Abstract

This study is to establish quantitative features of vascular geometry in optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and validate them for the objective classification of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Six geometric features, including total vessel branching angle (VBA: θ), child branching angles (CBAs: α1 and α2), vessel branching coefficient (VBC), and children-to-parent vessel width ratios (VWR1 and VWR2), were automatically derived from each vessel branch in OCTA. Comparative analysis of heathy control, diabetes with no DR (NoDR), and non-proliferative DR (NPDR) was conducted. Our study reveals four quantitative OCTA features to produce robust DR detection and staging classification: (ANOVA, P<0.05), VBA, CBA1, VBC, and VWR1.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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  18. M. S. Roy, R. Klein, and M. N. Janal, “Retinal venular diameter as an early indicator of progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy with and without high-risk characteristics in African Americans with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 129(1), 8–15 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
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  21. S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  23. K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D.-Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  25. T. Luo, T. J. Gast, T. J. Vermeer, and S. A. Burns, “Retinal Vascular Branching in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(5), 2685–2694 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. M. N. Ahmadabadi, F. S. Rooholamini, M. R. Esfahani, R. Karkhaneh, M. Nikdel, and E. N. Ahmadabadi, “Association of Retinal Vascular Diameter and Vascular Branching Angle with Diabetic Retinopathy Stage: A Cross-Sectional Study,” Iran. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 21 (2011).
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  29. Q. Zhang, K. A. Rezaei, S. S. Saraf, Z. Chu, F. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 8(8), 743–753 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of Automatically Quantified Foveal Avascular Zone Metrics for Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
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  32. M. Ashraf, P. L. Nesper, L. M. Jampol, F. Yu, and A. A. Fawzi, “Statistical Model of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters That Correlate With Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(10), 4292–4298 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. M. Alam, D. Thapa, J. I. Lim, D. Cao, and X. Yao, “Computer-aided classification of sickle cell retinopathy using quantitative features in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(9), 4206–4216 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. M. Alam, D. Thapa, J. I. Lim, D. Cao, and X. Yao, “Quantitative characteristics of sickle cell retinopathy in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1741–1753 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. J. A. Adam, “Blood vessel branching: beyond the standard calculus problem,” Math. Mag. 84(3), 196–207 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (7)

R. Klein, K. E. Lee, L. Danforth, M. Y. Tsai, R. E. Gangnon, S. E. Meuer, T. Y. Wong, C. Y. Cheung, and B. E. K. Klein, “The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Geometric Characteristics to the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 125(11), 1784–1792 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Lee, M. Lee, H. Chung, and H. C. Kim, “Quantification of retinal vessel tortuosity in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 38(5), 976–985 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, K. A. Rezaei, S. S. Saraf, Z. Chu, F. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 8(8), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of Automatically Quantified Foveal Avascular Zone Metrics for Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ashraf, P. L. Nesper, L. M. Jampol, F. Yu, and A. A. Fawzi, “Statistical Model of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters That Correlate With Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(10), 4292–4298 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (5)

M. Alam, D. Thapa, J. I. Lim, D. Cao, and X. Yao, “Quantitative characteristics of sickle cell retinopathy in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1741–1753 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Alam, D. Thapa, J. I. Lim, D. Cao, and X. Yao, “Computer-aided classification of sickle cell retinopathy using quantitative features in optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(9), 4206–4216 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Luo, T. J. Gast, T. J. Vermeer, and S. A. Burns, “Retinal Vascular Branching in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(5), 2685–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Lim, M. L. Chee, C. Y. Cheung, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vessel geometry and the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cheung, C. Sabanayagam, A. K. Law, N. Kumari, D. S. Ting, G. Tan, P. Mitchell, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular geometry and 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 60(9), 1770–1781 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

C. Y. Cheung, M. K. Ikram, R. Klein, and T. Y. Wong, “The clinical implications of recent studies on the structure and function of the retinal microvasculature in diabetes,” Diabetologia 58(5), 871–885 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

G. Leontidis, B. Al-Diri, and A. Hunter, “Diabetic retinopathy: current and future methods for early screening from a retinal hemodynamic and geometric approach,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 9(5), 431–442 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. I. Gramatikov, “Modern technologies for retinal scanning and imaging: an introduction for the biomedical engineer,” Biomed. Eng. Online 13(1), 52 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Habib, B. Al-Diri, A. Hunter, and D. H. Steel, “The association between retinal vascular geometry changes and diabetic retinopathy and their role in prediction of progression--an exploratory study,” BMC Ophthalmol. 14(1), 89 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Jones, T. Y. Wong, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal vascular caliber as a biomarker for diabetes microvascular complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

R. Crosby-Nwaobi, L. Z. Heng, and S. Sivaprasad, “Retinal vascular calibre, geometry and progression of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmologica 228(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. N. Ahmadabadi, F. S. Rooholamini, M. R. Esfahani, R. Karkhaneh, M. Nikdel, and E. N. Ahmadabadi, “Association of Retinal Vascular Diameter and Vascular Branching Angle with Diabetic Retinopathy Stage: A Cross-Sectional Study,” Iran. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 21 (2011).

