Abstract

We present a new autofluorescence-imaging method for bone analysis. This method, based on the autofluorescence of bone, provides color images in microscopic scale. The color images are created from three monochrome images acquired with optimal excitation- and emission-wavelengths combinations. The choice of these combinations were determined from the study of two-dimensional distributions of bone-features-bispectral autofluorescence in the visible- and ultraviolet-spectral range. We demonstrate that main-bone features visualized with MG-staining method can also be visualized in the autofluorescence-color image. Furthermore, the autofluorescence-color image presents features hardly distinguished in a histological-bone section.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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  3. A. Unnanuntana, B. J. Rebolledo, M. M. Khair, E. F. DiCarlo, and J. M. Lane, “Diseases affecting bone quality: beyond osteoporosis,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2194–2206 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Ihde, S. Kopp, K. Gundlach, and V. Konstantinović, “Effects of radiation therapy on craniofacial and dental implants: a review of the literature,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 107, 56–65 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  5. D. Chappard, M.-F. Baslé, E. Legrand, and M. Audran, “New laboratory tools in the assessment of bone quality,” Osteoporosis International 22, 2225–2240 (2011).
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  6. A. Dhainaut, M. Hoff, U. Syversen, and G. Haugeberg, “Technologies for assessment of bone reflecting bone strength and bone mineral density in elderly women: an update,” Women’s Health 12, 209–216 (2016).
  7. T. Link, S. Majumdar, S. Grampp, G. Guglielmi, C. Van Kuijk, H. Imhof, C. Glueer, and J. Adams, “Imaging of trabecular bone structure in osteoporosis,” European radiology 9, 1781–1788 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. W. T. Trouerbach, J. L. Grashuis, A. W. Zwamborn, E. C. Clermonts, and H. J. Schouten, “Microdensitometric analysis of bone structures in x-ray images,” Skeletal radiology 16, 190–195 (1987).
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  9. P. Guggenbuhl, F. Bodic, L. Hamel, M. Baslé, and D. Chappard, “Texture analysis of x-ray radiographs of iliac bone is correlated with bone micro-ct,” Osteoporosis international 17, 447–454 (2006).
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  11. E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Bone fragility and collagen cross-links,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 19, 2000–2004 (2004).
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  12. J. A. Inzana, J. R. Maher, M. Takahata, E. M. Schwarz, A. J. Berger, and H. A. Awad, “Bone fragility beyond strength and mineral density: Raman spectroscopy predicts femoral fracture toughness in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis,” Journal of biomechanics 46, 723–730 (2013).
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  13. A. L. Boskey, E. Donnelly, E. Boskey, L. Spevak, Y. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Lappe, and R. R. Recker, “Examining the relationships between bone tissue composition, compositional heterogeneity, and fragility fracture: A matched case-controlled FTIRI study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 31, 1070–1081 (2016).
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  14. S. Gamsjaeger, R. Mendelsohn, A. Boskey, S. Gourion-Arsiquaud, K. Klaushofer, and E. Paschalis, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging for the evaluation of matrix and mineral chemistry,” Current osteoporosis reports 12, 454–464 (2014).
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  19. M. Veta, J. P. Pluim, P. J. Van Diest, and M. A. Viergever, “Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: A review,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 61, 1400–1411 (2014).
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  20. A. R. Villanueva and K. D. Lundin, “A versatile new mineralized bone stain for simultaneous assessment of tetracycline and osteoid seams,” Stain technology 64, 129–138 (1989).
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  21. C. Rentsch, W. Schneiders, S. Manthey, B. Rentsch, and S. Rammelt, “Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants,” Biomatter 4, e27993 (2014).
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  22. S. M. van Gaalen, M. C. Kruyt, R. E. Geuze, J. D. de Bruijn, J. Alblas, and W. J. Dhert, “Use of fluorochrome labels in in vivo bone tissue engineering research,” Tissue engineering Part B: Reviews 16, 209–217 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. Yang, C. M. Davies, C. W. Archer, and R. G. Richards, “Immunohistochemistry of matrix markers in technovit 9100 new-embedded undecalcified bone sections,” Eur Cell Mater 6, 57–71 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  24. A. Boskey and N. P. Camacho, “FT-IR imaging of native and tissue-engineered bone and cartilage,” Biomaterials 28, 2465–2478 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. E. P. Paschalis, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Infrared assessment of bone quality: a review,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2170–2178 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. D. Morris and G. S. Mandair, “Raman assessment of bone quality,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2160–2169 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. Prentice, “Autofluorescence of bone tissues,” Journal of clinical pathology 20, 717–719 (1967).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. Z. K. Drzazga, A. Kluczewska-Gałka, A. Michnik, M. Kaszuba, and H. Trzeciak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as tool for bone development monitoring in newborn rats,” Journal of fluorescence 21, 851–857 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  29. P. Kumar, S. Rao, S. D. Kamath, V. Prabhu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. Mahato, “Autofluorescence of osteoporotic mouse femur bones: a pilot study,” Photomedicine and laser surgery 29, 227–232 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  30. F. Jamme, S. Kascakova, S. Villette, F. Allouche, S. Pallu, V. Rouam, and M. Refregiers, “Deep uv autofluorescence microscopy for cell biology and tissue histology,” Biology of the Cell 105, 277–288 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. G. P. Pilolli, A. Lucchese, E. Maiorano, and G. Favia, “New approach for static bone histomorphometry: confocal laser scanning microscopy of maxillo-facial normal bone,” Ultrastructural pathology 32, 189–192 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. C. Maggiano, T. Dupras, M. Schultz, and J. Biggerstaff, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy: a flexible tool for simultaneous polarization and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging of archaeological compact bone,” Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 2392–2401 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  33. G. Zhang, D. J. Moore, C. R. Flach, and R. Mendelsohn, “Vibrational microscopy and imaging of skin: from single cells to intact tissue,” Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 387, 1591–1599 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  34. A. Papour, J. H. Kwak, Z. Taylor, B. Wu, O. Stafsudd, and W. Grundfest, “Wide-field raman imaging for bone detection in tissue,” Biomedical optics express 6, 3892–3897 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. L. Capasso, R. D’Anastasio, S. Guarnieri, J. Viciano, and M. Mariggiò, “Bone natural autofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Preliminary results of a novel useful tool to distinguish between forensic and ancient human skeletal remains,” Forensic Science International 272, 87–96 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. O. Ristow and C. Pautke, “Auto-fluorescence of the bone and its use for delineation of bone necrosis,” International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery 43, 1391–1393 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. H. E. Gruber, “Adaptations of goldner’s masson trichrome stain for the study of undecalcified plastic embedded bone,” Biotechnic & histochemistry 67, 30–34 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  38. F. Timischl, “The contrast-to-noise ratio for image quality evaluation in scanning electron microscopy,” Scanning 37, 54–62 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  39. R. Genthial, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, F. Peyrin, D. Farlay, C. Olivier, Y. Bala, G. Boivin, J.-C. Vial, D. Débarre, and et al., “Label-free imaging of bone multiscale porosity and interfaces using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 3419 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  40. E. Peli, “Contrast in complex images,” JOSA A 7, 2032–2040 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  41. J. Sodek, B. Ganss, and M. McKee, “Osteopontin,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine 11, 279–303 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  42. J. G. Skedros, J. L. Holmes, E. G. Vajda, and R. D. Bloebaum, “Cement lines of secondary osteons in human bone are not mineral-deficient: New data in a historical perspective,” The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 286, 781–803 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  43. R. T. Ingram, B. L. Clarke, L. W. Fisher, and L. A. Fitzpatrick, “Distribution of noncollagenous proteins in the matrix of adult human bone: evidence of anatomic and functional heterogeneity,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 8, 1019–1029 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. A. Croce and G. Bottiroli, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging: a tool for biomedical research and diagnosis,” European journal of histochemistry: EJH 58, 2461 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  45. M. Fenner, J. Park, N. Schulz, K. Amann, G. G. Grabenbauer, A. Fahrig, J. Karg, J. Wiltfang, F. W. Neukam, and E. Nkenke, “Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. an experimental animal model,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 47–53 (2010).
    [Crossref]

2017 (2)

L. Capasso, R. D’Anastasio, S. Guarnieri, J. Viciano, and M. Mariggiò, “Bone natural autofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Preliminary results of a novel useful tool to distinguish between forensic and ancient human skeletal remains,” Forensic Science International 272, 87–96 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Genthial, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, F. Peyrin, D. Farlay, C. Olivier, Y. Bala, G. Boivin, J.-C. Vial, D. Débarre, and et al., “Label-free imaging of bone multiscale porosity and interfaces using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 3419 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

A. Dhainaut, M. Hoff, U. Syversen, and G. Haugeberg, “Technologies for assessment of bone reflecting bone strength and bone mineral density in elderly women: an update,” Women’s Health 12, 209–216 (2016).

