Abstract

In vivo corneal confocal microscopy and its operability in scientific as well as in clinical applications is often impaired by the lack of information on imaging plane position and orientation inside the cornea during patient’s examination. To overcome this hurdle, we have developed a novel corneal imaging system based on a commercial scanning device and a modified Rostock Cornea Module. The presented preliminary system produces en face images by confocal laser scanning microscopy and sagittal cross-section images by optical coherence tomography simultaneously. This enables imaging guidance during examinations, improved features for diagnostics along with thickness measurements of the cornea as well as corneal substructures from oblique sections.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2017 (3)

2013 (2)

K. M. Rocha, C. E. Perez-Straziota, R. D. Stulting, and J. B. Randleman, “SD-OCT Analysis of Regional Epithelial Thickness Profiles in Keratoconus, Postoperative Corneal Ectasia, and Normal Eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(3), 173–179 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-Dimensional Corneal Imaging in Vivo Using a Modified HRT-RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

J. Ho, D. P. E. Castro, L. C. Castro, Y. Chen, J. Liu, C. Mattox, C. Krishnan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. S. Duker, “Clinical Assessment of Mirror Artifacts in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(7), 3714–3720 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. F. Guthoff, A. Zhivov, and O. Stachs, “In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea - a major review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 100–117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

D. Z. Reinstein, T. J. Archer, M. Gobbe, R. H. Silverman, and D. J. Coleman, “Epithelial Thickness in the Normal Cornea: Three-dimensional Display With Artemis Very High-frequency Digital Ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Sin and T. L. Simpson, “The repeatability of corneal and corneal epithelial thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83(6), 360–365 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Thomas, I. Cox, and A. Rollins, “Noncontact measurements of central corneal epithelial and flap thickness after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(6), 1812–1816 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wirbelauer and D. T. Pham, “Monitoring corneal structures with slitlamp-adapted optical coherence tomography in laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30(9), 1851–1860 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Haque, D. Fonn, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Corneal and epithelial thickness changes after 4 weeks of overnight corneal refractive therapy lens wear, measured with optical coherence tomography,” Eye Contact Lens 30(4), 189–206 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. G. Pérez, J. M. G. Méijome, I. Jalbert, D. F. Sweeney, and P. Erickson, “Corneal Epithelial Thinning Profile Induced by Long-Term Wear of Hydrogel Lenses,” Cornea 22(4), 304–307 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. Guthoff, “Modified Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

M. J. Doughty and M. L. Zaman, “Human Corneal Thickness and Its Impact on Intraocular Pressure Measures: A Review and Meta-analysis Approach,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 44(5), 367–408 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, “Combined optical coherence tomograph and scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1088–1090 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Allgeier, S.

Aranha Dos Santos, V.

Archer, T. J.

D. Z. Reinstein, T. J. Archer, M. Gobbe, R. H. Silverman, and D. J. Coleman, “Epithelial Thickness in the Normal Cornea: Three-dimensional Display With Artemis Very High-frequency Digital Ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

Aschinger, G. C.

Bartschat, A.

Baumgartner, I.

Bizheva, K.

Bohn, S.

Boxer, A.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro, D. P. E.

J. Ho, D. P. E. Castro, L. C. Castro, Y. Chen, J. Liu, C. Mattox, C. Krishnan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. S. Duker, “Clinical Assessment of Mirror Artifacts in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(7), 3714–3720 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Castro, L. C.

J. Ho, D. P. E. Castro, L. C. Castro, Y. Chen, J. Liu, C. Mattox, C. Krishnan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. S. Duker, “Clinical Assessment of Mirror Artifacts in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(7), 3714–3720 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavanagh, H. D.

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-Dimensional Corneal Imaging in Vivo Using a Modified HRT-RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Ho, D. P. E. Castro, L. C. Castro, Y. Chen, J. Liu, C. Mattox, C. Krishnan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. S. Duker, “Clinical Assessment of Mirror Artifacts in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(7), 3714–3720 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coleman, D. J.

D. Z. Reinstein, T. J. Archer, M. Gobbe, R. H. Silverman, and D. J. Coleman, “Epithelial Thickness in the Normal Cornea: Three-dimensional Display With Artemis Very High-frequency Digital Ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

Cox, I.