M. S. Roy, R. Klein, and M. N. Janal, “Retinal venular diameter as an early indicator of progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy with and without high-risk characteristics in African Americans with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 129(1), 8–15 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Adam, “Blood vessel branching: beyond the standard calculus problem,” Math. Mag. 84(3), 196–207 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D.-Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Sasongko, J. J. Wang, K. C. Donaghue, N. Cheung, P. Benitez-Aguirre, A. Jenkins, W. Hsu, M.-L. Lee, and T. Y. Wong, “Alterations in retinal microvascular geometry in young type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 33(6), 1331–1336 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

T. T. Nguyen and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular changes and diabetic retinopathy,” Curr. Diab. Rep. 9(4), 277–283 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

N. Patton, A. Pattie, T. MacGillivray, T. Aslam, B. Dhillon, A. Gow, J. M. Starr, L. J. Whalley, and I. J. Deary, “The association between retinal vascular network geometry and cognitive ability in an elderly population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 1995–2000 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S.-C. Cheng and Y.-M. Huang, “A novel approach to diagnose diabetes based on the fractal characteristics of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 7(3), 163–170 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Avakian, R. E. Kalina, E. H. Sage, A. H. Rambhia, K. E. Elliott, E. L. Chuang, J. I. Clark, J.-N. Hwang, and P. Parsons-Wingerter, “Fractal analysis of region-based vascular change in the normal and non-proliferative diabetic retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 24(4), 274–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. E. Grunwald, J. DuPont, and C. E. Riva, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with early diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80(4), 327–331 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1926 (1)

C. D. Murray, “The physiological principle of minimum work: I. The vascular system and the cost of blood volume,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 12(3), 207–214 (1926).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adam, J. A.

J. A. Adam, “Blood vessel branching: beyond the standard calculus problem,” Math. Mag. 84(3), 196–207 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ahmadabadi, E. N.

M. N. Ahmadabadi, F. S. Rooholamini, M. R. Esfahani, R. Karkhaneh, M. Nikdel, and E. N. Ahmadabadi, “Association of Retinal Vascular Diameter and Vascular Branching Angle with Diabetic Retinopathy Stage: A Cross-Sectional Study,” Iran. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 21 (2011).

Ahmadabadi, M. N.

M. N. Ahmadabadi, F. S. Rooholamini, M. R. Esfahani, R. Karkhaneh, M. Nikdel, and E. N. Ahmadabadi, “Association of Retinal Vascular Diameter and Vascular Branching Angle with Diabetic Retinopathy Stage: A Cross-Sectional Study,” Iran. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 21 (2011).

Alam, M.

Al-Diri, B.

G. Leontidis, B. Al-Diri, and A. Hunter, “Diabetic retinopathy: current and future methods for early screening from a retinal hemodynamic and geometric approach,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 9(5), 431–442 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Habib, B. Al-Diri, A. Hunter, and D. H. Steel, “The association between retinal vascular geometry changes and diabetic retinopathy and their role in prediction of progression--an exploratory study,” BMC Ophthalmol. 14(1), 89 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashraf, M.

M. Ashraf, P. L. Nesper, L. M. Jampol, F. Yu, and A. A. Fawzi, “Statistical Model of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters That Correlate With Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(10), 4292–4298 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aslam, T.

N. Patton, A. Pattie, T. MacGillivray, T. Aslam, B. Dhillon, A. Gow, J. M. Starr, L. J. Whalley, and I. J. Deary, “The association between retinal vascular network geometry and cognitive ability in an elderly population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 1995–2000 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avakian, A.

A. Avakian, R. E. Kalina, E. H. Sage, A. H. Rambhia, K. E. Elliott, E. L. Chuang, J. I. Clark, J.-N. Hwang, and P. Parsons-Wingerter, “Fractal analysis of region-based vascular change in the normal and non-proliferative diabetic retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 24(4), 274–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balaratnasingam, C.

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D.-Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barker, D.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barry, C. J.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D.-Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bates, N. M.

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benitez-Aguirre, P.

M. B. Sasongko, J. J. Wang, K. C. Donaghue, N. Cheung, P. Benitez-Aguirre, A. Jenkins, W. Hsu, M.-L. Lee, and T. Y. Wong, “Alterations in retinal microvascular geometry in young type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 33(6), 1331–1336 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burns, S. A.