A. L. Boskey, E. Donnelly, E. Boskey, L. Spevak, Y. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Lappe, and R. R. Recker, “Examining the relationships between bone tissue composition, compositional heterogeneity, and fragility fracture: A matched case-controlled FTIRI study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 31, 1070–1081 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

A. Papour, J. H. Kwak, Z. Taylor, B. Wu, O. Stafsudd, and W. Grundfest, “Wide-field raman imaging for bone detection in tissue,” Biomedical optics express 6, 3892–3897 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Timischl, “The contrast-to-noise ratio for image quality evaluation in scanning electron microscopy,” Scanning 37, 54–62 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

A. Croce and G. Bottiroli, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging: a tool for biomedical research and diagnosis,” European journal of histochemistry: EJH 58, 2461 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Ristow and C. Pautke, “Auto-fluorescence of the bone and its use for delineation of bone necrosis,” International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery 43, 1391–1393 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Rentsch, W. Schneiders, S. Manthey, B. Rentsch, and S. Rammelt, “Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants,” Biomatter 4, e27993 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gamsjaeger, R. Mendelsohn, A. Boskey, S. Gourion-Arsiquaud, K. Klaushofer, and E. Paschalis, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging for the evaluation of matrix and mineral chemistry,” Current osteoporosis reports 12, 454–464 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Veta, J. P. Pluim, P. J. Van Diest, and M. A. Viergever, “Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: A review,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 61, 1400–1411 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

J. A. Inzana, J. R. Maher, M. Takahata, E. M. Schwarz, A. J. Berger, and H. A. Awad, “Bone fragility beyond strength and mineral density: Raman spectroscopy predicts femoral fracture toughness in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis,” Journal of biomechanics 46, 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. W. Dempster, J. E. Compston, M. K. Drezner, F. H. Glorieux, J. A. Kanis, H. Malluche, P. J. Meunier, S. M. Ott, R. R. Recker, and A. M. Parfitt, “Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the asbmr histomorphometry nomenclature committee,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 28, 2–17 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Jamme, S. Kascakova, S. Villette, F. Allouche, S. Pallu, V. Rouam, and M. Refregiers, “Deep uv autofluorescence microscopy for cell biology and tissue histology,” Biology of the Cell 105, 277–288 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

Z. K. Drzazga, A. Kluczewska-Gałka, A. Michnik, M. Kaszuba, and H. Trzeciak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as tool for bone development monitoring in newborn rats,” Journal of fluorescence 21, 851–857 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Kumar, S. Rao, S. D. Kamath, V. Prabhu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. Mahato, “Autofluorescence of osteoporotic mouse femur bones: a pilot study,” Photomedicine and laser surgery 29, 227–232 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. P. Paschalis, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Infrared assessment of bone quality: a review,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2170–2178 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. D. Morris and G. S. Mandair, “Raman assessment of bone quality,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2160–2169 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Chappard, M.-F. Baslé, E. Legrand, and M. Audran, “New laboratory tools in the assessment of bone quality,” Osteoporosis International 22, 2225–2240 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Unnanuntana, B. J. Rebolledo, M. M. Khair, E. F. DiCarlo, and J. M. Lane, “Diseases affecting bone quality: beyond osteoporosis,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2194–2206 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. M. van Gaalen, M. C. Kruyt, R. E. Geuze, J. D. de Bruijn, J. Alblas, and W. J. Dhert, “Use of fluorochrome labels in in vivo bone tissue engineering research,” Tissue engineering Part B: Reviews 16, 209–217 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Fenner, J. Park, N. Schulz, K. Amann, G. G. Grabenbauer, A. Fahrig, J. Karg, J. Wiltfang, F. W. Neukam, and E. Nkenke, “Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. an experimental animal model,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 47–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

C. Maggiano, T. Dupras, M. Schultz, and J. Biggerstaff, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy: a flexible tool for simultaneous polarization and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging of archaeological compact bone,” Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 2392–2401 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Ihde, S. Kopp, K. Gundlach, and V. Konstantinović, “Effects of radiation therapy on craniofacial and dental implants: a review of the literature,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 107, 56–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

G. P. Pilolli, A. Lucchese, E. Maiorano, and G. Favia, “New approach for static bone histomorphometry: confocal laser scanning microscopy of maxillo-facial normal bone,” Ultrastructural pathology 32, 189–192 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

G. Zhang, D. J. Moore, C. R. Flach, and R. Mendelsohn, “Vibrational microscopy and imaging of skin: from single cells to intact tissue,” Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 387, 1591–1599 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Boskey and N. P. Camacho, “FT-IR imaging of native and tissue-engineered bone and cartilage,” Biomaterials 28, 2465–2478 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

P. Guggenbuhl, F. Bodic, L. Hamel, M. Baslé, and D. Chappard, “Texture analysis of x-ray radiographs of iliac bone is correlated with bone micro-ct,” Osteoporosis international 17, 447–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Augat and S. Schorlemmer, “The role of cortical bone and its microstructure in bone strength,” Age and ageing 35, ii27–ii31 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. G. Skedros, J. L. Holmes, E. G. Vajda, and R. D. Bloebaum, “Cement lines of secondary osteons in human bone are not mineral-deficient: New data in a historical perspective,” The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 286, 781–803 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Bone fragility and collagen cross-links,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 19, 2000–2004 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. L. Bouxsein, “Bone quality: where do we go from here?” Osteoporosis international 14, 118–127 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. Yang, C. M. Davies, C. W. Archer, and R. G. Richards, “Immunohistochemistry of matrix markers in technovit 9100 new-embedded undecalcified bone sections,” Eur Cell Mater 6, 57–71 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. Sodek, B. Ganss, and M. McKee, “Osteopontin,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine 11, 279–303 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

T. Link, S. Majumdar, S. Grampp, G. Guglielmi, C. Van Kuijk, H. Imhof, C. Glueer, and J. Adams, “Imaging of trabecular bone structure in osteoporosis,” European radiology 9, 1781–1788 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Weiner and H. D. Wagner, “The material bone: structure-mechanical function relations,” Annual Review of Materials Science 28, 271–298 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

R. T. Ingram, B. L. Clarke, L. W. Fisher, and L. A. Fitzpatrick, “Distribution of noncollagenous proteins in the matrix of adult human bone: evidence of anatomic and functional heterogeneity,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 8, 1019–1029 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

H. E. Gruber, “Adaptations of goldner’s masson trichrome stain for the study of undecalcified plastic embedded bone,” Biotechnic & histochemistry 67, 30–34 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

E. Peli, “Contrast in complex images,” JOSA A 7, 2032–2040 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

A. R. Villanueva and K. D. Lundin, “A versatile new mineralized bone stain for simultaneous assessment of tetracycline and osteoid seams,” Stain technology 64, 129–138 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

W. T. Trouerbach, J. L. Grashuis, A. W. Zwamborn, E. C. Clermonts, and H. J. Schouten, “Microdensitometric analysis of bone structures in x-ray images,” Skeletal radiology 16, 190–195 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

L. L. Furstman, “Effect of radiation on bone,” Journal of dental research 51, 596–604 (1972).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1967 (1)

A. Prentice, “Autofluorescence of bone tissues,” Journal of clinical pathology 20, 717–719 (1967).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, J.

