of Photoacoustic Imaging Technique for Prostate Cancer,” J. Phys. 679(1), 012026 (2016).

M. Kongnyuy, A. K. George, A. R. Rastinehad, and P. A. Pinto, “Magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy: review of technology, techniques, and outcomes,” Curr. Urol. Rep. 17(4), 32 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sinha, N. A. Rao, B. K. Chinni, and V. S. Dogra, “Evaluation of frequency domain analysis of a multiwavelength photoacoustic signal for differentiating malignant from benign and normal prostates: ex vivo study with human prostates,” J. Ultrasound Med. 35(10), 2165–2177 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

A. Postema, M. Mischi, J. de la Rosette, and H. Wijkstra, “Multiparametric ultrasound in the detection of prostate cancer: a systematic review,” World J. Urol. 33(11), 1651–1659 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Lediju Bell, X. Guo, D. Y. Song, and E. M. Boctor, “Transurethral light delivery for prostate photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, Y. H. Rhee, J. C. Ahn, and H. W. Kang, “Circumferential irradiation for interstitial coagulation of urethral stricture,” Opt. Express 23(16), 20829–20840 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Heidenreich, P. J. Bastian, J. Bellmunt, M. Bolla, S. Joniau, T. van der Kwast, M. Mason, V. Matveev, T. Wiegel, F. Zattoni, and N. Mottet, “EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013,” Eur. Urol. 65(1), 124–137 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

G. Russo, M. Mischi, W. Scheepens, J. J. De la Rosette, and H. Wijkstra, “Angiogenesis in prostate cancer: onset, progression and imaging,” BJU Int. 110(11c), E794–E808 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bu, Z. Liu, T. Shiina, K. Kondo, M. Yamakawa, K. Fukutani, Y. Someda, and Y. Asao, “Model-based reconstruction integrated with fluence compensation for photoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(5), 1354–1363 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Su, R. R. Bouchard, A. B. Karpiouk, J. D. Hazle, and S. Y. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging of prostate brachytherapy seeds,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(8), 2243–2254 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Ng and J. Swanevelder, “Resolution in ultrasound imaging,” Contin. Educ. Anaesth. Crit. Care Pain 11(5), 186–192 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. M. Hoeks, J. O. Barentsz, T. Hambrock, D. Yakar, D. M. Somford, S. W. Heijmink, T. W. Scheenen, P. C. Vos, H. Huisman, I. M. van Oort, J. A. Witjes, A. Heerschap, and J. J. Fütterer, “Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging,” Radiology 261(1), 46–66 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

X. Wang, W. W. Roberts, P. L. Carson, D. P. Wood, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Photoacoustic tomography: a potential new tool for prostate cancer,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(4), 1117–1126 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mitterberger, W. Horninger, F. Aigner, G. M. Pinggera, I. Steppan, P. Rehder, and F. Frauscher, “Ultrasound of the prostate,” Cancer Imaging 10(1), 40–48 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

L. A. Mucci, A. Powolny, E. Giovannucci, Z. Liao, S. A. Kenfield, R. Shen, M. J. Stampfer, and S. K. Clinton, “Prospective study of prostate tumor angiogenesis and cancer-specific mortality in the health professionals follow-up study,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(33), 5627–5633 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

K. M. Pondman, J. J. Fütterer, B. ten Haken, L. J. Schultze Kool, J. A. Witjes, T. Hambrock, K. J. Macura, and J. O. Barentsz, “MR-guided biopsy of the prostate: an overview of techniques and a systematic review,” Eur. Urol. 54(3), 517–527 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

E. D. Nelson, C. B. Slotoroff, L. G. Gomella, and E. J. Halpern, “Targeted biopsy of the prostate: the impact of color Doppler imaging and elastography on prostate cancer detection and Gleason score,” Urology 70(6), 1136–1140 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Alonzi, A. R. Padhani, and C. Allen, “Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer,” Eur. J. Radiol. 63(3), 335–350 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014022 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1 Pt 2), 016706 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, “Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(1), 96–105 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

V. G. Andreev, A. E. Ponomarev, P. M. Henrichs, M. Motamedi, E. Orihuela, E. Eyzaguirre, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Detection of prostate cancer with opto-acoustic tomograph,” In Biomedical Optoacoustics IV 4960, 45–58 (2003).

2002 (1)

L. M. Eri, H. Thomassen, B. Brennhovd, and L. L. Håheim, “Accuracy and repeatability of prostate volume measurements by transrectal ultrasound,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 5(4), 273–278 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Noguchi, T. A. Stamey, J. E. McNeal, and C. M. Yemoto, “Relationship between systematic biopsies and histological features of 222 radical prostatectomy specimens: lack of prediction of tumor significance for men with nonpalpable prostate cancer,” J. Urol. 166(1), 104–110 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Djavan, V. Ravery, A. Zlotta, P. Dobronski, M. Dobrovits, M. Fakhari, C. Seitz, M. Susani, A. Borkowski, L. Boccon-Gibod, C. C. Schulman, and M. Marberger, “Prospective evaluation of prostate cancer detected on biopsies 1, 2, 3 and 4: when should we stop?” J. Urol. 166(5), 1679–1683 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. A. Rubin, M. Buyyounouski, E. Bagiella, S. Sharir, A. Neugut, M. Benson, A. de la Taille, A. E. Katz, C. A. Olsson, and R. D. Ennis, “Microvessel density in prostate cancer: lack of correlation with tumor grade, pathologic stage, and clinical outcome,” Urology 53(3), 542–547 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, S. P. Lin, J. A. Schwartz, and S. L. Thomsen, “Anisotropy in the absorption and scattering spectra of chicken breast tissue,” Appl. Opt. 37(4), 798–804 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. H. Schröder, P. van der Maas, P. Beemsterboer, A. B. Kruger, R. Hoedemaeker, J. Rietbergen, and R. Kranse, “Evaluation of the digital rectal examination as a screening test for prostate cancer. Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(23), 1817–1823 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

G. J. Jager, E. T. Ruijter, C. A. van de Kaa, J. J. de la Rosette, G. O. Oosterhof, J. R. Thornbury, and J. O. Barentsz, “Local staging of prostate cancer with endorectal MR imaging: correlation with histopathology,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 166(4), 845–852 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, “Photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS)-reconstruction tomography,” Med. Phys. 22(10), 1605–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

W. J. Catalona, J. P. Richie, F. R. Ahmann, M. A. Hudson, P. T. Scardino, R. C. Flanigan, J. B. DeKernion, T. L. Ratliff, L. R. Kavoussi, B. L. Dalkin, W. B. Waters, M. T. MacFarlane, and P. C. Southwick, “Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men,” J. Urol. 151(5), 1283–1290 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

G. N. Collins, R. J. Lee, G. B. McKelvie, A. C. N. Rogers, and M. Hehir, “Relationship between prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and age in the benign prostate,” Br. J. Urol. 71(4), 445–450 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid mediaby using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 559–568 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Cheong, S. Prahl, and A. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[Crossref]

Abolmaesumi, P.