T. Luo, T. J. Gast, T. J. Vermeer, and S. A. Burns, “Retinal Vascular Branching in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(5), 2685–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cabrera DeBuc, D.

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, D.

Cerutti, A.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chae, B.

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan, R. V. P.

M. Alam, Y. Zhang, J. I. Lim, R. V. P. Chan, M. Yang, and X. Yao, “Quantitative OCT angiography features for objective classification and staging of diabetic retinopathy,” RETINA The Journal of Retinal and Vitreous Diseases. In press.

Chapman, N.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chee, M. L.

L. S. Lim, M. L. Chee, C. Y. Cheung, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vessel geometry and the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, C. Y.

C. Y. Cheung, C. Sabanayagam, A. K. Law, N. Kumari, D. S. Ting, G. Tan, P. Mitchell, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular geometry and 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 60(9), 1770–1781 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, S.-C.

S.-C. Cheng and Y.-M. Huang, “A novel approach to diagnose diabetes based on the fractal characteristics of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 7(3), 163–170 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, C. Y.

R. Klein, K. E. Lee, L. Danforth, M. Y. Tsai, R. E. Gangnon, S. E. Meuer, T. Y. Wong, C. Y. Cheung, and B. E. K. Klein, “The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Geometric Characteristics to the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 125(11), 1784–1792 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Lim, M. L. Chee, C. Y. Cheung, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vessel geometry and the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cheung, C. Sabanayagam, A. K. Law, N. Kumari, D. S. Ting, G. Tan, P. Mitchell, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular geometry and 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 60(9), 1770–1781 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cheung, M. K. Ikram, R. Klein, and T. Y. Wong, “The clinical implications of recent studies on the structure and function of the retinal microvasculature in diabetes,” Diabetologia 58(5), 871–885 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Jones, T. Y. Wong, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal vascular caliber as a biomarker for diabetes microvascular complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheung, N.

M. B. Sasongko, J. J. Wang, K. C. Donaghue, N. Cheung, P. Benitez-Aguirre, A. Jenkins, W. Hsu, M.-L. Lee, and T. Y. Wong, “Alterations in retinal microvascular geometry in young type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 33(6), 1331–1336 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Z.

Q. Zhang, K. A. Rezaei, S. S. Saraf, Z. Chu, F. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 8(8), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chuang, E. L.

A. Avakian, R. E. Kalina, E. H. Sage, A. H. Rambhia, K. E. Elliott, E. L. Chuang, J. I. Clark, J.-N. Hwang, and P. Parsons-Wingerter, “Fractal analysis of region-based vascular change in the normal and non-proliferative diabetic retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 24(4), 274–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, H.

H. Lee, M. Lee, H. Chung, and H. C. Kim, “Quantification of retinal vessel tortuosity in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 38(5), 976–985 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clark, J. I.

A. Avakian, R. E. Kalina, E. H. Sage, A. H. Rambhia, K. E. Elliott, E. L. Chuang, J. I. Clark, J.-N. Hwang, and P. Parsons-Wingerter, “Fractal analysis of region-based vascular change in the normal and non-proliferative diabetic retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 24(4), 274–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, C.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cringle, S. J.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D.-Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crosby-Nwaobi, R.

R. Crosby-Nwaobi, L. Z. Heng, and S. Sivaprasad, “Retinal vascular calibre, geometry and progression of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmologica 228(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Danforth, L.

R. Klein, K. E. Lee, L. Danforth, M. Y. Tsai, R. E. Gangnon, S. E. Meuer, T. Y. Wong, C. Y. Cheung, and B. E. K. Klein, “The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Geometric Characteristics to the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 125(11), 1784–1792 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dansingani, K.

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deary, I. J.

N. Patton, A. Pattie, T. MacGillivray, T. Aslam, B. Dhillon, A. Gow, J. M. Starr, L. J. Whalley, and I. J. Deary, “The association between retinal vascular network geometry and cognitive ability in an elderly population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 1995–2000 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dhillon, B.

N. Patton, A. Pattie, T. MacGillivray, T. Aslam, B. Dhillon, A. Gow, J. M. Starr, L. J. Whalley, and I. J. Deary, “The association between retinal vascular network geometry and cognitive ability in an elderly population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 1995–2000 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dolz-Marco, R.

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donaghue, K. C.

M. B. Sasongko, J. J. Wang, K. C. Donaghue, N. Cheung, P. Benitez-Aguirre, A. Jenkins, W. Hsu, M.-L. Lee, and T. Y. Wong, “Alterations in retinal microvascular geometry in young type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 33(6), 1331–1336 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

DuPont, J.