T. Link, S. Majumdar, S. Grampp, G. Guglielmi, C. Van Kuijk, H. Imhof, C. Glueer, and J. Adams, “Imaging of trabecular bone structure in osteoporosis,” European radiology 9, 1781–1788 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, C.-P.

C.-P. Adler, Bone diseases: macroscopic, histological, and radiological diagnosis of structural changes in the skeleton (Springer Science & Business Media, 2013).

Alblas, J.

S. M. van Gaalen, M. C. Kruyt, R. E. Geuze, J. D. de Bruijn, J. Alblas, and W. J. Dhert, “Use of fluorochrome labels in in vivo bone tissue engineering research,” Tissue engineering Part B: Reviews 16, 209–217 (2010).
[Crossref]

Allouche, F.

F. Jamme, S. Kascakova, S. Villette, F. Allouche, S. Pallu, V. Rouam, and M. Refregiers, “Deep uv autofluorescence microscopy for cell biology and tissue histology,” Biology of the Cell 105, 277–288 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amann, K.

M. Fenner, J. Park, N. Schulz, K. Amann, G. G. Grabenbauer, A. Fahrig, J. Karg, J. Wiltfang, F. W. Neukam, and E. Nkenke, “Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. an experimental animal model,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 47–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Archer, C. W.

R. Yang, C. M. Davies, C. W. Archer, and R. G. Richards, “Immunohistochemistry of matrix markers in technovit 9100 new-embedded undecalcified bone sections,” Eur Cell Mater 6, 57–71 (2003).
[Crossref]

Audran, M.

D. Chappard, M.-F. Baslé, E. Legrand, and M. Audran, “New laboratory tools in the assessment of bone quality,” Osteoporosis International 22, 2225–2240 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Augat, P.

P. Augat and S. Schorlemmer, “The role of cortical bone and its microstructure in bone strength,” Age and ageing 35, ii27–ii31 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Awad, H. A.

J. A. Inzana, J. R. Maher, M. Takahata, E. M. Schwarz, A. J. Berger, and H. A. Awad, “Bone fragility beyond strength and mineral density: Raman spectroscopy predicts femoral fracture toughness in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis,” Journal of biomechanics 46, 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bala, Y.

R. Genthial, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, F. Peyrin, D. Farlay, C. Olivier, Y. Bala, G. Boivin, J.-C. Vial, D. Débarre, and et al., “Label-free imaging of bone multiscale porosity and interfaces using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 3419 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bancroft, J. D.

J. D. Bancroft and M. Gamble, Theory and practice of histological techniques (Elsevier health sciences, 2008).

Baslé, M.

P. Guggenbuhl, F. Bodic, L. Hamel, M. Baslé, and D. Chappard, “Texture analysis of x-ray radiographs of iliac bone is correlated with bone micro-ct,” Osteoporosis international 17, 447–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baslé, M.-F.

D. Chappard, M.-F. Baslé, E. Legrand, and M. Audran, “New laboratory tools in the assessment of bone quality,” Osteoporosis International 22, 2225–2240 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beaurepaire, E.

R. Genthial, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, F. Peyrin, D. Farlay, C. Olivier, Y. Bala, G. Boivin, J.-C. Vial, D. Débarre, and et al., “Label-free imaging of bone multiscale porosity and interfaces using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 3419 (2017).
[Crossref]

Berger, A. J.

J. A. Inzana, J. R. Maher, M. Takahata, E. M. Schwarz, A. J. Berger, and H. A. Awad, “Bone fragility beyond strength and mineral density: Raman spectroscopy predicts femoral fracture toughness in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis,” Journal of biomechanics 46, 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biggerstaff, J.

C. Maggiano, T. Dupras, M. Schultz, and J. Biggerstaff, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy: a flexible tool for simultaneous polarization and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging of archaeological compact bone,” Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 2392–2401 (2009).
[Crossref]

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J. G. Skedros, J. L. Holmes, E. G. Vajda, and R. D. Bloebaum, “Cement lines of secondary osteons in human bone are not mineral-deficient: New data in a historical perspective,” The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 286, 781–803 (2005).
[Crossref]

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P. Guggenbuhl, F. Bodic, L. Hamel, M. Baslé, and D. Chappard, “Texture analysis of x-ray radiographs of iliac bone is correlated with bone micro-ct,” Osteoporosis international 17, 447–454 (2006).
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R. Genthial, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, F. Peyrin, D. Farlay, C. Olivier, Y. Bala, G. Boivin, J.-C. Vial, D. Débarre, and et al., “Label-free imaging of bone multiscale porosity and interfaces using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 3419 (2017).
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S. Gamsjaeger, R. Mendelsohn, A. Boskey, S. Gourion-Arsiquaud, K. Klaushofer, and E. Paschalis, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging for the evaluation of matrix and mineral chemistry,” Current osteoporosis reports 12, 454–464 (2014).
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A. L. Boskey, E. Donnelly, E. Boskey, L. Spevak, Y. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Lappe, and R. R. Recker, “Examining the relationships between bone tissue composition, compositional heterogeneity, and fragility fracture: A matched case-controlled FTIRI study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 31, 1070–1081 (2016).
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E. P. Paschalis, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Infrared assessment of bone quality: a review,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2170–2178 (2011).
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E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Bone fragility and collagen cross-links,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 19, 2000–2004 (2004).
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A. L. Boskey, E. Donnelly, E. Boskey, L. Spevak, Y. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Lappe, and R. R. Recker, “Examining the relationships between bone tissue composition, compositional heterogeneity, and fragility fracture: A matched case-controlled FTIRI study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 31, 1070–1081 (2016).
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A. Croce and G. Bottiroli, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging: a tool for biomedical research and diagnosis,” European journal of histochemistry: EJH 58, 2461 (2014).
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M. L. Bouxsein, “Bone quality: where do we go from here?” Osteoporosis international 14, 118–127 (2003).
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A. Boskey and N. P. Camacho, “FT-IR imaging of native and tissue-engineered bone and cartilage,” Biomaterials 28, 2465–2478 (2007).
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L. Capasso, R. D’Anastasio, S. Guarnieri, J. Viciano, and M. Mariggiò, “Bone natural autofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Preliminary results of a novel useful tool to distinguish between forensic and ancient human skeletal remains,” Forensic Science International 272, 87–96 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chappard, D.

D. Chappard, M.-F. Baslé, E. Legrand, and M. Audran, “New laboratory tools in the assessment of bone quality,” Osteoporosis International 22, 2225–2240 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Guggenbuhl, F. Bodic, L. Hamel, M. Baslé, and D. Chappard, “Texture analysis of x-ray radiographs of iliac bone is correlated with bone micro-ct,” Osteoporosis international 17, 447–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarke, B. L.