Ahmann, F. R.

W. J. Catalona, J. P. Richie, F. R. Ahmann, M. A. Hudson, P. T. Scardino, R. C. Flanigan, J. B. DeKernion, T. L. Ratliff, L. R. Kavoussi, B. L. Dalkin, W. B. Waters, M. T. MacFarlane, and P. C. Southwick, “Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men,” J. Urol. 151(5), 1283–1290 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, J. C.

Ai, M.

Aigner, F.

M. Mitterberger, W. Horninger, F. Aigner, G. M. Pinggera, I. Steppan, P. Rehder, and F. Frauscher, “Ultrasound of the prostate,” Cancer Imaging 10(1), 40–48 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, C.

R. Alonzi, A. R. Padhani, and C. Allen, “Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer,” Eur. J. Radiol. 63(3), 335–350 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alonzi, R.

R. Alonzi, A. R. Padhani, and C. Allen, “Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in prostate cancer,” Eur. J. Radiol. 63(3), 335–350 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014022 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andreev, V. G.

V. G. Andreev, A. E. Ponomarev, P. M. Henrichs, M. Motamedi, E. Orihuela, E. Eyzaguirre, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Detection of prostate cancer with opto-acoustic tomograph,” In Biomedical Optoacoustics IV 4960, 45–58 (2003).

Appledorn, C. R.

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, “Photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS)-reconstruction tomography,” Med. Phys. 22(10), 1605–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

A. Horiguchi, M. Shinchi, A. Nakamura, T. Wada, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “Pilot Study of Prostate Cancer Angiogenesis Imaging Using a Photoacoustic Imaging System,” Urology 108, 212–219 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asao, Y.

S. Bu, Z. Liu, T. Shiina, K. Kondo, M. Yamakawa, K. Fukutani, Y. Someda, and Y. Asao, “Model-based reconstruction integrated with fluence compensation for photoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(5), 1354–1363 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bagiella, E.

M. A. Rubin, M. Buyyounouski, E. Bagiella, S. Sharir, A. Neugut, M. Benson, A. de la Taille, A. E. Katz, C. A. Olsson, and R. D. Ennis, “Microvessel density in prostate cancer: lack of correlation with tumor grade, pathologic stage, and clinical outcome,” Urology 53(3), 542–547 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barentsz, J. O.

C. M. Hoeks, J. O. Barentsz, T. Hambrock, D. Yakar, D. M. Somford, S. W. Heijmink, T. W. Scheenen, P. C. Vos, H. Huisman, I. M. van Oort, J. A. Witjes, A. Heerschap, and J. J. Fütterer, “Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging,” Radiology 261(1), 46–66 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Pondman, J. J. Fütterer, B. ten Haken, L. J. Schultze Kool, J. A. Witjes, T. Hambrock, K. J. Macura, and J. O. Barentsz, “MR-guided biopsy of the prostate: an overview of techniques and a systematic review,” Eur. Urol. 54(3), 517–527 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Jager, E. T. Ruijter, C. A. van de Kaa, J. J. de la Rosette, G. O. Oosterhof, J. R. Thornbury, and J. O. Barentsz, “Local staging of prostate cancer with endorectal MR imaging: correlation with histopathology,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 166(4), 845–852 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bastian, P. J.

A. Heidenreich, P. J. Bastian, J. Bellmunt, M. Bolla, S. Joniau, T. van der Kwast, M. Mason, V. Matveev, T. Wiegel, F. Zattoni, and N. Mottet, “EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013,” Eur. Urol. 65(1), 124–137 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beemsterboer, P.

F. H. Schröder, P. van der Maas, P. Beemsterboer, A. B. Kruger, R. Hoedemaeker, J. Rietbergen, and R. Kranse, “Evaluation of the digital rectal examination as a screening test for prostate cancer. Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(23), 1817–1823 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bellmunt, J.

A. Heidenreich, P. J. Bastian, J. Bellmunt, M. Bolla, S. Joniau, T. van der Kwast, M. Mason, V. Matveev, T. Wiegel, F. Zattoni, and N. Mottet, “EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013,” Eur. Urol. 65(1), 124–137 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benson, M.

M. A. Rubin, M. Buyyounouski, E. Bagiella, S. Sharir, A. Neugut, M. Benson, A. de la Taille, A. E. Katz, C. A. Olsson, and R. D. Ennis, “Microvessel density in prostate cancer: lack of correlation with tumor grade, pathologic stage, and clinical outcome,” Urology 53(3), 542–547 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boccon-Gibod, L.

B. Djavan, V. Ravery, A. Zlotta, P. Dobronski, M. Dobrovits, M. Fakhari, C. Seitz, M. Susani, A. Borkowski, L. Boccon-Gibod, C. C. Schulman, and M. Marberger, “Prospective evaluation of prostate cancer detected on biopsies 1, 2, 3 and 4: when should we stop?” J. Urol. 166(5), 1679–1683 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boctor, E. M.

M. A. Lediju Bell, X. Guo, D. Y. Song, and E. M. Boctor, “Transurethral light delivery for prostate photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bogaards, A.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bolla, M.

A. Heidenreich, P. J. Bastian, J. Bellmunt, M. Bolla, S. Joniau, T. van der Kwast, M. Mason, V. Matveev, T. Wiegel, F. Zattoni, and N. Mottet, “EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013,” Eur. Urol. 65(1), 124–137 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Borkowski, A.

B. Djavan, V. Ravery, A. Zlotta, P. Dobronski, M. Dobrovits, M. Fakhari, C. Seitz, M. Susani, A. Borkowski, L. Boccon-Gibod, C. C. Schulman, and M. Marberger, “Prospective evaluation of prostate cancer detected on biopsies 1, 2, 3 and 4: when should we stop?” J. Urol. 166(5), 1679–1683 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouchard, R. R.

Brennhovd, B.

L. M. Eri, H. Thomassen, B. Brennhovd, and L. L. Håheim, “Accuracy and repeatability of prostate volume measurements by transrectal ultrasound,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 5(4), 273–278 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bu, S.

S. Bu, Z. Liu, T. Shiina, K. Kondo, M. Yamakawa, K. Fukutani, Y. Someda, and Y. Asao, “Model-based reconstruction integrated with fluence compensation for photoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(5), 1354–1363 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bungart, B.

Busch, T.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, “Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(1), 96–105 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buyyounouski, M.

M. A. Rubin, M. Buyyounouski, E. Bagiella, S. Sharir, A. Neugut, M. Benson, A. de la Taille, A. E. Katz, C. A. Olsson, and R. D. Ennis, “Microvessel density in prostate cancer: lack of correlation with tumor grade, pathologic stage, and clinical outcome,” Urology 53(3), 542–547 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

Carson, P. L.