J. E. Grunwald, J. DuPont, and C. E. Riva, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with early diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80(4), 327–331 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elliott, K. E.

A. Avakian, R. E. Kalina, E. H. Sage, A. H. Rambhia, K. E. Elliott, E. L. Chuang, J. I. Clark, J.-N. Hwang, and P. Parsons-Wingerter, “Fractal analysis of region-based vascular change in the normal and non-proliferative diabetic retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 24(4), 274–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esfahani, M. R.

M. N. Ahmadabadi, F. S. Rooholamini, M. R. Esfahani, R. Karkhaneh, M. Nikdel, and E. N. Ahmadabadi, “Association of Retinal Vascular Diameter and Vascular Branching Angle with Diabetic Retinopathy Stage: A Cross-Sectional Study,” Iran. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 21 (2011).

Evans, J.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A. A.

M. Ashraf, P. L. Nesper, L. M. Jampol, F. Yu, and A. A. Fawzi, “Statistical Model of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters That Correlate With Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(10), 4292–4298 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feuer, W. J.

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Freund, K. B.

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gangnon, R. E.

R. Klein, K. E. Lee, L. Danforth, M. Y. Tsai, R. E. Gangnon, S. E. Meuer, T. Y. Wong, C. Y. Cheung, and B. E. K. Klein, “The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Geometric Characteristics to the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 125(11), 1784–1792 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gast, T. J.

T. Luo, T. J. Gast, T. J. Vermeer, and S. A. Burns, “Retinal Vascular Branching in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(5), 2685–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gilani, F.

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gow, A.

N. Patton, A. Pattie, T. MacGillivray, T. Aslam, B. Dhillon, A. Gow, J. M. Starr, L. J. Whalley, and I. J. Deary, “The association between retinal vascular network geometry and cognitive ability in an elderly population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 1995–2000 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gramatikov, B. I.

B. I. Gramatikov, “Modern technologies for retinal scanning and imaging: an introduction for the biomedical engineer,” Biomed. Eng. Online 13(1), 52 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregori, N. Z.

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grunwald, J. E.

J. E. Grunwald, J. DuPont, and C. E. Riva, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with early diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80(4), 327–331 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Habib, M. S.

M. S. Habib, B. Al-Diri, A. Hunter, and D. H. Steel, “The association between retinal vascular geometry changes and diabetic retinopathy and their role in prediction of progression--an exploratory study,” BMC Ophthalmol. 14(1), 89 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hagag, A. M.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of Automatically Quantified Foveal Avascular Zone Metrics for Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heng, L. Z.

R. Crosby-Nwaobi, L. Z. Heng, and S. Sivaprasad, “Retinal vascular calibre, geometry and progression of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmologica 228(2), 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, W.

M. B. Sasongko, J. J. Wang, K. C. Donaghue, N. Cheung, P. Benitez-Aguirre, A. Jenkins, W. Hsu, M.-L. Lee, and T. Y. Wong, “Alterations in retinal microvascular geometry in young type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 33(6), 1331–1336 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of Automatically Quantified Foveal Avascular Zone Metrics for Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.-M.

S.-C. Cheng and Y.-M. Huang, “A novel approach to diagnose diabetes based on the fractal characteristics of retinal images,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 7(3), 163–170 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hughes, A.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hunter, A.

G. Leontidis, B. Al-Diri, and A. Hunter, “Diabetic retinopathy: current and future methods for early screening from a retinal hemodynamic and geometric approach,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 9(5), 431–442 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. S. Habib, B. Al-Diri, A. Hunter, and D. H. Steel, “The association between retinal vascular geometry changes and diabetic retinopathy and their role in prediction of progression--an exploratory study,” BMC Ophthalmol. 14(1), 89 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, J.-N.

A. Avakian, R. E. Kalina, E. H. Sage, A. H. Rambhia, K. E. Elliott, E. L. Chuang, J. I. Clark, J.-N. Hwang, and P. Parsons-Wingerter, “Fractal analysis of region-based vascular change in the normal and non-proliferative diabetic retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 24(4), 274–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, T.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of Automatically Quantified Foveal Avascular Zone Metrics for Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikram, M. K.

C. Y. Cheung, M. K. Ikram, R. Klein, and T. Y. Wong, “The clinical implications of recent studies on the structure and function of the retinal microvasculature in diabetes,” Diabetologia 58(5), 871–885 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Jones, T. Y. Wong, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal vascular caliber as a biomarker for diabetes microvascular complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jampol, L. M.

M. Ashraf, P. L. Nesper, L. M. Jampol, F. Yu, and A. A. Fawzi, “Statistical Model of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters That Correlate With Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(10), 4292–4298 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janal, M. N.