R. T. Ingram, B. L. Clarke, L. W. Fisher, and L. A. Fitzpatrick, “Distribution of noncollagenous proteins in the matrix of adult human bone: evidence of anatomic and functional heterogeneity,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 8, 1019–1029 (1993).
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W. T. Trouerbach, J. L. Grashuis, A. W. Zwamborn, E. C. Clermonts, and H. J. Schouten, “Microdensitometric analysis of bone structures in x-ray images,” Skeletal radiology 16, 190–195 (1987).
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D. W. Dempster, J. E. Compston, M. K. Drezner, F. H. Glorieux, J. A. Kanis, H. Malluche, P. J. Meunier, S. M. Ott, R. R. Recker, and A. M. Parfitt, “Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the asbmr histomorphometry nomenclature committee,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 28, 2–17 (2013).
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A. Croce and G. Bottiroli, “Autofluorescence spectroscopy and imaging: a tool for biomedical research and diagnosis,” European journal of histochemistry: EJH 58, 2461 (2014).
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L. Capasso, R. D’Anastasio, S. Guarnieri, J. Viciano, and M. Mariggiò, “Bone natural autofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Preliminary results of a novel useful tool to distinguish between forensic and ancient human skeletal remains,” Forensic Science International 272, 87–96 (2017).
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S. M. van Gaalen, M. C. Kruyt, R. E. Geuze, J. D. de Bruijn, J. Alblas, and W. J. Dhert, “Use of fluorochrome labels in in vivo bone tissue engineering research,” Tissue engineering Part B: Reviews 16, 209–217 (2010).
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R. Genthial, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, F. Peyrin, D. Farlay, C. Olivier, Y. Bala, G. Boivin, J.-C. Vial, D. Débarre, and et al., “Label-free imaging of bone multiscale porosity and interfaces using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 3419 (2017).
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D. W. Dempster, J. E. Compston, M. K. Drezner, F. H. Glorieux, J. A. Kanis, H. Malluche, P. J. Meunier, S. M. Ott, R. R. Recker, and A. M. Parfitt, “Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the asbmr histomorphometry nomenclature committee,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 28, 2–17 (2013).
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A. Dhainaut, M. Hoff, U. Syversen, and G. Haugeberg, “Technologies for assessment of bone reflecting bone strength and bone mineral density in elderly women: an update,” Women’s Health 12, 209–216 (2016).

Dhert, W. J.

S. M. van Gaalen, M. C. Kruyt, R. E. Geuze, J. D. de Bruijn, J. Alblas, and W. J. Dhert, “Use of fluorochrome labels in in vivo bone tissue engineering research,” Tissue engineering Part B: Reviews 16, 209–217 (2010).
[Crossref]

DiCarlo, E. F.

A. Unnanuntana, B. J. Rebolledo, M. M. Khair, E. F. DiCarlo, and J. M. Lane, “Diseases affecting bone quality: beyond osteoporosis,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2194–2206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Donnelly, E.

A. L. Boskey, E. Donnelly, E. Boskey, L. Spevak, Y. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Lappe, and R. R. Recker, “Examining the relationships between bone tissue composition, compositional heterogeneity, and fragility fracture: A matched case-controlled FTIRI study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 31, 1070–1081 (2016).
[Crossref]

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D. W. Dempster, J. E. Compston, M. K. Drezner, F. H. Glorieux, J. A. Kanis, H. Malluche, P. J. Meunier, S. M. Ott, R. R. Recker, and A. M. Parfitt, “Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the asbmr histomorphometry nomenclature committee,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 28, 2–17 (2013).
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Z. K. Drzazga, A. Kluczewska-Gałka, A. Michnik, M. Kaszuba, and H. Trzeciak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as tool for bone development monitoring in newborn rats,” Journal of fluorescence 21, 851–857 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dupras, T.

C. Maggiano, T. Dupras, M. Schultz, and J. Biggerstaff, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy: a flexible tool for simultaneous polarization and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging of archaeological compact bone,” Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 2392–2401 (2009).
[Crossref]

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M. Fenner, J. Park, N. Schulz, K. Amann, G. G. Grabenbauer, A. Fahrig, J. Karg, J. Wiltfang, F. W. Neukam, and E. Nkenke, “Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. an experimental animal model,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 47–53 (2010).
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R. Genthial, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, F. Peyrin, D. Farlay, C. Olivier, Y. Bala, G. Boivin, J.-C. Vial, D. Débarre, and et al., “Label-free imaging of bone multiscale porosity and interfaces using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 3419 (2017).
[Crossref]

Favia, G.

G. P. Pilolli, A. Lucchese, E. Maiorano, and G. Favia, “New approach for static bone histomorphometry: confocal laser scanning microscopy of maxillo-facial normal bone,” Ultrastructural pathology 32, 189–192 (2008).
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M. Fenner, J. Park, N. Schulz, K. Amann, G. G. Grabenbauer, A. Fahrig, J. Karg, J. Wiltfang, F. W. Neukam, and E. Nkenke, “Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. an experimental animal model,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 47–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

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R. T. Ingram, B. L. Clarke, L. W. Fisher, and L. A. Fitzpatrick, “Distribution of noncollagenous proteins in the matrix of adult human bone: evidence of anatomic and functional heterogeneity,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 8, 1019–1029 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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R. T. Ingram, B. L. Clarke, L. W. Fisher, and L. A. Fitzpatrick, “Distribution of noncollagenous proteins in the matrix of adult human bone: evidence of anatomic and functional heterogeneity,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 8, 1019–1029 (1993).
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S. Gamsjaeger, R. Mendelsohn, A. Boskey, S. Gourion-Arsiquaud, K. Klaushofer, and E. Paschalis, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging for the evaluation of matrix and mineral chemistry,” Current osteoporosis reports 12, 454–464 (2014).
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R. Genthial, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, F. Peyrin, D. Farlay, C. Olivier, Y. Bala, G. Boivin, J.-C. Vial, D. Débarre, and et al., “Label-free imaging of bone multiscale porosity and interfaces using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 3419 (2017).
[Crossref]

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S. M. van Gaalen, M. C. Kruyt, R. E. Geuze, J. D. de Bruijn, J. Alblas, and W. J. Dhert, “Use of fluorochrome labels in in vivo bone tissue engineering research,” Tissue engineering Part B: Reviews 16, 209–217 (2010).
[Crossref]

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D. W. Dempster, J. E. Compston, M. K. Drezner, F. H. Glorieux, J. A. Kanis, H. Malluche, P. J. Meunier, S. M. Ott, R. R. Recker, and A. M. Parfitt, “Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the asbmr histomorphometry nomenclature committee,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 28, 2–17 (2013).
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T. Link, S. Majumdar, S. Grampp, G. Guglielmi, C. Van Kuijk, H. Imhof, C. Glueer, and J. Adams, “Imaging of trabecular bone structure in osteoporosis,” European radiology 9, 1781–1788 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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S. Gamsjaeger, R. Mendelsohn, A. Boskey, S. Gourion-Arsiquaud, K. Klaushofer, and E. Paschalis, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging for the evaluation of matrix and mineral chemistry,” Current osteoporosis reports 12, 454–464 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Fenner, J. Park, N. Schulz, K. Amann, G. G. Grabenbauer, A. Fahrig, J. Karg, J. Wiltfang, F. W. Neukam, and E. Nkenke, “Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. an experimental animal model,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 47–53 (2010).
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T. Link, S. Majumdar, S. Grampp, G. Guglielmi, C. Van Kuijk, H. Imhof, C. Glueer, and J. Adams, “Imaging of trabecular bone structure in osteoporosis,” European radiology 9, 1781–1788 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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W. T. Trouerbach, J. L. Grashuis, A. W. Zwamborn, E. C. Clermonts, and H. J. Schouten, “Microdensitometric analysis of bone structures in x-ray images,” Skeletal radiology 16, 190–195 (1987).
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A. Papour, J. H. Kwak, Z. Taylor, B. Wu, O. Stafsudd, and W. Grundfest, “Wide-field raman imaging for bone detection in tissue,” Biomedical optics express 6, 3892–3897 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guarnieri, S.

L. Capasso, R. D’Anastasio, S. Guarnieri, J. Viciano, and M. Mariggiò, “Bone natural autofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Preliminary results of a novel useful tool to distinguish between forensic and ancient human skeletal remains,” Forensic Science International 272, 87–96 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guggenbuhl, P.

P. Guggenbuhl, F. Bodic, L. Hamel, M. Baslé, and D. Chappard, “Texture analysis of x-ray radiographs of iliac bone is correlated with bone micro-ct,” Osteoporosis international 17, 447–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guglielmi, G.

T. Link, S. Majumdar, S. Grampp, G. Guglielmi, C. Van Kuijk, H. Imhof, C. Glueer, and J. Adams, “Imaging of trabecular bone structure in osteoporosis,” European radiology 9, 1781–1788 (1999).
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S. Ihde, S. Kopp, K. Gundlach, and V. Konstantinović, “Effects of radiation therapy on craniofacial and dental implants: a review of the literature,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 107, 56–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hamel, L.