S. Huang, Y. Qin, Y. Chen, J. Pan, C. Xu, D. Wu, W. Y. Chao, J. T. Wei, S. A. Tomlins, X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, Q. Cheng, and G. Xu, “Interstitial assessment of aggressive prostate cancer by physio-chemical photoacoustics: An ex vivo study with intact human prostates,” Med. Phys. 45(9), 4125–4132 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. W. Roberts, P. L. Carson, D. P. Wood, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Photoacoustic tomography: a potential new tool for prostate cancer,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(4), 1117–1126 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Catalona, W. J.

W. J. Catalona, J. P. Richie, F. R. Ahmann, M. A. Hudson, P. T. Scardino, R. C. Flanigan, J. B. DeKernion, T. L. Ratliff, L. R. Kavoussi, B. L. Dalkin, W. B. Waters, M. T. MacFarlane, and P. C. Southwick, “Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men,” J. Urol. 151(5), 1283–1290 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, W. Y.

S. Huang, Y. Qin, Y. Chen, J. Pan, C. Xu, D. Wu, W. Y. Chao, J. T. Wei, S. A. Tomlins, X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, Q. Cheng, and G. Xu, “Interstitial assessment of aggressive prostate cancer by physio-chemical photoacoustics: An ex vivo study with intact human prostates,” Med. Phys. 45(9), 4125–4132 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

S. Tang, J. Chen, P. Samant, K. Stratton, and L. Xiang, “Transurethral photoacoustic endoscopy for prostate cancer: A simulation study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(7), 1780–1787 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

S. Huang, Y. Qin, Y. Chen, J. Pan, C. Xu, D. Wu, W. Y. Chao, J. T. Wei, S. A. Tomlins, X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, Q. Cheng, and G. Xu, “Interstitial assessment of aggressive prostate cancer by physio-chemical photoacoustics: An ex vivo study with intact human prostates,” Med. Phys. 45(9), 4125–4132 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

Cheng, L.

Cheng, Q.

S. Huang, Y. Qin, Y. Chen, J. Pan, C. Xu, D. Wu, W. Y. Chao, J. T. Wei, S. A. Tomlins, X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, Q. Cheng, and G. Xu, “Interstitial assessment of aggressive prostate cancer by physio-chemical photoacoustics: An ex vivo study with intact human prostates,” Med. Phys. 45(9), 4125–4132 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheong, W.

W. Cheong, S. Prahl, and A. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chinni, B. K.

S. Sinha, N. A. Rao, B. K. Chinni, and V. S. Dogra, “Evaluation of frequency domain analysis of a multiwavelength photoacoustic signal for differentiating malignant from benign and normal prostates: ex vivo study with human prostates,” J. Ultrasound Med. 35(10), 2165–2177 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clinton, S. K.

L. A. Mucci, A. Powolny, E. Giovannucci, Z. Liao, S. A. Kenfield, R. Shen, M. J. Stampfer, and S. K. Clinton, “Prospective study of prostate tumor angiogenesis and cancer-specific mortality in the health professionals follow-up study,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(33), 5627–5633 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Collins, G. N.

G. N. Collins, R. J. Lee, G. B. McKelvie, A. C. N. Rogers, and M. Hehir, “Relationship between prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and age in the benign prostate,” Br. J. Urol. 71(4), 445–450 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dalkin, B. L.

W. J. Catalona, J. P. Richie, F. R. Ahmann, M. A. Hudson, P. T. Scardino, R. C. Flanigan, J. B. DeKernion, T. L. Ratliff, L. R. Kavoussi, B. L. Dalkin, W. B. Waters, M. T. MacFarlane, and P. C. Southwick, “Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men,” J. Urol. 151(5), 1283–1290 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davidson, S. R.

R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de la Rosette, J.

A. Postema, M. Mischi, J. de la Rosette, and H. Wijkstra, “Multiparametric ultrasound in the detection of prostate cancer: a systematic review,” World J. Urol. 33(11), 1651–1659 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

De la Rosette, J. J.

G. Russo, M. Mischi, W. Scheepens, J. J. De la Rosette, and H. Wijkstra, “Angiogenesis in prostate cancer: onset, progression and imaging,” BJU Int. 110(11c), E794–E808 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Jager, E. T. Ruijter, C. A. van de Kaa, J. J. de la Rosette, G. O. Oosterhof, J. R. Thornbury, and J. O. Barentsz, “Local staging of prostate cancer with endorectal MR imaging: correlation with histopathology,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 166(4), 845–852 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de la Taille, A.

M. A. Rubin, M. Buyyounouski, E. Bagiella, S. Sharir, A. Neugut, M. Benson, A. de la Taille, A. E. Katz, C. A. Olsson, and R. D. Ennis, “Microvessel density in prostate cancer: lack of correlation with tumor grade, pathologic stage, and clinical outcome,” Urology 53(3), 542–547 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DeKernion, J. B.

W. J. Catalona, J. P. Richie, F. R. Ahmann, M. A. Hudson, P. T. Scardino, R. C. Flanigan, J. B. DeKernion, T. L. Ratliff, L. R. Kavoussi, B. L. Dalkin, W. B. Waters, M. T. MacFarlane, and P. C. Southwick, “Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men,” J. Urol. 151(5), 1283–1290 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dimofte, A.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, “Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(1), 96–105 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Djavan, B.

B. Djavan, V. Ravery, A. Zlotta, P. Dobronski, M. Dobrovits, M. Fakhari, C. Seitz, M. Susani, A. Borkowski, L. Boccon-Gibod, C. C. Schulman, and M. Marberger, “Prospective evaluation of prostate cancer detected on biopsies 1, 2, 3 and 4: when should we stop?” J. Urol. 166(5), 1679–1683 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobronski, P.

B. Djavan, V. Ravery, A. Zlotta, P. Dobronski, M. Dobrovits, M. Fakhari, C. Seitz, M. Susani, A. Borkowski, L. Boccon-Gibod, C. C. Schulman, and M. Marberger, “Prospective evaluation of prostate cancer detected on biopsies 1, 2, 3 and 4: when should we stop?” J. Urol. 166(5), 1679–1683 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobrovits, M.

B. Djavan, V. Ravery, A. Zlotta, P. Dobronski, M. Dobrovits, M. Fakhari, C. Seitz, M. Susani, A. Borkowski, L. Boccon-Gibod, C. C. Schulman, and M. Marberger, “Prospective evaluation of prostate cancer detected on biopsies 1, 2, 3 and 4: when should we stop?” J. Urol. 166(5), 1679–1683 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dogra, V. S.

S. Sinha, N. A. Rao, B. K. Chinni, and V. S. Dogra, “Evaluation of frequency domain analysis of a multiwavelength photoacoustic signal for differentiating malignant from benign and normal prostates: ex vivo study with human prostates,” J. Ultrasound Med. 35(10), 2165–2177 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Einarsdóttír, M.

T. Svensson, S. Andersson-Engels, M. Einarsdóttír, and K. Svanberg, “In vivo optical characterization of human prostate tissue using near-infrared time-resolved spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(1), 014022 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S. Y.

Ennis, R. D.