J. Wang, J. Thomas, I. Cox, and A. Rollins, “Noncontact measurements of central corneal epithelial and flap thickness after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(6), 1812–1816 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cucu, R. G.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dobre, G. M.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Doughty, M. J.

M. J. Doughty and M. L. Zaman, “Human Corneal Thickness and Its Impact on Intraocular Pressure Measures: A Review and Meta-analysis Approach,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 44(5), 367–408 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dua, H.

Duker, J. S.

J. Ho, D. P. E. Castro, L. C. Castro, Y. Chen, J. Liu, C. Mattox, C. Krishnan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. S. Duker, “Clinical Assessment of Mirror Artifacts in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(7), 3714–3720 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunne, S.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Erickson, P.

J. G. Pérez, J. M. G. Méijome, I. Jalbert, D. F. Sweeney, and P. Erickson, “Corneal Epithelial Thinning Profile Induced by Long-Term Wear of Hydrogel Lenses,” Cornea 22(4), 304–307 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fisher, Y.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitzke, F. W.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Fonn, D.

S. Haque, D. Fonn, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Corneal and epithelial thickness changes after 4 weeks of overnight corneal refractive therapy lens wear, measured with optical coherence tomography,” Eye Contact Lens 30(4), 189–206 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. Ho, D. P. E. Castro, L. C. Castro, Y. Chen, J. Liu, C. Mattox, C. Krishnan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. S. Duker, “Clinical Assessment of Mirror Artifacts in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(7), 3714–3720 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garcia, P.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garhöfer, G.

Gentile, R.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gobbe, M.

D. Z. Reinstein, T. J. Archer, M. Gobbe, R. H. Silverman, and D. J. Coleman, “Epithelial Thickness in the Normal Cornea: Three-dimensional Display With Artemis Very High-frequency Digital Ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

Grümmer, G.

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. Guthoff, “Modified Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guthoff, R.

S. Bohn, K. Sperlich, S. Allgeier, A. Bartschat, R. Prakasam, K.-M. Reichert, H. Stolz, R. Guthoff, R. Mikut, B. Köhler, and O. Stachs, “Cellular in vivo 3D imaging of the cornea by confocal laser scanning microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(6), 2511–2525 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Stachs, K. Sperlich, S. Bohn, H. Stolz, and R. Guthoff, “Rostock Cornea Module 2.0 – a versatile extension for anterior segment imaging,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95, 2381 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. Guthoff, “Modified Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guthoff, R. F.

R. F. Guthoff, A. Zhivov, and O. Stachs, “In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea - a major review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 100–117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hajialamdari, M.

Haque, S.

S. Haque, D. Fonn, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Corneal and epithelial thickness changes after 4 weeks of overnight corneal refractive therapy lens wear, measured with optical coherence tomography,” Eye Contact Lens 30(4), 189–206 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hileeto, D.

Ho, J.

J. Ho, D. P. E. Castro, L. C. Castro, Y. Chen, J. Liu, C. Mattox, C. Krishnan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. S. Duker, “Clinical Assessment of Mirror Artifacts in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(7), 3714–3720 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, D. A.

A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, “Combined optical coherence tomograph and scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1088–1090 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jalbert, I.

J. G. Pérez, J. M. G. Méijome, I. Jalbert, D. F. Sweeney, and P. Erickson, “Corneal Epithelial Thinning Profile Induced by Long-Term Wear of Hydrogel Lenses,” Cornea 22(4), 304–307 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jester, J. V.

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, L.

S. Haque, D. Fonn, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Corneal and epithelial thickness changes after 4 weeks of overnight corneal refractive therapy lens wear, measured with optical coherence tomography,” Eye Contact Lens 30(4), 189–206 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Köhler, B.

Kralj, O.

Krishnan, C.

J. Ho, D. P. E. Castro, L. C. Castro, Y. Chen, J. Liu, C. Mattox, C. Krishnan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. S. Duker, “Clinical Assessment of Mirror Artifacts in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(7), 3714–3720 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, H. F.

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

J. Ho, D. P. E. Castro, L. C. Castro, Y. Chen, J. Liu, C. Mattox, C. Krishnan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. S. Duker, “Clinical Assessment of Mirror Artifacts in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(7), 3714–3720 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacLelan, B.

Marshall, J.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Mattox, C.

J. Ho, D. P. E. Castro, L. C. Castro, Y. Chen, J. Liu, C. Mattox, C. Krishnan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. S. Duker, “Clinical Assessment of Mirror Artifacts in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(7), 3714–3720 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maurer, J. K.