M. S. Roy, R. Klein, and M. N. Janal, “Retinal venular diameter as an early indicator of progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy with and without high-risk characteristics in African Americans with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 129(1), 8–15 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jenkins, A.

M. B. Sasongko, J. J. Wang, K. C. Donaghue, N. Cheung, P. Benitez-Aguirre, A. Jenkins, W. Hsu, M.-L. Lee, and T. Y. Wong, “Alterations in retinal microvascular geometry in young type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 33(6), 1331–1336 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of Automatically Quantified Foveal Avascular Zone Metrics for Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jones, T. L.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Jones, T. Y. Wong, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal vascular caliber as a biomarker for diabetes microvascular complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalina, R. E.

A. Avakian, R. E. Kalina, E. H. Sage, A. H. Rambhia, K. E. Elliott, E. L. Chuang, J. I. Clark, J.-N. Hwang, and P. Parsons-Wingerter, “Fractal analysis of region-based vascular change in the normal and non-proliferative diabetic retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 24(4), 274–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karkhaneh, R.

M. N. Ahmadabadi, F. S. Rooholamini, M. R. Esfahani, R. Karkhaneh, M. Nikdel, and E. N. Ahmadabadi, “Association of Retinal Vascular Diameter and Vascular Branching Angle with Diabetic Retinopathy Stage: A Cross-Sectional Study,” Iran. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 21 (2011).

Kim, H. C.

H. Lee, M. Lee, H. Chung, and H. C. Kim, “Quantification of retinal vessel tortuosity in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 38(5), 976–985 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, B. E. K.

R. Klein, K. E. Lee, L. Danforth, M. Y. Tsai, R. E. Gangnon, S. E. Meuer, T. Y. Wong, C. Y. Cheung, and B. E. K. Klein, “The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Geometric Characteristics to the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 125(11), 1784–1792 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, R.

R. Klein, K. E. Lee, L. Danforth, M. Y. Tsai, R. E. Gangnon, S. E. Meuer, T. Y. Wong, C. Y. Cheung, and B. E. K. Klein, “The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Geometric Characteristics to the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 125(11), 1784–1792 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cheung, M. K. Ikram, R. Klein, and T. Y. Wong, “The clinical implications of recent studies on the structure and function of the retinal microvasculature in diabetes,” Diabetologia 58(5), 871–885 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Jones, T. Y. Wong, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal vascular caliber as a biomarker for diabetes microvascular complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Roy, R. Klein, and M. N. Janal, “Retinal venular diameter as an early indicator of progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy with and without high-risk characteristics in African Americans with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 129(1), 8–15 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klifto, M. R.

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kostic, M.

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumari, N.

C. Y. Cheung, C. Sabanayagam, A. K. Law, N. Kumari, D. S. Ting, G. Tan, P. Mitchell, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular geometry and 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 60(9), 1770–1781 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuriyan, A. E.

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Law, A. K.

C. Y. Cheung, C. Sabanayagam, A. K. Law, N. Kumari, D. S. Ting, G. Tan, P. Mitchell, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular geometry and 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 60(9), 1770–1781 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

H. Lee, M. Lee, H. Chung, and H. C. Kim, “Quantification of retinal vessel tortuosity in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 38(5), 976–985 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. E.

R. Klein, K. E. Lee, L. Danforth, M. Y. Tsai, R. E. Gangnon, S. E. Meuer, T. Y. Wong, C. Y. Cheung, and B. E. K. Klein, “The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Geometric Characteristics to the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 125(11), 1784–1792 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

H. Lee, M. Lee, H. Chung, and H. C. Kim, “Quantification of retinal vessel tortuosity in diabetic retinopathy using optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 38(5), 976–985 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, M.-L.

M. B. Sasongko, J. J. Wang, K. C. Donaghue, N. Cheung, P. Benitez-Aguirre, A. Jenkins, W. Hsu, M.-L. Lee, and T. Y. Wong, “Alterations in retinal microvascular geometry in young type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 33(6), 1331–1336 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W.-H.

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
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Leontidis, G.

G. Leontidis, B. Al-Diri, and A. Hunter, “Diabetic retinopathy: current and future methods for early screening from a retinal hemodynamic and geometric approach,” Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 9(5), 431–442 (2014).
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Li, D.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of Automatically Quantified Foveal Avascular Zone Metrics for Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, J. I.

Lim, L. S.

L. S. Lim, M. L. Chee, C. Y. Cheung, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vessel geometry and the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorenzi, M.

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Jones, T. Y. Wong, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal vascular caliber as a biomarker for diabetes microvascular complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of Automatically Quantified Foveal Avascular Zone Metrics for Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, T.

T. Luo, T. J. Gast, T. J. Vermeer, and S. A. Burns, “Retinal Vascular Branching in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(5), 2685–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, B.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

MacGillivray, T.