M. A. Rubin, M. Buyyounouski, E. Bagiella, S. Sharir, A. Neugut, M. Benson, A. de la Taille, A. E. Katz, C. A. Olsson, and R. D. Ennis, “Microvessel density in prostate cancer: lack of correlation with tumor grade, pathologic stage, and clinical outcome,” Urology 53(3), 542–547 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eri, L. M.

L. M. Eri, H. Thomassen, B. Brennhovd, and L. L. Håheim, “Accuracy and repeatability of prostate volume measurements by transrectal ultrasound,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 5(4), 273–278 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eyzaguirre, E.

V. G. Andreev, A. E. Ponomarev, P. M. Henrichs, M. Motamedi, E. Orihuela, E. Eyzaguirre, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Detection of prostate cancer with opto-acoustic tomograph,” In Biomedical Optoacoustics IV 4960, 45–58 (2003).

Fakhari, M.

B. Djavan, V. Ravery, A. Zlotta, P. Dobronski, M. Dobrovits, M. Fakhari, C. Seitz, M. Susani, A. Borkowski, L. Boccon-Gibod, C. C. Schulman, and M. Marberger, “Prospective evaluation of prostate cancer detected on biopsies 1, 2, 3 and 4: when should we stop?” J. Urol. 166(5), 1679–1683 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, Y. R.

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, “Photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS)-reconstruction tomography,” Med. Phys. 22(10), 1605–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finlay, J. C.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, “Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(1), 96–105 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flanigan, R. C.

W. J. Catalona, J. P. Richie, F. R. Ahmann, M. A. Hudson, P. T. Scardino, R. C. Flanigan, J. B. DeKernion, T. L. Ratliff, L. R. Kavoussi, B. L. Dalkin, W. B. Waters, M. T. MacFarlane, and P. C. Southwick, “Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men,” J. Urol. 151(5), 1283–1290 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fowlkes, J. B.

S. Huang, Y. Qin, Y. Chen, J. Pan, C. Xu, D. Wu, W. Y. Chao, J. T. Wei, S. A. Tomlins, X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, Q. Cheng, and G. Xu, “Interstitial assessment of aggressive prostate cancer by physio-chemical photoacoustics: An ex vivo study with intact human prostates,” Med. Phys. 45(9), 4125–4132 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. W. Roberts, P. L. Carson, D. P. Wood, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Photoacoustic tomography: a potential new tool for prostate cancer,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(4), 1117–1126 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frauscher, F.

M. Mitterberger, W. Horninger, F. Aigner, G. M. Pinggera, I. Steppan, P. Rehder, and F. Frauscher, “Ultrasound of the prostate,” Cancer Imaging 10(1), 40–48 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fukutani, K.

S. Bu, Z. Liu, T. Shiina, K. Kondo, M. Yamakawa, K. Fukutani, Y. Someda, and Y. Asao, “Model-based reconstruction integrated with fluence compensation for photoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(5), 1354–1363 (2012).
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Fütterer, J. J.

C. M. Hoeks, J. O. Barentsz, T. Hambrock, D. Yakar, D. M. Somford, S. W. Heijmink, T. W. Scheenen, P. C. Vos, H. Huisman, I. M. van Oort, J. A. Witjes, A. Heerschap, and J. J. Fütterer, “Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging,” Radiology 261(1), 46–66 (2011).
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K. M. Pondman, J. J. Fütterer, B. ten Haken, L. J. Schultze Kool, J. A. Witjes, T. Hambrock, K. J. Macura, and J. O. Barentsz, “MR-guided biopsy of the prostate: an overview of techniques and a systematic review,” Eur. Urol. 54(3), 517–527 (2008).
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George, A. K.

M. Kongnyuy, A. K. George, A. R. Rastinehad, and P. A. Pinto, “Magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy: review of technology, techniques, and outcomes,” Curr. Urol. Rep. 17(4), 32 (2016).
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R. A. Weersink, A. Bogaards, M. Gertner, S. R. Davidson, K. Zhang, G. Netchev, J. Trachtenberg, and B. C. Wilson, “Techniques for delivery and monitoring of TOOKAD (WST09)-mediated photodynamic therapy of the prostate: clinical experience and practicalities,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 79(3), 211–222 (2005).
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L. A. Mucci, A. Powolny, E. Giovannucci, Z. Liao, S. A. Kenfield, R. Shen, M. J. Stampfer, and S. K. Clinton, “Prospective study of prostate tumor angiogenesis and cancer-specific mortality in the health professionals follow-up study,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(33), 5627–5633 (2009).
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Glatstein, E.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, “Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(1), 96–105 (2005).
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Gomella, L. G.

E. D. Nelson, C. B. Slotoroff, L. G. Gomella, and E. J. Halpern, “Targeted biopsy of the prostate: the impact of color Doppler imaging and elastography on prostate cancer detection and Gleason score,” Urology 70(6), 1136–1140 (2007).
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Gorsky, S.

Grant, D. C.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
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Guo, J.

D. Peng, Y. Peng, J. Guo, and H. Li, “Laser Illumination Modality of Photoacoustic Imaging Technique for Prostate Cancer,” J. Phys. 679(1), 012026 (2016).

Guo, X.

M. A. Lediju Bell, X. Guo, D. Y. Song, and E. M. Boctor, “Transurethral light delivery for prostate photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036002 (2015).
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L. M. Eri, H. Thomassen, B. Brennhovd, and L. L. Håheim, “Accuracy and repeatability of prostate volume measurements by transrectal ultrasound,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 5(4), 273–278 (2002).
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Hahn, S. M.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, “Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(1), 96–105 (2005).
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Halpern, E. J.

E. D. Nelson, C. B. Slotoroff, L. G. Gomella, and E. J. Halpern, “Targeted biopsy of the prostate: the impact of color Doppler imaging and elastography on prostate cancer detection and Gleason score,” Urology 70(6), 1136–1140 (2007).
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Hambrock, T.

C. M. Hoeks, J. O. Barentsz, T. Hambrock, D. Yakar, D. M. Somford, S. W. Heijmink, T. W. Scheenen, P. C. Vos, H. Huisman, I. M. van Oort, J. A. Witjes, A. Heerschap, and J. J. Fütterer, “Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging,” Radiology 261(1), 46–66 (2011).
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K. M. Pondman, J. J. Fütterer, B. ten Haken, L. J. Schultze Kool, J. A. Witjes, T. Hambrock, K. J. Macura, and J. O. Barentsz, “MR-guided biopsy of the prostate: an overview of techniques and a systematic review,” Eur. Urol. 54(3), 517–527 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hazle, J. D.

Heerschap, A.

C. M. Hoeks, J. O. Barentsz, T. Hambrock, D. Yakar, D. M. Somford, S. W. Heijmink, T. W. Scheenen, P. C. Vos, H. Huisman, I. M. van Oort, J. A. Witjes, A. Heerschap, and J. J. Fütterer, “Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging,” Radiology 261(1), 46–66 (2011).
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Hehir, M.