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McCulley, J. P.

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-Dimensional Corneal Imaging in Vivo Using a Modified HRT-RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Méijome, J. M. G.

J. G. Pérez, J. M. G. Méijome, I. Jalbert, D. F. Sweeney, and P. Erickson, “Corneal Epithelial Thinning Profile Induced by Long-Term Wear of Hydrogel Lenses,” Cornea 22(4), 304–307 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mikut, R.

Møller-Pedersen, T.

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muldoon, T.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nieto, J.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orlock, D.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pantalon, A.

Patel, S.

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Pérez, J. G.

J. G. Pérez, J. M. G. Méijome, I. Jalbert, D. F. Sweeney, and P. Erickson, “Corneal Epithelial Thinning Profile Induced by Long-Term Wear of Hydrogel Lenses,” Cornea 22(4), 304–307 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perez-Straziota, C. E.

K. M. Rocha, C. E. Perez-Straziota, R. D. Stulting, and J. B. Randleman, “SD-OCT Analysis of Regional Epithelial Thickness Profiles in Keratoconus, Postoperative Corneal Ectasia, and Normal Eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(3), 173–179 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petroll, W. M.

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-Dimensional Corneal Imaging in Vivo Using a Modified HRT-RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, D. T.

C. Wirbelauer and D. T. Pham, “Monitoring corneal structures with slitlamp-adapted optical coherence tomography in laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30(9), 1851–1860 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pircher, N.

Podoleanu, A. G.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, “Combined optical coherence tomograph and scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1088–1090 (1998).
[Crossref]

Prakasam, R.

Randleman, J. B.

K. M. Rocha, C. E. Perez-Straziota, R. D. Stulting, and J. B. Randleman, “SD-OCT Analysis of Regional Epithelial Thickness Profiles in Keratoconus, Postoperative Corneal Ectasia, and Normal Eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(3), 173–179 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reichert, K.-M.

Reinstein, D. Z.

D. Z. Reinstein, T. J. Archer, M. Gobbe, R. H. Silverman, and D. J. Coleman, “Epithelial Thickness in the Normal Cornea: Three-dimensional Display With Artemis Very High-frequency Digital Ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

Rocha, K. M.

K. M. Rocha, C. E. Perez-Straziota, R. D. Stulting, and J. B. Randleman, “SD-OCT Analysis of Regional Epithelial Thickness Profiles in Keratoconus, Postoperative Corneal Ectasia, and Normal Eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(3), 173–179 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. A.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rollins, A.

J. Wang, J. Thomas, I. Cox, and A. Rollins, “Noncontact measurements of central corneal epithelial and flap thickness after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(6), 1812–1816 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosen, R.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sapeta, S.

Schmetterer, L.

Schmidinger, G.

Schmidl, D.

Schuman, J. S.

J. Ho, D. P. E. Castro, L. C. Castro, Y. Chen, J. Liu, C. Mattox, C. Krishnan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. S. Duker, “Clinical Assessment of Mirror Artifacts in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(7), 3714–3720 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarzhans, F.

Silverman, R. H.

D. Z. Reinstein, T. J. Archer, M. Gobbe, R. H. Silverman, and D. J. Coleman, “Epithelial Thickness in the Normal Cornea: Three-dimensional Display With Artemis Very High-frequency Digital Ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

Simpson, T.

S. Haque, D. Fonn, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Corneal and epithelial thickness changes after 4 weeks of overnight corneal refractive therapy lens wear, measured with optical coherence tomography,” Eye Contact Lens 30(4), 189–206 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simpson, T. L.

S. Sin and T. L. Simpson, “The repeatability of corneal and corneal epithelial thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83(6), 360–365 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sin, S.

S. Sin and T. L. Simpson, “The repeatability of corneal and corneal epithelial thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83(6), 360–365 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorbara, L.

Sperlich, K.

Stachs, O.

S. Bohn, K. Sperlich, S. Allgeier, A. Bartschat, R. Prakasam, K.-M. Reichert, H. Stolz, R. Guthoff, R. Mikut, B. Köhler, and O. Stachs, “Cellular in vivo 3D imaging of the cornea by confocal laser scanning microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(6), 2511–2525 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Stachs, K. Sperlich, S. Bohn, H. Stolz, and R. Guthoff, “Rostock Cornea Module 2.0 – a versatile extension for anterior segment imaging,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95, 2381 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. F. Guthoff, A. Zhivov, and O. Stachs, “In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea - a major review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 100–117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stave, J.