N. Patton, A. Pattie, T. MacGillivray, T. Aslam, B. Dhillon, A. Gow, J. M. Starr, L. J. Whalley, and I. J. Deary, “The association between retinal vascular network geometry and cognitive ability in an elderly population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 1995–2000 (2007).
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McAllister, I. L.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D.-Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
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Mehta, N.

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
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Mendis, K. R.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D.-Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
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Meuer, S. E.

R. Klein, K. E. Lee, L. Danforth, M. Y. Tsai, R. E. Gangnon, S. E. Meuer, T. Y. Wong, C. Y. Cheung, and B. E. K. Klein, “The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Geometric Characteristics to the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 125(11), 1784–1792 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitchell, P.

C. Y. Cheung, C. Sabanayagam, A. K. Law, N. Kumari, D. S. Ting, G. Tan, P. Mitchell, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular geometry and 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 60(9), 1770–1781 (2017).
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Mohamudally, A.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
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Murray, C. D.

C. D. Murray, “The physiological principle of minimum work: I. The vascular system and the cost of blood volume,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 12(3), 207–214 (1926).
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Nesper, P. L.

M. Ashraf, P. L. Nesper, L. M. Jampol, F. Yu, and A. A. Fawzi, “Statistical Model of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters That Correlate With Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(10), 4292–4298 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. T.

T. T. Nguyen and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular changes and diabetic retinopathy,” Curr. Diab. Rep. 9(4), 277–283 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nikdel, M.

M. N. Ahmadabadi, F. S. Rooholamini, M. R. Esfahani, R. Karkhaneh, M. Nikdel, and E. N. Ahmadabadi, “Association of Retinal Vascular Diameter and Vascular Branching Angle with Diabetic Retinopathy Stage: A Cross-Sectional Study,” Iran. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 21 (2011).

Parsons-Wingerter, P.

A. Avakian, R. E. Kalina, E. H. Sage, A. H. Rambhia, K. E. Elliott, E. L. Chuang, J. I. Clark, J.-N. Hwang, and P. Parsons-Wingerter, “Fractal analysis of region-based vascular change in the normal and non-proliferative diabetic retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 24(4), 274–280 (2002).
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Pattie, A.

N. Patton, A. Pattie, T. MacGillivray, T. Aslam, B. Dhillon, A. Gow, J. M. Starr, L. J. Whalley, and I. J. Deary, “The association between retinal vascular network geometry and cognitive ability in an elderly population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 1995–2000 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patton, N.

N. Patton, A. Pattie, T. MacGillivray, T. Aslam, B. Dhillon, A. Gow, J. M. Starr, L. J. Whalley, and I. J. Deary, “The association between retinal vascular network geometry and cognitive ability in an elderly population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 1995–2000 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pineda, S.

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, Y.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rambhia, A. H.

A. Avakian, R. E. Kalina, E. H. Sage, A. H. Rambhia, K. E. Elliott, E. L. Chuang, J. I. Clark, J.-N. Hwang, and P. Parsons-Wingerter, “Fractal analysis of region-based vascular change in the normal and non-proliferative diabetic retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 24(4), 274–280 (2002).
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Rauf, A.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
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Rezaei, K. A.

Q. Zhang, K. A. Rezaei, S. S. Saraf, Z. Chu, F. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 8(8), 743–753 (2018).
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Riva, C. E.

J. E. Grunwald, J. DuPont, and C. E. Riva, “Retinal haemodynamics in patients with early diabetes mellitus,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 80(4), 327–331 (1996).
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Rooholamini, F. S.

M. N. Ahmadabadi, F. S. Rooholamini, M. R. Esfahani, R. Karkhaneh, M. Nikdel, and E. N. Ahmadabadi, “Association of Retinal Vascular Diameter and Vascular Branching Angle with Diabetic Retinopathy Stage: A Cross-Sectional Study,” Iran. J. Ophthalmol. 23, 21 (2011).

Roy, M. S.

M. S. Roy, R. Klein, and M. N. Janal, “Retinal venular diameter as an early indicator of progression to proliferative diabetic retinopathy with and without high-risk characteristics in African Americans with type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 129(1), 8–15 (2011).
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Sabanayagam, C.

C. Y. Cheung, C. Sabanayagam, A. K. Law, N. Kumari, D. S. Ting, G. Tan, P. Mitchell, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular geometry and 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 60(9), 1770–1781 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sage, E. H.

A. Avakian, R. E. Kalina, E. H. Sage, A. H. Rambhia, K. E. Elliott, E. L. Chuang, J. I. Clark, J.-N. Hwang, and P. Parsons-Wingerter, “Fractal analysis of region-based vascular change in the normal and non-proliferative diabetic retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 24(4), 274–280 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saraf, S. S.