P. Guggenbuhl, F. Bodic, L. Hamel, M. Baslé, and D. Chappard, “Texture analysis of x-ray radiographs of iliac bone is correlated with bone micro-ct,” Osteoporosis international 17, 447–454 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haugeberg, G.

A. Dhainaut, M. Hoff, U. Syversen, and G. Haugeberg, “Technologies for assessment of bone reflecting bone strength and bone mineral density in elderly women: an update,” Women’s Health 12, 209–216 (2016).

Hoff, M.

A. Dhainaut, M. Hoff, U. Syversen, and G. Haugeberg, “Technologies for assessment of bone reflecting bone strength and bone mineral density in elderly women: an update,” Women’s Health 12, 209–216 (2016).

Holmes, J. L.

J. G. Skedros, J. L. Holmes, E. G. Vajda, and R. D. Bloebaum, “Cement lines of secondary osteons in human bone are not mineral-deficient: New data in a historical perspective,” The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 286, 781–803 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ihde, S.

S. Ihde, S. Kopp, K. Gundlach, and V. Konstantinović, “Effects of radiation therapy on craniofacial and dental implants: a review of the literature,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 107, 56–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Imhof, H.

T. Link, S. Majumdar, S. Grampp, G. Guglielmi, C. Van Kuijk, H. Imhof, C. Glueer, and J. Adams, “Imaging of trabecular bone structure in osteoporosis,” European radiology 9, 1781–1788 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ingram, R. T.

R. T. Ingram, B. L. Clarke, L. W. Fisher, and L. A. Fitzpatrick, “Distribution of noncollagenous proteins in the matrix of adult human bone: evidence of anatomic and functional heterogeneity,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 8, 1019–1029 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Inzana, J. A.

J. A. Inzana, J. R. Maher, M. Takahata, E. M. Schwarz, A. J. Berger, and H. A. Awad, “Bone fragility beyond strength and mineral density: Raman spectroscopy predicts femoral fracture toughness in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis,” Journal of biomechanics 46, 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

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F. Jamme, S. Kascakova, S. Villette, F. Allouche, S. Pallu, V. Rouam, and M. Refregiers, “Deep uv autofluorescence microscopy for cell biology and tissue histology,” Biology of the Cell 105, 277–288 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamath, S. D.

P. Kumar, S. Rao, S. D. Kamath, V. Prabhu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. Mahato, “Autofluorescence of osteoporotic mouse femur bones: a pilot study,” Photomedicine and laser surgery 29, 227–232 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kanis, J. A.

D. W. Dempster, J. E. Compston, M. K. Drezner, F. H. Glorieux, J. A. Kanis, H. Malluche, P. J. Meunier, S. M. Ott, R. R. Recker, and A. M. Parfitt, “Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the asbmr histomorphometry nomenclature committee,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 28, 2–17 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karg, J.

M. Fenner, J. Park, N. Schulz, K. Amann, G. G. Grabenbauer, A. Fahrig, J. Karg, J. Wiltfang, F. W. Neukam, and E. Nkenke, “Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. an experimental animal model,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 47–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kascakova, S.

F. Jamme, S. Kascakova, S. Villette, F. Allouche, S. Pallu, V. Rouam, and M. Refregiers, “Deep uv autofluorescence microscopy for cell biology and tissue histology,” Biology of the Cell 105, 277–288 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaszuba, M.

Z. K. Drzazga, A. Kluczewska-Gałka, A. Michnik, M. Kaszuba, and H. Trzeciak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as tool for bone development monitoring in newborn rats,” Journal of fluorescence 21, 851–857 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khair, M. M.

A. Unnanuntana, B. J. Rebolledo, M. M. Khair, E. F. DiCarlo, and J. M. Lane, “Diseases affecting bone quality: beyond osteoporosis,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2194–2206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Klaushofer, K.

S. Gamsjaeger, R. Mendelsohn, A. Boskey, S. Gourion-Arsiquaud, K. Klaushofer, and E. Paschalis, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging for the evaluation of matrix and mineral chemistry,” Current osteoporosis reports 12, 454–464 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kluczewska-Galka, A.

Z. K. Drzazga, A. Kluczewska-Gałka, A. Michnik, M. Kaszuba, and H. Trzeciak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as tool for bone development monitoring in newborn rats,” Journal of fluorescence 21, 851–857 (2011).
[Crossref]

Konstantinovic, V.

S. Ihde, S. Kopp, K. Gundlach, and V. Konstantinović, “Effects of radiation therapy on craniofacial and dental implants: a review of the literature,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 107, 56–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kopp, S.

S. Ihde, S. Kopp, K. Gundlach, and V. Konstantinović, “Effects of radiation therapy on craniofacial and dental implants: a review of the literature,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 107, 56–65 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kruyt, M. C.

S. M. van Gaalen, M. C. Kruyt, R. E. Geuze, J. D. de Bruijn, J. Alblas, and W. J. Dhert, “Use of fluorochrome labels in in vivo bone tissue engineering research,” Tissue engineering Part B: Reviews 16, 209–217 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kumar, P.

P. Kumar, S. Rao, S. D. Kamath, V. Prabhu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. Mahato, “Autofluorescence of osteoporotic mouse femur bones: a pilot study,” Photomedicine and laser surgery 29, 227–232 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kwak, J. H.

A. Papour, J. H. Kwak, Z. Taylor, B. Wu, O. Stafsudd, and W. Grundfest, “Wide-field raman imaging for bone detection in tissue,” Biomedical optics express 6, 3892–3897 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lane, J. M.

A. Unnanuntana, B. J. Rebolledo, M. M. Khair, E. F. DiCarlo, and J. M. Lane, “Diseases affecting bone quality: beyond osteoporosis,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2194–2206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lappe, J.

A. L. Boskey, E. Donnelly, E. Boskey, L. Spevak, Y. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Lappe, and R. R. Recker, “Examining the relationships between bone tissue composition, compositional heterogeneity, and fragility fracture: A matched case-controlled FTIRI study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 31, 1070–1081 (2016).
[Crossref]

Legrand, E.

D. Chappard, M.-F. Baslé, E. Legrand, and M. Audran, “New laboratory tools in the assessment of bone quality,” Osteoporosis International 22, 2225–2240 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Link, T.

T. Link, S. Majumdar, S. Grampp, G. Guglielmi, C. Van Kuijk, H. Imhof, C. Glueer, and J. Adams, “Imaging of trabecular bone structure in osteoporosis,” European radiology 9, 1781–1788 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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G. P. Pilolli, A. Lucchese, E. Maiorano, and G. Favia, “New approach for static bone histomorphometry: confocal laser scanning microscopy of maxillo-facial normal bone,” Ultrastructural pathology 32, 189–192 (2008).
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E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Bone fragility and collagen cross-links,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 19, 2000–2004 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

A. L. Boskey, E. Donnelly, E. Boskey, L. Spevak, Y. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Lappe, and R. R. Recker, “Examining the relationships between bone tissue composition, compositional heterogeneity, and fragility fracture: A matched case-controlled FTIRI study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 31, 1070–1081 (2016).
[Crossref]

Maggiano, C.

C. Maggiano, T. Dupras, M. Schultz, and J. Biggerstaff, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy: a flexible tool for simultaneous polarization and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging of archaeological compact bone,” Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 2392–2401 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mahato, K.

P. Kumar, S. Rao, S. D. Kamath, V. Prabhu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. Mahato, “Autofluorescence of osteoporotic mouse femur bones: a pilot study,” Photomedicine and laser surgery 29, 227–232 (2011).
[Crossref]

Maher, J. R.

J. A. Inzana, J. R. Maher, M. Takahata, E. M. Schwarz, A. J. Berger, and H. A. Awad, “Bone fragility beyond strength and mineral density: Raman spectroscopy predicts femoral fracture toughness in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis,” Journal of biomechanics 46, 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maiorano, E.

G. P. Pilolli, A. Lucchese, E. Maiorano, and G. Favia, “New approach for static bone histomorphometry: confocal laser scanning microscopy of maxillo-facial normal bone,” Ultrastructural pathology 32, 189–192 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majumdar, S.