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. Guthoff, “Modified Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stolz, H.

Stulting, R. D.

K. M. Rocha, C. E. Perez-Straziota, R. D. Stulting, and J. B. Randleman, “SD-OCT Analysis of Regional Epithelial Thickness Profiles in Keratoconus, Postoperative Corneal Ectasia, and Normal Eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(3), 173–179 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sweeney, D. F.

J. G. Pérez, J. M. G. Méijome, I. Jalbert, D. F. Sweeney, and P. Erickson, “Corneal Epithelial Thinning Profile Induced by Long-Term Wear of Hydrogel Lenses,” Cornea 22(4), 304–307 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, B.

Thomas, J.

J. Wang, J. Thomas, I. Cox, and A. Rollins, “Noncontact measurements of central corneal epithelial and flap thickness after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(6), 1812–1816 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vaidya, S.

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-Dimensional Corneal Imaging in Vivo Using a Modified HRT-RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, J.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Thomas, I. Cox, and A. Rollins, “Noncontact measurements of central corneal epithelial and flap thickness after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(6), 1812–1816 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weaver, M.

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-Dimensional Corneal Imaging in Vivo Using a Modified HRT-RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weitz, R.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Werkmeister, R. M.

Will, D.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirbelauer, C.

C. Wirbelauer and D. T. Pham, “Monitoring corneal structures with slitlamp-adapted optical coherence tomography in laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30(9), 1851–1860 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yannuzzi, L. A.

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaman, M. L.

M. J. Doughty and M. L. Zaman, “Human Corneal Thickness and Its Impact on Intraocular Pressure Measures: A Review and Meta-analysis Approach,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 44(5), 367–408 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhivov, A.

R. F. Guthoff, A. Zhivov, and O. Stachs, “In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea - a major review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 100–117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zinser, G.

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. Guthoff, “Modified Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. (1)

O. Stachs, K. Sperlich, S. Bohn, H. Stolz, and R. Guthoff, “Rostock Cornea Module 2.0 – a versatile extension for anterior segment imaging,” Acta Ophthalmol. 95, 2381 (2017).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. F. Guthoff, A. Zhivov, and O. Stachs, “In vivo confocal microscopy, an inner vision of the cornea - a major review,” Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 37(1), 100–117 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cornea (2)

W. M. Petroll, M. Weaver, S. Vaidya, J. P. McCulley, and H. D. Cavanagh, “Quantitative 3-Dimensional Corneal Imaging in Vivo Using a Modified HRT-RCM Confocal Microscope,” Cornea 32(4), e36–e43 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. G. Pérez, J. M. G. Méijome, I. Jalbert, D. F. Sweeney, and P. Erickson, “Corneal Epithelial Thinning Profile Induced by Long-Term Wear of Hydrogel Lenses,” Cornea 22(4), 304–307 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

H. F. Li, W. M. Petroll, T. Møller-Pedersen, J. K. Maurer, H. D. Cavanagh, and J. V. Jester, “Epithelial and corneal thickness measurements by in vivo confocal microscopy through focusing (CMTF),” Curr. Eye Res. 16(3), 214–221 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. G. Podoleanu and D. A. Jackson, “Combined optical coherence tomograph and scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Electron. Lett. 34(11), 1088–1090 (1998).
[Crossref]

Eye Contact Lens (1)

S. Haque, D. Fonn, T. Simpson, and L. Jones, “Corneal and epithelial thickness changes after 4 weeks of overnight corneal refractive therapy lens wear, measured with optical coherence tomography,” Eye Contact Lens 30(4), 189–206 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

J. Wang, J. Thomas, I. Cox, and A. Rollins, “Noncontact measurements of central corneal epithelial and flap thickness after laser in situ keratomileusis,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45(6), 1812–1816 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ho, D. P. E. Castro, L. C. Castro, Y. Chen, J. Liu, C. Mattox, C. Krishnan, J. G. Fujimoto, J. S. Schuman, and J. S. Duker, “Clinical Assessment of Mirror Artifacts in Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(7), 3714–3720 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, R. G. Cucu, R. Rosen, P. Garcia, J. Nieto, D. Will, R. Gentile, T. Muldoon, J. Walsh, L. A. Yannuzzi, Y. Fisher, D. Orlock, R. Weitz, J. A. Rogers, S. Dunne, and A. Boxer, “Combined multiplanar optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning ophthalmoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 86–93 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (1)