Q. Zhang, K. A. Rezaei, S. S. Saraf, Z. Chu, F. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 8(8), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sasongko, M. B.

M. B. Sasongko, J. J. Wang, K. C. Donaghue, N. Cheung, P. Benitez-Aguirre, A. Jenkins, W. Hsu, M.-L. Lee, and T. Y. Wong, “Alterations in retinal microvascular geometry in young type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 33(6), 1331–1336 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sayer, A. A.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sever, P.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiffman, J. C.

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simonett, J. M.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of Automatically Quantified Foveal Avascular Zone Metrics for Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivaprasad, S.

R. Crosby-Nwaobi, L. Z. Heng, and S. Sivaprasad, “Retinal vascular calibre, geometry and progression of diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Ophthalmologica 228(2), 84–92 (2012).
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Smiddy, W. E.

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Somfai, G. M.

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanton, A.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starr, J. M.

N. Patton, A. Pattie, T. MacGillivray, T. Aslam, B. Dhillon, A. Gow, J. M. Starr, L. J. Whalley, and I. J. Deary, “The association between retinal vascular network geometry and cognitive ability in an elderly population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 1995–2000 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steel, D. H.

M. S. Habib, B. Al-Diri, A. Hunter, and D. H. Steel, “The association between retinal vascular geometry changes and diabetic retinopathy and their role in prediction of progression--an exploratory study,” BMC Ophthalmol. 14(1), 89 (2014).
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Tan, G.

C. Y. Cheung, C. Sabanayagam, A. K. Law, N. Kumari, D. S. Ting, G. Tan, P. Mitchell, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular geometry and 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 60(9), 1770–1781 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thapa, D.

Thom, S.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

N. M. Bates, J. Tian, W. E. Smiddy, W.-H. Lee, G. M. Somfai, W. J. Feuer, J. C. Shiffman, A. E. Kuriyan, N. Z. Gregori, M. Kostic, S. Pineda, and D. Cabrera DeBuc, “Relationship between the morphology of the foveal avascular zone, retinal structure, and macular circulation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 5355 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ting, D. S.

C. Y. Cheung, C. Sabanayagam, A. K. Law, N. Kumari, D. S. Ting, G. Tan, P. Mitchell, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular geometry and 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 60(9), 1770–1781 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. Y.

R. Klein, K. E. Lee, L. Danforth, M. Y. Tsai, R. E. Gangnon, S. E. Meuer, T. Y. Wong, C. Y. Cheung, and B. E. K. Klein, “The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Geometric Characteristics to the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 125(11), 1784–1792 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vermeer, T. J.

T. Luo, T. J. Gast, T. J. Vermeer, and S. A. Burns, “Retinal Vascular Branching in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(5), 2685–2694 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

Q. Zhang, K. A. Rezaei, S. S. Saraf, Z. Chu, F. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 8(8), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of Automatically Quantified Foveal Avascular Zone Metrics for Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J. J.

M. B. Sasongko, J. J. Wang, K. C. Donaghue, N. Cheung, P. Benitez-Aguirre, A. Jenkins, W. Hsu, M.-L. Lee, and T. Y. Wong, “Alterations in retinal microvascular geometry in young type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 33(6), 1331–1336 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Q. Zhang, K. A. Rezaei, S. S. Saraf, Z. Chu, F. Wang, and R. K. Wang, “Ultra-wide optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy,” Quant. Imaging Med. Surg. 8(8), 743–753 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whalley, L. J.

N. Patton, A. Pattie, T. MacGillivray, T. Aslam, B. Dhillon, A. Gow, J. M. Starr, L. J. Whalley, and I. J. Deary, “The association between retinal vascular network geometry and cognitive ability in an elderly population,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 1995–2000 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, T. Y.

R. Klein, K. E. Lee, L. Danforth, M. Y. Tsai, R. E. Gangnon, S. E. Meuer, T. Y. Wong, C. Y. Cheung, and B. E. K. Klein, “The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Geometric Characteristics to the Incidence and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Ophthalmology 125(11), 1784–1792 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cheung, C. Sabanayagam, A. K. Law, N. Kumari, D. S. Ting, G. Tan, P. Mitchell, C. Y. Cheng, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular geometry and 6 year incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetologia 60(9), 1770–1781 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. S. Lim, M. L. Chee, C. Y. Cheung, and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vessel geometry and the incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(6), BIO200 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Cheung, M. K. Ikram, R. Klein, and T. Y. Wong, “The clinical implications of recent studies on the structure and function of the retinal microvasculature in diabetes,” Diabetologia 58(5), 871–885 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. K. Ikram, C. Y. Cheung, M. Lorenzi, R. Klein, T. L. Jones, T. Y. Wong, and NIH/JDRF Workshop on Retinal Biomarker for Diabetes Group, “Retinal vascular caliber as a biomarker for diabetes microvascular complications,” Diabetes Care 36(3), 750–759 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. B. Sasongko, J. J. Wang, K. C. Donaghue, N. Cheung, P. Benitez-Aguirre, A. Jenkins, W. Hsu, M.-L. Lee, and T. Y. Wong, “Alterations in retinal microvascular geometry in young type 1 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 33(6), 1331–1336 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. T. Nguyen and T. Y. Wong, “Retinal vascular changes and diabetic retinopathy,” Curr. Diab. Rep. 9(4), 277–283 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wormald, R.