T. Link, S. Majumdar, S. Grampp, G. Guglielmi, C. Van Kuijk, H. Imhof, C. Glueer, and J. Adams, “Imaging of trabecular bone structure in osteoporosis,” European radiology 9, 1781–1788 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malluche, H.

D. W. Dempster, J. E. Compston, M. K. Drezner, F. H. Glorieux, J. A. Kanis, H. Malluche, P. J. Meunier, S. M. Ott, R. R. Recker, and A. M. Parfitt, “Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the asbmr histomorphometry nomenclature committee,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 28, 2–17 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mandair, G. S.

M. D. Morris and G. S. Mandair, “Raman assessment of bone quality,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2160–2169 (2011).
[Crossref]

Manthey, S.

C. Rentsch, W. Schneiders, S. Manthey, B. Rentsch, and S. Rammelt, “Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants,” Biomatter 4, e27993 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mariggiò, M.

L. Capasso, R. D’Anastasio, S. Guarnieri, J. Viciano, and M. Mariggiò, “Bone natural autofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Preliminary results of a novel useful tool to distinguish between forensic and ancient human skeletal remains,” Forensic Science International 272, 87–96 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McKee, M.

J. Sodek, B. Ganss, and M. McKee, “Osteopontin,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine 11, 279–303 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mendelsohn, R.

S. Gamsjaeger, R. Mendelsohn, A. Boskey, S. Gourion-Arsiquaud, K. Klaushofer, and E. Paschalis, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging for the evaluation of matrix and mineral chemistry,” Current osteoporosis reports 12, 454–464 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. P. Paschalis, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Infrared assessment of bone quality: a review,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2170–2178 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, D. J. Moore, C. R. Flach, and R. Mendelsohn, “Vibrational microscopy and imaging of skin: from single cells to intact tissue,” Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 387, 1591–1599 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Bone fragility and collagen cross-links,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 19, 2000–2004 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meunier, P. J.

D. W. Dempster, J. E. Compston, M. K. Drezner, F. H. Glorieux, J. A. Kanis, H. Malluche, P. J. Meunier, S. M. Ott, R. R. Recker, and A. M. Parfitt, “Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the asbmr histomorphometry nomenclature committee,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 28, 2–17 (2013).
[Crossref]

Michnik, A.

Z. K. Drzazga, A. Kluczewska-Gałka, A. Michnik, M. Kaszuba, and H. Trzeciak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as tool for bone development monitoring in newborn rats,” Journal of fluorescence 21, 851–857 (2011).
[Crossref]

Moore, D. J.

G. Zhang, D. J. Moore, C. R. Flach, and R. Mendelsohn, “Vibrational microscopy and imaging of skin: from single cells to intact tissue,” Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 387, 1591–1599 (2007).
[Crossref]

Morris, M. D.

M. D. Morris and G. S. Mandair, “Raman assessment of bone quality,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2160–2169 (2011).
[Crossref]

Neukam, F. W.

M. Fenner, J. Park, N. Schulz, K. Amann, G. G. Grabenbauer, A. Fahrig, J. Karg, J. Wiltfang, F. W. Neukam, and E. Nkenke, “Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. an experimental animal model,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 47–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nkenke, E.

M. Fenner, J. Park, N. Schulz, K. Amann, G. G. Grabenbauer, A. Fahrig, J. Karg, J. Wiltfang, F. W. Neukam, and E. Nkenke, “Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. an experimental animal model,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 47–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Olivier, C.

R. Genthial, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, F. Peyrin, D. Farlay, C. Olivier, Y. Bala, G. Boivin, J.-C. Vial, D. Débarre, and et al., “Label-free imaging of bone multiscale porosity and interfaces using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 3419 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ott, S. M.

D. W. Dempster, J. E. Compston, M. K. Drezner, F. H. Glorieux, J. A. Kanis, H. Malluche, P. J. Meunier, S. M. Ott, R. R. Recker, and A. M. Parfitt, “Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the asbmr histomorphometry nomenclature committee,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 28, 2–17 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pallu, S.

F. Jamme, S. Kascakova, S. Villette, F. Allouche, S. Pallu, V. Rouam, and M. Refregiers, “Deep uv autofluorescence microscopy for cell biology and tissue histology,” Biology of the Cell 105, 277–288 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papour, A.

A. Papour, J. H. Kwak, Z. Taylor, B. Wu, O. Stafsudd, and W. Grundfest, “Wide-field raman imaging for bone detection in tissue,” Biomedical optics express 6, 3892–3897 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parfitt, A. M.

D. W. Dempster, J. E. Compston, M. K. Drezner, F. H. Glorieux, J. A. Kanis, H. Malluche, P. J. Meunier, S. M. Ott, R. R. Recker, and A. M. Parfitt, “Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the asbmr histomorphometry nomenclature committee,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 28, 2–17 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, J.

M. Fenner, J. Park, N. Schulz, K. Amann, G. G. Grabenbauer, A. Fahrig, J. Karg, J. Wiltfang, F. W. Neukam, and E. Nkenke, “Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. an experimental animal model,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 47–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paschalis, E.

S. Gamsjaeger, R. Mendelsohn, A. Boskey, S. Gourion-Arsiquaud, K. Klaushofer, and E. Paschalis, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging for the evaluation of matrix and mineral chemistry,” Current osteoporosis reports 12, 454–464 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paschalis, E. P.

E. P. Paschalis, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Infrared assessment of bone quality: a review,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2170–2178 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Bone fragility and collagen cross-links,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 19, 2000–2004 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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O. Ristow and C. Pautke, “Auto-fluorescence of the bone and its use for delineation of bone necrosis,” International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery 43, 1391–1393 (2014).
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E. Peli, “Contrast in complex images,” JOSA A 7, 2032–2040 (1990).
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R. Genthial, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, F. Peyrin, D. Farlay, C. Olivier, Y. Bala, G. Boivin, J.-C. Vial, D. Débarre, and et al., “Label-free imaging of bone multiscale porosity and interfaces using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 3419 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pilolli, G. P.

G. P. Pilolli, A. Lucchese, E. Maiorano, and G. Favia, “New approach for static bone histomorphometry: confocal laser scanning microscopy of maxillo-facial normal bone,” Ultrastructural pathology 32, 189–192 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pluim, J. P.

M. Veta, J. P. Pluim, P. J. Van Diest, and M. A. Viergever, “Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: A review,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 61, 1400–1411 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prabhu, V.

P. Kumar, S. Rao, S. D. Kamath, V. Prabhu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. Mahato, “Autofluorescence of osteoporotic mouse femur bones: a pilot study,” Photomedicine and laser surgery 29, 227–232 (2011).
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C. Rentsch, W. Schneiders, S. Manthey, B. Rentsch, and S. Rammelt, “Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants,” Biomatter 4, e27993 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rao, S.

P. Kumar, S. Rao, S. D. Kamath, V. Prabhu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. Mahato, “Autofluorescence of osteoporotic mouse femur bones: a pilot study,” Photomedicine and laser surgery 29, 227–232 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rebolledo, B. J.

A. Unnanuntana, B. J. Rebolledo, M. M. Khair, E. F. DiCarlo, and J. M. Lane, “Diseases affecting bone quality: beyond osteoporosis,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2194–2206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Recker, R. R.

A. L. Boskey, E. Donnelly, E. Boskey, L. Spevak, Y. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Lappe, and R. R. Recker, “Examining the relationships between bone tissue composition, compositional heterogeneity, and fragility fracture: A matched case-controlled FTIRI study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 31, 1070–1081 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. W. Dempster, J. E. Compston, M. K. Drezner, F. H. Glorieux, J. A. Kanis, H. Malluche, P. J. Meunier, S. M. Ott, R. R. Recker, and A. M. Parfitt, “Standardized nomenclature, symbols, and units for bone histomorphometry: a 2012 update of the report of the asbmr histomorphometry nomenclature committee,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 28, 2–17 (2013).
[Crossref]

Refregiers, M.