C. Wirbelauer and D. T. Pham, “Monitoring corneal structures with slitlamp-adapted optical coherence tomography in laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 30(9), 1851–1860 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Refract. Surg. (3)

D. Z. Reinstein, T. J. Archer, M. Gobbe, R. H. Silverman, and D. J. Coleman, “Epithelial Thickness in the Normal Cornea: Three-dimensional Display With Artemis Very High-frequency Digital Ultrasound,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(6), 571–581 (2008).
[PubMed]

K. M. Rocha, C. E. Perez-Straziota, R. D. Stulting, and J. B. Randleman, “SD-OCT Analysis of Regional Epithelial Thickness Profiles in Keratoconus, Postoperative Corneal Ectasia, and Normal Eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 29(3), 173–179 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Patel, J. Marshall, and F. W. Fitzke, “Refractive index of the human corneal epithelium and stroma,” J. Refract. Surg. 11(2), 100–105 (1995).
[PubMed]

Ophthalmologe (1)

J. Stave, G. Zinser, G. Grümmer, and R. Guthoff, “Modified Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph HRT. Initial results of in vivo presentation of corneal structures,” Ophthalmologe 99(4), 276–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Optom. Vis. Sci. (1)

S. Sin and T. L. Simpson, “The repeatability of corneal and corneal epithelial thickness measurements using optical coherence tomography,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 83(6), 360–365 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

M. J. Doughty and M. L. Zaman, “Human Corneal Thickness and Its Impact on Intraocular Pressure Measures: A Review and Meta-analysis Approach,” Surv. Ophthalmol. 44(5), 367–408 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. Gullstrand, “Die Dioptrik des Auges,” in Handbuch der Physiologischen Optik, 3rd ed., H. von Helmholtz, ed. (Verlag von Leopold Voss, 1909).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Simplified schematic of an SLO-OCT-combination and reference arm readjustment. The original position of the mirror in the reference arm (A) is moved (B) to account for the change in optical path length induced by the additional optics of the RCM 2.0. Red lines show different beam paths (dashed – OCT, dotted – SLO). Both beam paths are overlapped (dotdashed line) in such a way that they have the same focus. D – detector. LS – light source.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Exemplary determination of the epithelial thickness t by an oblique cornea section. The OCT imaging plane lies in the paper plane while the CCM imaging plane (gray) goes into the paper. The angle α is measured in the OCT image and the distance d in the CCM image.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Sagittal OCT (A) and en face CCM (B) image of the posterior stroma. The OCT image shows the anterior corneal surface in contact with the TomoCap (1), a mirror artifact (2), the CCM imaging plane (3) and the posterior corneal surface (4). The area in the green rectangle is magnified and depicted in a pseudocolor image (C) for visual purpose. The same area was used for the averaged intensity profile (D). Direct measurements provide a corneal thickness of 593 µm and a CCM imaging plane depth of 476 µm. Please note the anisotropic scale in the OCT images (A) and (C).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 OCT (A) and CCM (B) image showing the cornea before contact with the TomoCap. The OCT image exhibits a mirror artifact (1), the contact surface of the TomoCap (2), the intersection of the CCM imaging plane with the corneal surface (3), the CCM imaging plane also visible outside the cornea due to the immersion gel (4), and the corneal surface (5). The CCM image shows an oblique section starting from outside the cornea (middle), crossing the epithelium and showing some structures of the Bowman’s membrane (top). Due to the low frame rate of the HR mode, the CCM image shows wavy movement distortions (6).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Sagittal OCT (A) and CCM (B) image of an oblique section. A part of the OCT image was rectified (see text) and stretched to isotropic scaling (C) in order to measure the angle between the corneal surface (1) and CCM imaging plane (2). The CCM image shows the anterior stroma (3), the Bowman’s membrane with the subbasal nerve plexus (4), the epithelium (5) and the superficial cells of the epithelium (6). The oblique imaging angle α and the projected layer distances dE and dB result in an epithelial thickness of 46 µm and a Bowman’s membrane thickness of 15.3 µm.

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