N. Chapman, A. Mohamudally, A. Cerutti, A. Stanton, A. A. Sayer, C. Cooper, D. Barker, A. Rauf, J. Evans, R. Wormald, P. Sever, A. Hughes, and S. Thom, “Retinal vascular network architecture in low-birth-weight men,” J. Hypertens. 15(12 Pt 1), 1449–1453 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

J. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, B. Ma, Y. Qian, Z. Zhang, D. Zhu, Z. Wang, and X. Xu, “Analysis of changes in retinal thickness in type 2 diabetes without diabetic retinopathy,” J. Diabetes Res. 2018, 3082893 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, M.

M. Alam, Y. Zhang, J. I. Lim, R. V. P. Chan, M. Yang, and X. Yao, “Quantitative OCT angiography features for objective classification and staging of diabetic retinopathy,” RETINA The Journal of Retinal and Vitreous Diseases. In press.

Yannuzzi, L. A.

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yao, X.

Young, E.

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, J. A.

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, D.-Y.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D.-Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, F.

M. Ashraf, P. L. Nesper, L. M. Jampol, F. Yu, and A. A. Fawzi, “Statistical Model of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters That Correlate With Severity of Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(10), 4292–4298 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, P.

K. R. Mendis, C. Balaratnasingam, P. Yu, C. J. Barry, I. L. McAllister, S. J. Cringle, and D.-Y. Yu, “Correlation of histologic and clinical images to determine the diagnostic value of fluorescein angiography for studying retinal capillary detail,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 51(11), 5864–5869 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zahid, S.

S. Zahid, R. Dolz-Marco, K. B. Freund, C. Balaratnasingam, K. Dansingani, F. Gilani, N. Mehta, E. Young, M. R. Klifto, B. Chae, L. A. Yannuzzi, and J. A. Young, “Fractal Dimensional Analysis of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Diabetic Retinopathy,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(11), 4940–4947 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

Y. Lu, J. M. Simonett, J. Wang, M. Zhang, T. Hwang, A. M. Hagag, D. Huang, D. Li, and Y. Jia, “Evaluation of Automatically Quantified Foveal Avascular Zone Metrics for Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 59(6), 2212–2221 (2018).
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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Core steps of geometric feature analysis, (b) geometric feature measurement algorithm to quantify the features for n number of branchpoints, where the thick boxes represent outputs of the algorithm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (A) Illustration of preprocessing steps. (A1) Input OCTA image, (A2) Frangi 2D filtered image, (A3) binarized image, (A4) processed vessel map, and (A5) skeleton map. (B) The feature localization step for an example branchpoint. (B1) Processed vessel map, (B2) a composite image containing the vessel skeleton, where the green pixel represents the branchpoint, red pixels represent the end points, the blue pixels represent our vessels of interest, and the yellow circle represents the dilated area. (B3) A composite image of the branchpoint (green) and endpoint (red), where the yellow square represents the window area. (C). Illustration of branch angle measurement. Angles A and B in the C1 are complementary angles used to calculate θ, α1, and α2 in the C2. (D). Illustration of window method used to calculate vessel width of one representative vessel branch. (D1) A yellow window is centered around an endpoint (the red pixel). The coordinates of the yellow window in (D1) are used to measure the pixels in the processed vessel map (D2), and the skeleton map (D3).

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Quantitative Geometric Features

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Table 2 Demographics of control and DR subjects

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Table 3 Statistics of geometric features in control and DR groups

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Table 4 Results of student t-tests for individual group significance comparisons for branching angle, due to the significance of the ANOVA test.

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Table 5 Results of student t-tests for individual group significance comparisons for child branching angle 1, due to the significance of the ANOVA test.

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Table 6 Results of student t-tests for individual group significance comparisons for vessel branching coefficient, due to the significance of the ANOVA test.

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Table 7 Results of student t-tests for individual group significance comparisons for vessel width ratio 1, due to the significance of the ANOVA test.

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