F. Jamme, S. Kascakova, S. Villette, F. Allouche, S. Pallu, V. Rouam, and M. Refregiers, “Deep uv autofluorescence microscopy for cell biology and tissue histology,” Biology of the Cell 105, 277–288 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rentsch, B.

C. Rentsch, W. Schneiders, S. Manthey, B. Rentsch, and S. Rammelt, “Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants,” Biomatter 4, e27993 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rentsch, C.

C. Rentsch, W. Schneiders, S. Manthey, B. Rentsch, and S. Rammelt, “Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants,” Biomatter 4, e27993 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards, R. G.

R. Yang, C. M. Davies, C. W. Archer, and R. G. Richards, “Immunohistochemistry of matrix markers in technovit 9100 new-embedded undecalcified bone sections,” Eur Cell Mater 6, 57–71 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ristow, O.

O. Ristow and C. Pautke, “Auto-fluorescence of the bone and its use for delineation of bone necrosis,” International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery 43, 1391–1393 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rouam, V.

F. Jamme, S. Kascakova, S. Villette, F. Allouche, S. Pallu, V. Rouam, and M. Refregiers, “Deep uv autofluorescence microscopy for cell biology and tissue histology,” Biology of the Cell 105, 277–288 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Satyamoorthy, K.

P. Kumar, S. Rao, S. D. Kamath, V. Prabhu, K. Satyamoorthy, and K. Mahato, “Autofluorescence of osteoporotic mouse femur bones: a pilot study,” Photomedicine and laser surgery 29, 227–232 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schanne-Klein, M.-C.

R. Genthial, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, F. Peyrin, D. Farlay, C. Olivier, Y. Bala, G. Boivin, J.-C. Vial, D. Débarre, and et al., “Label-free imaging of bone multiscale porosity and interfaces using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 3419 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schneiders, W.

C. Rentsch, W. Schneiders, S. Manthey, B. Rentsch, and S. Rammelt, “Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants,” Biomatter 4, e27993 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schorlemmer, S.

P. Augat and S. Schorlemmer, “The role of cortical bone and its microstructure in bone strength,” Age and ageing 35, ii27–ii31 (2006).
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Schouten, H. J.

W. T. Trouerbach, J. L. Grashuis, A. W. Zwamborn, E. C. Clermonts, and H. J. Schouten, “Microdensitometric analysis of bone structures in x-ray images,” Skeletal radiology 16, 190–195 (1987).
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Schultz, M.

C. Maggiano, T. Dupras, M. Schultz, and J. Biggerstaff, “Confocal laser scanning microscopy: a flexible tool for simultaneous polarization and three-dimensional fluorescence imaging of archaeological compact bone,” Journal of Archaeological Science 36, 2392–2401 (2009).
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Schulz, N.

M. Fenner, J. Park, N. Schulz, K. Amann, G. G. Grabenbauer, A. Fahrig, J. Karg, J. Wiltfang, F. W. Neukam, and E. Nkenke, “Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. an experimental animal model,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 47–53 (2010).
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J. A. Inzana, J. R. Maher, M. Takahata, E. M. Schwarz, A. J. Berger, and H. A. Awad, “Bone fragility beyond strength and mineral density: Raman spectroscopy predicts femoral fracture toughness in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis,” Journal of biomechanics 46, 723–730 (2013).
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Shane, E.

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Bone fragility and collagen cross-links,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 19, 2000–2004 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skarantavos, G.

E. P. Paschalis, E. Shane, G. Lyritis, G. Skarantavos, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Bone fragility and collagen cross-links,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 19, 2000–2004 (2004).
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J. G. Skedros, J. L. Holmes, E. G. Vajda, and R. D. Bloebaum, “Cement lines of secondary osteons in human bone are not mineral-deficient: New data in a historical perspective,” The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 286, 781–803 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sodek, J.

J. Sodek, B. Ganss, and M. McKee, “Osteopontin,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine 11, 279–303 (2000).
[Crossref]

Spevak, L.

A. L. Boskey, E. Donnelly, E. Boskey, L. Spevak, Y. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Lappe, and R. R. Recker, “Examining the relationships between bone tissue composition, compositional heterogeneity, and fragility fracture: A matched case-controlled FTIRI study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 31, 1070–1081 (2016).
[Crossref]

Stafsudd, O.

A. Papour, J. H. Kwak, Z. Taylor, B. Wu, O. Stafsudd, and W. Grundfest, “Wide-field raman imaging for bone detection in tissue,” Biomedical optics express 6, 3892–3897 (2015).
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A. Dhainaut, M. Hoff, U. Syversen, and G. Haugeberg, “Technologies for assessment of bone reflecting bone strength and bone mineral density in elderly women: an update,” Women’s Health 12, 209–216 (2016).

Takahata, M.

J. A. Inzana, J. R. Maher, M. Takahata, E. M. Schwarz, A. J. Berger, and H. A. Awad, “Bone fragility beyond strength and mineral density: Raman spectroscopy predicts femoral fracture toughness in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis,” Journal of biomechanics 46, 723–730 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taylor, Z.

A. Papour, J. H. Kwak, Z. Taylor, B. Wu, O. Stafsudd, and W. Grundfest, “Wide-field raman imaging for bone detection in tissue,” Biomedical optics express 6, 3892–3897 (2015).
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F. Timischl, “The contrast-to-noise ratio for image quality evaluation in scanning electron microscopy,” Scanning 37, 54–62 (2015).
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W. T. Trouerbach, J. L. Grashuis, A. W. Zwamborn, E. C. Clermonts, and H. J. Schouten, “Microdensitometric analysis of bone structures in x-ray images,” Skeletal radiology 16, 190–195 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trzeciak, H.

Z. K. Drzazga, A. Kluczewska-Gałka, A. Michnik, M. Kaszuba, and H. Trzeciak, “Fluorescence spectroscopy as tool for bone development monitoring in newborn rats,” Journal of fluorescence 21, 851–857 (2011).
[Crossref]

Unnanuntana, A.

A. Unnanuntana, B. J. Rebolledo, M. M. Khair, E. F. DiCarlo, and J. M. Lane, “Diseases affecting bone quality: beyond osteoporosis,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2194–2206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vajda, E. G.

J. G. Skedros, J. L. Holmes, E. G. Vajda, and R. D. Bloebaum, “Cement lines of secondary osteons in human bone are not mineral-deficient: New data in a historical perspective,” The Anatomical Record Part A: Discoveries in Molecular, Cellular, and Evolutionary Biology 286, 781–803 (2005).
[Crossref]

Van Diest, P. J.

M. Veta, J. P. Pluim, P. J. Van Diest, and M. A. Viergever, “Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: A review,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 61, 1400–1411 (2014).
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S. M. van Gaalen, M. C. Kruyt, R. E. Geuze, J. D. de Bruijn, J. Alblas, and W. J. Dhert, “Use of fluorochrome labels in in vivo bone tissue engineering research,” Tissue engineering Part B: Reviews 16, 209–217 (2010).
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T. Link, S. Majumdar, S. Grampp, G. Guglielmi, C. Van Kuijk, H. Imhof, C. Glueer, and J. Adams, “Imaging of trabecular bone structure in osteoporosis,” European radiology 9, 1781–1788 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Veta, M.

M. Veta, J. P. Pluim, P. J. Van Diest, and M. A. Viergever, “Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: A review,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 61, 1400–1411 (2014).
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Vial, J.-C.

R. Genthial, E. Beaurepaire, M.-C. Schanne-Klein, F. Peyrin, D. Farlay, C. Olivier, Y. Bala, G. Boivin, J.-C. Vial, D. Débarre, and et al., “Label-free imaging of bone multiscale porosity and interfaces using third-harmonic generation microscopy,” Scientific Reports 7, 3419 (2017).
[Crossref]

Viciano, J.

L. Capasso, R. D’Anastasio, S. Guarnieri, J. Viciano, and M. Mariggiò, “Bone natural autofluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy: Preliminary results of a novel useful tool to distinguish between forensic and ancient human skeletal remains,” Forensic Science International 272, 87–96 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viergever, M. A.