G. N. Collins, R. J. Lee, G. B. McKelvie, A. C. N. Rogers, and M. Hehir, “Relationship between prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and age in the benign prostate,” Br. J. Urol. 71(4), 445–450 (1993).
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A. Heidenreich, P. J. Bastian, J. Bellmunt, M. Bolla, S. Joniau, T. van der Kwast, M. Mason, V. Matveev, T. Wiegel, F. Zattoni, and N. Mottet, “EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013,” Eur. Urol. 65(1), 124–137 (2014).
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C. M. Hoeks, J. O. Barentsz, T. Hambrock, D. Yakar, D. M. Somford, S. W. Heijmink, T. W. Scheenen, P. C. Vos, H. Huisman, I. M. van Oort, J. A. Witjes, A. Heerschap, and J. J. Fütterer, “Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging,” Radiology 261(1), 46–66 (2011).
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V. G. Andreev, A. E. Ponomarev, P. M. Henrichs, M. Motamedi, E. Orihuela, E. Eyzaguirre, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Detection of prostate cancer with opto-acoustic tomograph,” In Biomedical Optoacoustics IV 4960, 45–58 (2003).

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A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
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Hoedemaeker, R.

F. H. Schröder, P. van der Maas, P. Beemsterboer, A. B. Kruger, R. Hoedemaeker, J. Rietbergen, and R. Kranse, “Evaluation of the digital rectal examination as a screening test for prostate cancer. Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(23), 1817–1823 (1998).
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Hoeks, C. M.

C. M. Hoeks, J. O. Barentsz, T. Hambrock, D. Yakar, D. M. Somford, S. W. Heijmink, T. W. Scheenen, P. C. Vos, H. Huisman, I. M. van Oort, J. A. Witjes, A. Heerschap, and J. J. Fütterer, “Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging,” Radiology 261(1), 46–66 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hood, R. L.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
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Horiguchi, A.

A. Horiguchi, M. Shinchi, A. Nakamura, T. Wada, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “Pilot Study of Prostate Cancer Angiogenesis Imaging Using a Photoacoustic Imaging System,” Urology 108, 212–219 (2017).
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A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
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Horninger, W.

M. Mitterberger, W. Horninger, F. Aigner, G. M. Pinggera, I. Steppan, P. Rehder, and F. Frauscher, “Ultrasound of the prostate,” Cancer Imaging 10(1), 40–48 (2010).
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L. V. Wang and S. Hu, “Photoacoustic tomography: in vivo imaging from organelles to organs,” Science 335(6075), 1458–1462 (2012).
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S. Huang, Y. Qin, Y. Chen, J. Pan, C. Xu, D. Wu, W. Y. Chao, J. T. Wei, S. A. Tomlins, X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, Q. Cheng, and G. Xu, “Interstitial assessment of aggressive prostate cancer by physio-chemical photoacoustics: An ex vivo study with intact human prostates,” Med. Phys. 45(9), 4125–4132 (2018).
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W. J. Catalona, J. P. Richie, F. R. Ahmann, M. A. Hudson, P. T. Scardino, R. C. Flanigan, J. B. DeKernion, T. L. Ratliff, L. R. Kavoussi, B. L. Dalkin, W. B. Waters, M. T. MacFarlane, and P. C. Southwick, “Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men,” J. Urol. 151(5), 1283–1290 (1994).
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Huisman, H.

C. M. Hoeks, J. O. Barentsz, T. Hambrock, D. Yakar, D. M. Somford, S. W. Heijmink, T. W. Scheenen, P. C. Vos, H. Huisman, I. M. van Oort, J. A. Witjes, A. Heerschap, and J. J. Fütterer, “Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging,” Radiology 261(1), 46–66 (2011).
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Irisawa, K.

A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
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Ishihara, M.

A. Horiguchi, M. Shinchi, A. Nakamura, T. Wada, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “Pilot Study of Prostate Cancer Angiogenesis Imaging Using a Photoacoustic Imaging System,” Urology 108, 212–219 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
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Ito, K.

A. Horiguchi, M. Shinchi, A. Nakamura, T. Wada, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “Pilot Study of Prostate Cancer Angiogenesis Imaging Using a Photoacoustic Imaging System,” Urology 108, 212–219 (2017).
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A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
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A. Heidenreich, P. J. Bastian, J. Bellmunt, M. Bolla, S. Joniau, T. van der Kwast, M. Mason, V. Matveev, T. Wiegel, F. Zattoni, and N. Mottet, “EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013,” Eur. Urol. 65(1), 124–137 (2014).
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Kang, H. W.

Kang, J. U.

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
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Karpiouk, A. B.

Kasamatsu, T.

A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
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M. A. Rubin, M. Buyyounouski, E. Bagiella, S. Sharir, A. Neugut, M. Benson, A. de la Taille, A. E. Katz, C. A. Olsson, and R. D. Ennis, “Microvessel density in prostate cancer: lack of correlation with tumor grade, pathologic stage, and clinical outcome,” Urology 53(3), 542–547 (1999).
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Kavoussi, L. R.

W. J. Catalona, J. P. Richie, F. R. Ahmann, M. A. Hudson, P. T. Scardino, R. C. Flanigan, J. B. DeKernion, T. L. Ratliff, L. R. Kavoussi, B. L. Dalkin, W. B. Waters, M. T. MacFarlane, and P. C. Southwick, “Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men,” J. Urol. 151(5), 1283–1290 (1994).
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Kawaguchi, M.

A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
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Kenfield, S. A.

L. A. Mucci, A. Powolny, E. Giovannucci, Z. Liao, S. A. Kenfield, R. Shen, M. J. Stampfer, and S. K. Clinton, “Prospective study of prostate tumor angiogenesis and cancer-specific mortality in the health professionals follow-up study,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(33), 5627–5633 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, M. O.

Kondo, K.

S. Bu, Z. Liu, T. Shiina, K. Kondo, M. Yamakawa, K. Fukutani, Y. Someda, and Y. Asao, “Model-based reconstruction integrated with fluence compensation for photoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(5), 1354–1363 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kongnyuy, M.

M. Kongnyuy, A. K. George, A. R. Rastinehad, and P. A. Pinto, “Magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasound fusion-guided prostate biopsy: review of technology, techniques, and outcomes,” Curr. Urol. Rep. 17(4), 32 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kosoglu, M. A.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kranse, R.

F. H. Schröder, P. van der Maas, P. Beemsterboer, A. B. Kruger, R. Hoedemaeker, J. Rietbergen, and R. Kranse, “Evaluation of the digital rectal examination as a screening test for prostate cancer. Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(23), 1817–1823 (1998).
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Kruger, A. B.

F. H. Schröder, P. van der Maas, P. Beemsterboer, A. B. Kruger, R. Hoedemaeker, J. Rietbergen, and R. Kranse, “Evaluation of the digital rectal examination as a screening test for prostate cancer. Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(23), 1817–1823 (1998).
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Kruger, R. A.

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, “Photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS)-reconstruction tomography,” Med. Phys. 22(10), 1605–1609 (1995).
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Kuo, N. P.

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
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Lan, B.

M. Li, B. Lan, W. Liu, J. Xia, and J. Yao, “Internal-illumination photoacoustic computed tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(3), 1–4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lan, L.

Lediju Bell, M. A.

M. A. Lediju Bell, X. Guo, D. Y. Song, and E. M. Boctor, “Transurethral light delivery for prostate photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, R. J.

G. N. Collins, R. J. Lee, G. B. McKelvie, A. C. N. Rogers, and M. Hehir, “Relationship between prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and age in the benign prostate,” Br. J. Urol. 71(4), 445–450 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H.

D. Peng, Y. Peng, J. Guo, and H. Li, “Laser Illumination Modality of Photoacoustic Imaging Technique for Prostate Cancer,” J. Phys. 679(1), 012026 (2016).

Li, M.

M. Li, B. Lan, W. Liu, J. Xia, and J. Yao, “Internal-illumination photoacoustic computed tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(3), 1–4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, Z.

L. A. Mucci, A. Powolny, E. Giovannucci, Z. Liao, S. A. Kenfield, R. Shen, M. J. Stampfer, and S. K. Clinton, “Prospective study of prostate tumor angiogenesis and cancer-specific mortality in the health professionals follow-up study,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(33), 5627–5633 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S. P.

Liu, P.

R. A. Kruger, P. Liu, Y. R. Fang, and C. R. Appledorn, “Photoacoustic ultrasound (PAUS)-reconstruction tomography,” Med. Phys. 22(10), 1605–1609 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

M. Li, B. Lan, W. Liu, J. Xia, and J. Yao, “Internal-illumination photoacoustic computed tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(3), 1–4 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

S. Bu, Z. Liu, T. Shiina, K. Kondo, M. Yamakawa, K. Fukutani, Y. Someda, and Y. Asao, “Model-based reconstruction integrated with fluence compensation for photoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(5), 1354–1363 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacFarlane, M. T.

W. J. Catalona, J. P. Richie, F. R. Ahmann, M. A. Hudson, P. T. Scardino, R. C. Flanigan, J. B. DeKernion, T. L. Ratliff, L. R. Kavoussi, B. L. Dalkin, W. B. Waters, M. T. MacFarlane, and P. C. Southwick, “Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men,” J. Urol. 151(5), 1283–1290 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macura, K. J.

K. M. Pondman, J. J. Fütterer, B. ten Haken, L. J. Schultze Kool, J. A. Witjes, T. Hambrock, K. J. Macura, and J. O. Barentsz, “MR-guided biopsy of the prostate: an overview of techniques and a systematic review,” Eur. Urol. 54(3), 517–527 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malkowicz, S. B.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, “Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(1), 96–105 (2005).
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Marquez, G.

Mason, M.

A. Heidenreich, P. J. Bastian, J. Bellmunt, M. Bolla, S. Joniau, T. van der Kwast, M. Mason, V. Matveev, T. Wiegel, F. Zattoni, and N. Mottet, “EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013,” Eur. Urol. 65(1), 124–137 (2014).
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Masterson, T.

Matveev, V.

A. Heidenreich, P. J. Bastian, J. Bellmunt, M. Bolla, S. Joniau, T. van der Kwast, M. Mason, V. Matveev, T. Wiegel, F. Zattoni, and N. Mottet, “EAU guidelines on prostate cancer. part 1: screening, diagnosis, and local treatment with curative intent-update 2013,” Eur. Urol. 65(1), 124–137 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKelvie, G. B.

G. N. Collins, R. J. Lee, G. B. McKelvie, A. C. N. Rogers, and M. Hehir, “Relationship between prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and age in the benign prostate,” Br. J. Urol. 71(4), 445–450 (1993).
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M. Noguchi, T. A. Stamey, J. E. McNeal, and C. M. Yemoto, “Relationship between systematic biopsies and histological features of 222 radical prostatectomy specimens: lack of prediction of tumor significance for men with nonpalpable prostate cancer,” J. Urol. 166(1), 104–110 (2001).
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Miles, J.

T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, “Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(1), 96–105 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, K. D.

R. L. Siegel, K. D. Miller, and A. Jemal, “Cancer statistics, 2018,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 68(1), 7–30 (2018).
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Mischi, M.

A. Postema, M. Mischi, J. de la Rosette, and H. Wijkstra, “Multiparametric ultrasound in the detection of prostate cancer: a systematic review,” World J. Urol. 33(11), 1651–1659 (2015).
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M. Mitterberger, W. Horninger, F. Aigner, G. M. Pinggera, I. Steppan, P. Rehder, and F. Frauscher, “Ultrasound of the prostate,” Cancer Imaging 10(1), 40–48 (2010).
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H. Moradi, S. Tang, and S. E. Salcudean, “Toward intra-operative prostate photoacoustic imaging: configuration evaluation and implementation using the da Vinci research kit,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 38(1), 57–68 (2019).
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V. G. Andreev, A. E. Ponomarev, P. M. Henrichs, M. Motamedi, E. Orihuela, E. Eyzaguirre, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Detection of prostate cancer with opto-acoustic tomograph,” In Biomedical Optoacoustics IV 4960, 45–58 (2003).

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E. D. Nelson, C. B. Slotoroff, L. G. Gomella, and E. J. Halpern, “Targeted biopsy of the prostate: the impact of color Doppler imaging and elastography on prostate cancer detection and Gleason score,” Urology 70(6), 1136–1140 (2007).
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A. Ng and J. Swanevelder, “Resolution in ultrasound imaging,” Contin. Educ. Anaesth. Crit. Care Pain 11(5), 186–192 (2011).
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M. Noguchi, T. A. Stamey, J. E. McNeal, and C. M. Yemoto, “Relationship between systematic biopsies and histological features of 222 radical prostatectomy specimens: lack of prediction of tumor significance for men with nonpalpable prostate cancer,” J. Urol. 166(1), 104–110 (2001).
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M. A. Rubin, M. Buyyounouski, E. Bagiella, S. Sharir, A. Neugut, M. Benson, A. de la Taille, A. E. Katz, C. A. Olsson, and R. D. Ennis, “Microvessel density in prostate cancer: lack of correlation with tumor grade, pathologic stage, and clinical outcome,” Urology 53(3), 542–547 (1999).
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V. G. Andreev, A. E. Ponomarev, P. M. Henrichs, M. Motamedi, E. Orihuela, E. Eyzaguirre, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Detection of prostate cancer with opto-acoustic tomograph,” In Biomedical Optoacoustics IV 4960, 45–58 (2003).

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V. G. Andreev, A. E. Ponomarev, P. M. Henrichs, M. Motamedi, E. Orihuela, E. Eyzaguirre, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Detection of prostate cancer with opto-acoustic tomograph,” In Biomedical Optoacoustics IV 4960, 45–58 (2003).

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M. Mitterberger, W. Horninger, F. Aigner, G. M. Pinggera, I. Steppan, P. Rehder, and F. Frauscher, “Ultrasound of the prostate,” Cancer Imaging 10(1), 40–48 (2010).
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A. Postema, M. Mischi, J. de la Rosette, and H. Wijkstra, “Multiparametric ultrasound in the detection of prostate cancer: a systematic review,” World J. Urol. 33(11), 1651–1659 (2015).
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L. A. Mucci, A. Powolny, E. Giovannucci, Z. Liao, S. A. Kenfield, R. Shen, M. J. Stampfer, and S. K. Clinton, “Prospective study of prostate tumor angiogenesis and cancer-specific mortality in the health professionals follow-up study,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(33), 5627–5633 (2009).
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M. Mitterberger, W. Horninger, F. Aigner, G. M. Pinggera, I. Steppan, P. Rehder, and F. Frauscher, “Ultrasound of the prostate,” Cancer Imaging 10(1), 40–48 (2010).
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Richie, J. P.

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Robertson, J. L.

M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
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Rogers, A. C. N.

G. N. Collins, R. J. Lee, G. B. McKelvie, A. C. N. Rogers, and M. Hehir, “Relationship between prostate specific antigen, prostate volume and age in the benign prostate,” Br. J. Urol. 71(4), 445–450 (1993).
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M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
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M. A. Rubin, M. Buyyounouski, E. Bagiella, S. Sharir, A. Neugut, M. Benson, A. de la Taille, A. E. Katz, C. A. Olsson, and R. D. Ennis, “Microvessel density in prostate cancer: lack of correlation with tumor grade, pathologic stage, and clinical outcome,” Urology 53(3), 542–547 (1999).
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G. J. Jager, E. T. Ruijter, C. A. van de Kaa, J. J. de la Rosette, G. O. Oosterhof, J. R. Thornbury, and J. O. Barentsz, “Local staging of prostate cancer with endorectal MR imaging: correlation with histopathology,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 166(4), 845–852 (1996).
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Russo, G.

G. Russo, M. Mischi, W. Scheepens, J. J. De la Rosette, and H. Wijkstra, “Angiogenesis in prostate cancer: onset, progression and imaging,” BJU Int. 110(11c), E794–E808 (2012).
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M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
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M. A. Kosoglu, R. L. Hood, J. H. Rossmeisl, D. C. Grant, Y. Xu, J. L. Robertson, M. N. Rylander, and C. G. Rylander, “Fiberoptic microneedles: Novel optical diffusers for interstitial delivery of therapeutic light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 43(9), 914–920 (2011).
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Salcudean, S. E.

H. Moradi, S. Tang, and S. E. Salcudean, “Toward intra-operative prostate photoacoustic imaging: configuration evaluation and implementation using the da Vinci research kit,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 38(1), 57–68 (2019).
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Salcudean, T.

Samant, P.

S. Tang, J. Chen, P. Samant, K. Stratton, and L. Xiang, “Transurethral photoacoustic endoscopy for prostate cancer: A simulation study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(7), 1780–1787 (2016).
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W. J. Catalona, J. P. Richie, F. R. Ahmann, M. A. Hudson, P. T. Scardino, R. C. Flanigan, J. B. DeKernion, T. L. Ratliff, L. R. Kavoussi, B. L. Dalkin, W. B. Waters, M. T. MacFarlane, and P. C. Southwick, “Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men,” J. Urol. 151(5), 1283–1290 (1994).
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C. M. Hoeks, J. O. Barentsz, T. Hambrock, D. Yakar, D. M. Somford, S. W. Heijmink, T. W. Scheenen, P. C. Vos, H. Huisman, I. M. van Oort, J. A. Witjes, A. Heerschap, and J. J. Fütterer, “Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging,” Radiology 261(1), 46–66 (2011).
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G. Russo, M. Mischi, W. Scheepens, J. J. De la Rosette, and H. Wijkstra, “Angiogenesis in prostate cancer: onset, progression and imaging,” BJU Int. 110(11c), E794–E808 (2012).
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F. H. Schröder, P. van der Maas, P. Beemsterboer, A. B. Kruger, R. Hoedemaeker, J. Rietbergen, and R. Kranse, “Evaluation of the digital rectal examination as a screening test for prostate cancer. Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90(23), 1817–1823 (1998).
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B. Djavan, V. Ravery, A. Zlotta, P. Dobronski, M. Dobrovits, M. Fakhari, C. Seitz, M. Susani, A. Borkowski, L. Boccon-Gibod, C. C. Schulman, and M. Marberger, “Prospective evaluation of prostate cancer detected on biopsies 1, 2, 3 and 4: when should we stop?” J. Urol. 166(5), 1679–1683 (2001).
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K. M. Pondman, J. J. Fütterer, B. ten Haken, L. J. Schultze Kool, J. A. Witjes, T. Hambrock, K. J. Macura, and J. O. Barentsz, “MR-guided biopsy of the prostate: an overview of techniques and a systematic review,” Eur. Urol. 54(3), 517–527 (2008).
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Seitz, C.

B. Djavan, V. Ravery, A. Zlotta, P. Dobronski, M. Dobrovits, M. Fakhari, C. Seitz, M. Susani, A. Borkowski, L. Boccon-Gibod, C. C. Schulman, and M. Marberger, “Prospective evaluation of prostate cancer detected on biopsies 1, 2, 3 and 4: when should we stop?” J. Urol. 166(5), 1679–1683 (2001).
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M. A. Rubin, M. Buyyounouski, E. Bagiella, S. Sharir, A. Neugut, M. Benson, A. de la Taille, A. E. Katz, C. A. Olsson, and R. D. Ennis, “Microvessel density in prostate cancer: lack of correlation with tumor grade, pathologic stage, and clinical outcome,” Urology 53(3), 542–547 (1999).
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L. A. Mucci, A. Powolny, E. Giovannucci, Z. Liao, S. A. Kenfield, R. Shen, M. J. Stampfer, and S. K. Clinton, “Prospective study of prostate tumor angiogenesis and cancer-specific mortality in the health professionals follow-up study,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(33), 5627–5633 (2009).
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S. Bu, Z. Liu, T. Shiina, K. Kondo, M. Yamakawa, K. Fukutani, Y. Someda, and Y. Asao, “Model-based reconstruction integrated with fluence compensation for photoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(5), 1354–1363 (2012).
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A. Horiguchi, M. Shinchi, A. Nakamura, T. Wada, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “Pilot Study of Prostate Cancer Angiogenesis Imaging Using a Photoacoustic Imaging System,” Urology 108, 212–219 (2017).
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A. Horiguchi, M. Shinchi, A. Nakamura, T. Wada, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “Pilot Study of Prostate Cancer Angiogenesis Imaging Using a Photoacoustic Imaging System,” Urology 108, 212–219 (2017).
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A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
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Siegel, R. L.

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S. Sinha, N. A. Rao, B. K. Chinni, and V. S. Dogra, “Evaluation of frequency domain analysis of a multiwavelength photoacoustic signal for differentiating malignant from benign and normal prostates: ex vivo study with human prostates,” J. Ultrasound Med. 35(10), 2165–2177 (2016).
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Slotoroff, C. B.

E. D. Nelson, C. B. Slotoroff, L. G. Gomella, and E. J. Halpern, “Targeted biopsy of the prostate: the impact of color Doppler imaging and elastography on prostate cancer detection and Gleason score,” Urology 70(6), 1136–1140 (2007).
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S. Bu, Z. Liu, T. Shiina, K. Kondo, M. Yamakawa, K. Fukutani, Y. Someda, and Y. Asao, “Model-based reconstruction integrated with fluence compensation for photoacoustic tomography,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(5), 1354–1363 (2012).
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C. M. Hoeks, J. O. Barentsz, T. Hambrock, D. Yakar, D. M. Somford, S. W. Heijmink, T. W. Scheenen, P. C. Vos, H. Huisman, I. M. van Oort, J. A. Witjes, A. Heerschap, and J. J. Fütterer, “Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging,” Radiology 261(1), 46–66 (2011).
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M. A. Lediju Bell, X. Guo, D. Y. Song, and E. M. Boctor, “Transurethral light delivery for prostate photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(3), 036002 (2015).
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W. J. Catalona, J. P. Richie, F. R. Ahmann, M. A. Hudson, P. T. Scardino, R. C. Flanigan, J. B. DeKernion, T. L. Ratliff, L. R. Kavoussi, B. L. Dalkin, W. B. Waters, M. T. MacFarlane, and P. C. Southwick, “Comparison of digital rectal examination and serum prostate specific antigen in the early detection of prostate cancer: results of a multicenter clinical trial of 6,630 men,” J. Urol. 151(5), 1283–1290 (1994).
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M. Noguchi, T. A. Stamey, J. E. McNeal, and C. M. Yemoto, “Relationship between systematic biopsies and histological features of 222 radical prostatectomy specimens: lack of prediction of tumor significance for men with nonpalpable prostate cancer,” J. Urol. 166(1), 104–110 (2001).
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Stampfer, M. J.

L. A. Mucci, A. Powolny, E. Giovannucci, Z. Liao, S. A. Kenfield, R. Shen, M. J. Stampfer, and S. K. Clinton, “Prospective study of prostate tumor angiogenesis and cancer-specific mortality in the health professionals follow-up study,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(33), 5627–5633 (2009).
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Steppan, I.

M. Mitterberger, W. Horninger, F. Aigner, G. M. Pinggera, I. Steppan, P. Rehder, and F. Frauscher, “Ultrasound of the prostate,” Cancer Imaging 10(1), 40–48 (2010).
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Stratton, K.

S. Tang, J. Chen, P. Samant, K. Stratton, and L. Xiang, “Transurethral photoacoustic endoscopy for prostate cancer: A simulation study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(7), 1780–1787 (2016).
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Swanevelder, J.

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Med. Phys. (2)

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S. Huang, Y. Qin, Y. Chen, J. Pan, C. Xu, D. Wu, W. Y. Chao, J. T. Wei, S. A. Tomlins, X. Wang, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, Q. Cheng, and G. Xu, “Interstitial assessment of aggressive prostate cancer by physio-chemical photoacoustics: An ex vivo study with intact human prostates,” Med. Phys. 45(9), 4125–4132 (2018).
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Opt. Express (2)

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T. C. Zhu, A. Dimofte, J. C. Finlay, D. Stripp, T. Busch, J. Miles, R. Whittington, S. B. Malkowicz, Z. Tochner, E. Glatstein, and S. M. Hahn, “Optical properties of human prostate at 732 nm measured in mediated photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 81(1), 96–105 (2005).
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Radiology (1)

C. M. Hoeks, J. O. Barentsz, T. Hambrock, D. Yakar, D. M. Somford, S. W. Heijmink, T. W. Scheenen, P. C. Vos, H. Huisman, I. M. van Oort, J. A. Witjes, A. Heerschap, and J. J. Fütterer, “Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection, localization, and staging,” Radiology 261(1), 46–66 (2011).
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Science (1)

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World J. Urol. (1)

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D. Georgescu, E. Alexandrescu, R. Multescu, and B. Geavlete, “Cystoscopy and urinary bladder anatomy,” in Endoscopic Diagnosis and Treatment in Urinary Bladder Pathology, P. A. Geavlete, ed. (Elsevier Inc., 2016).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Design of the transurethral illumination probe. (a) Overview of the transurethral illumination probe. (b) The beam profile from the probe displayed by a 660 nm light. (c) Longitudinal cross-section view of the probe. (d) Axial cross-section view of the probe.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic illustration of the etching process (left) and photographs of the diffusing fiber (right). (a) Three steps of the etching process. (b) Rough surface of the diffusing fiber. (c) The diffusing fiber with 660 nm visible light coupled in. (d) Illumination pattern on a piece of white paper of the 660 nm light from the diffusing fiber.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated fluence on a cylindrical illumination surface at various distances. The output energy from the fiber is assumed to be 50 mJ/pulse. The dash lines indicate the position of the fiber surface and the tissue surface, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of the reflection pattern. (a) and (b) are the ray tracing for the circular cylindrical mirror and the parabolic cylindrical mirror, respectively. (c) and (d) are the simulated light distribution pattern at 5 mm away from the circular cylindrical mirror and the parabolic cylindrical mirror, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Experimental results of the beam profile. (a) Illustration of the measurement setup. (b) Changes of the beam profile at various distances for the circular cylindrical mirror and the parabolic cylindrical mirror, respectively. (c) and (d) are the comparison of the FWHM of the beam profile in the x and y directions, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Beam profile from the parabolic cylindrical mirror with and without the 45° end mirror. (a) 2D beam profile without the end mirror (b) 2D beam profile with the end mirror (c) 1D beam profile along x axis. (d) 1D beam profile along y axis. White arrows indicate the positions where the 1D profiles are extracted.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 PAT images of human hair embedded in chicken breast tissue. (a) Without attenuation compensation. (b) With attenuation compensation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 PAT imaging of prostate mimicking phantom. (a) Photograph of the phantom where two tube shaped cavities indicate the location of rectum and urethra. (b) Experimental setup. (c) and (d) are the PAT images of the pencil leads embedded in the phantom without, and with attenuation compensation, respectively.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 PAT images of hair embedded in the prostate mimicking phantom. (a) Forward illumination where the illumination probe faces the TRUS probe. (b) Backward illumination where the illumination probe faces the opposite side of the TRUS probe. (c) Result combining (a) and (b).

Equations (7)

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MP E fluence ={ 20× 10 2( λ0.7 ) mJ/cm 2 ( 0.7μmλ1.05μm ) 100 mJ/cm 2 ( 1.05μmλ1.4μm ) ,
MP E power ={ 0.2× 10 2( λ0.7 ) W/cm 2 ( 0.7μmλ1.05μm ) 1 W/cm 2 ( 1.05μmλ1.4μm ) .
( z r 2 )+ x 2 = r 2
z= x 2 2p p 2
Fluence= E output 2πRl ,
I(z) I 0 e μ eff z ,
μ eff = 3 μ a ( μ a + μ s ' )

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