M. Veta, J. P. Pluim, P. J. Van Diest, and M. A. Viergever, “Breast cancer histopathology image analysis: A review,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 61, 1400–1411 (2014).
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A. R. Villanueva and K. D. Lundin, “A versatile new mineralized bone stain for simultaneous assessment of tetracycline and osteoid seams,” Stain technology 64, 129–138 (1989).
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F. Jamme, S. Kascakova, S. Villette, F. Allouche, S. Pallu, V. Rouam, and M. Refregiers, “Deep uv autofluorescence microscopy for cell biology and tissue histology,” Biology of the Cell 105, 277–288 (2013).
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Wagner, H. D.

S. Weiner and H. D. Wagner, “The material bone: structure-mechanical function relations,” Annual Review of Materials Science 28, 271–298 (1998).
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S. Weiner and H. D. Wagner, “The material bone: structure-mechanical function relations,” Annual Review of Materials Science 28, 271–298 (1998).
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Wiltfang, J.

M. Fenner, J. Park, N. Schulz, K. Amann, G. G. Grabenbauer, A. Fahrig, J. Karg, J. Wiltfang, F. W. Neukam, and E. Nkenke, “Validation of histologic changes induced by external irradiation in mandibular bone. an experimental animal model,” Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 38, 47–53 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

A. Papour, J. H. Kwak, Z. Taylor, B. Wu, O. Stafsudd, and W. Grundfest, “Wide-field raman imaging for bone detection in tissue,” Biomedical optics express 6, 3892–3897 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, R.

R. Yang, C. M. Davies, C. W. Archer, and R. G. Richards, “Immunohistochemistry of matrix markers in technovit 9100 new-embedded undecalcified bone sections,” Eur Cell Mater 6, 57–71 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, D. J. Moore, C. R. Flach, and R. Mendelsohn, “Vibrational microscopy and imaging of skin: from single cells to intact tissue,” Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 387, 1591–1599 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

A. L. Boskey, E. Donnelly, E. Boskey, L. Spevak, Y. Ma, W. Zhang, J. Lappe, and R. R. Recker, “Examining the relationships between bone tissue composition, compositional heterogeneity, and fragility fracture: A matched case-controlled FTIRI study,” Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 31, 1070–1081 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zwamborn, A. W.

W. T. Trouerbach, J. L. Grashuis, A. W. Zwamborn, E. C. Clermonts, and H. J. Schouten, “Microdensitometric analysis of bone structures in x-ray images,” Skeletal radiology 16, 190–195 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Age and ageing (1)

P. Augat and S. Schorlemmer, “The role of cortical bone and its microstructure in bone strength,” Age and ageing 35, ii27–ii31 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry (1)

G. Zhang, D. J. Moore, C. R. Flach, and R. Mendelsohn, “Vibrational microscopy and imaging of skin: from single cells to intact tissue,” Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry 387, 1591–1599 (2007).
[Crossref]

Annual Review of Materials Science (1)

S. Weiner and H. D. Wagner, “The material bone: structure-mechanical function relations,” Annual Review of Materials Science 28, 271–298 (1998).
[Crossref]

Biology of the Cell (1)

F. Jamme, S. Kascakova, S. Villette, F. Allouche, S. Pallu, V. Rouam, and M. Refregiers, “Deep uv autofluorescence microscopy for cell biology and tissue histology,” Biology of the Cell 105, 277–288 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomaterials (1)

A. Boskey and N. P. Camacho, “FT-IR imaging of native and tissue-engineered bone and cartilage,” Biomaterials 28, 2465–2478 (2007).
[Crossref]

Biomatter (1)

C. Rentsch, W. Schneiders, S. Manthey, B. Rentsch, and S. Rammelt, “Comprehensive histological evaluation of bone implants,” Biomatter 4, e27993 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomedical optics express (1)

A. Papour, J. H. Kwak, Z. Taylor, B. Wu, O. Stafsudd, and W. Grundfest, “Wide-field raman imaging for bone detection in tissue,” Biomedical optics express 6, 3892–3897 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biotechnic & histochemistry (1)

H. E. Gruber, “Adaptations of goldner’s masson trichrome stain for the study of undecalcified plastic embedded bone,” Biotechnic & histochemistry 67, 30–34 (1992).
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Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® (3)

E. P. Paschalis, R. Mendelsohn, and A. L. Boskey, “Infrared assessment of bone quality: a review,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2170–2178 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. D. Morris and G. S. Mandair, “Raman assessment of bone quality,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2160–2169 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Unnanuntana, B. J. Rebolledo, M. M. Khair, E. F. DiCarlo, and J. M. Lane, “Diseases affecting bone quality: beyond osteoporosis,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® 469, 2194–2206 (2011).
[Crossref]

Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine (1)

J. Sodek, B. Ganss, and M. McKee, “Osteopontin,” Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine 11, 279–303 (2000).
[Crossref]

Current osteoporosis reports (1)

S. Gamsjaeger, R. Mendelsohn, A. Boskey, S. Gourion-Arsiquaud, K. Klaushofer, and E. Paschalis, “Vibrational spectroscopic imaging for the evaluation of matrix and mineral chemistry,” Current osteoporosis reports 12, 454–464 (2014).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental set-up for bone autofluorescence imaging.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Monochrome images of native-healthy bone in the Blue, Green and Red channel of the autofluorescence-color image (d), shown in (a), (b) and (c), respectively. Different bone features (the cortex (Ct), osteoid (O), osteoblasts (Ob), osteocytes (Ot), erythrocytes (RBC), connective tissues (CT)), are indicated by arrows in the autofluorescence-color image (d) and in the true-color image acquired after bone staining with MG-staining (e).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Color images of a native-heathy bone enhancing different cortex structures (BSU1 and BSU2) and the lacunae (Lc) in (a) and (c), respectively. Images of the MG-stained bone, area represented in the fluorescence images (a) and (c), are shown in (b) and (d)).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Two-dimensional distribution of bispectral autofluorescence of a healthy-bone sample. The bone features are indicated by arrows for the cortex (Ct), osteoblasts (Ob), osteocytes (Ot), connective tissues (CT), endosteum (Es), erythrocytes (RBC), osteoclasts (Oc) and osteoid (O).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Donaldson matrices of healthy-native-bone-tissue components: mineralized cortex in (a), osteoid in (b) and erythrocytes in (c).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Autofluorescence image of a native bone in false color in (a) and its RGB image, after staining, represented in true color in (b). Main-bone features (osteoblasts Ob, osteoid O, osteocytes Ot, cortex Ct, connective tissues CT, eroded surface E, osteoclasts Oc and erythrocytes RBC) are indication by arrows
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Autofluorescence image acquired at the emission and excitation wavelength of 620 nm and of 340 nm with 20-x microscope objective in (a) showing cement line (Cm). Autofluorescence-color image acquired with a 40-x microscope objective, at the emission wavelengths of 390 nm, 500 nm and 560 nm with an excitation at 340 nm, showing the cortex (Ct), the lacuna (Lc) with its osteocyte (Ot) and without its osteocyte in (b) and (c), respectively.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Observed features common to images obtained with both imaging methods

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Table 2 Observed features in autofluorescence image, barely contrasted in MG-stained bone image

Equations (5)

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C orr ( λ emc , λ exc ) Δ λ em P e ( λ exc ) × T ex ( λ exc ) × T em ( λ em ) × η ( λ em ) × T PB ( λ em , λ emc ) d λ em
ImgFluo ( λ emc , λ exc , x , y ) = Img ( λ emc , λ exc , x , y ) Dark ( λ emc , x , y ) Ref ( λ emc , λ exc , x , y ) × Corr ( λ emc , λ exc )
SNR ( λ exc , λ emc ) = 1 M p = 1 p = M ( Img ( λ exc , λ emc , p ) Dark ( λ emc , p ) ) N
ImgHD ( λ emc , λ exc , x , y ) = ( ImgFluo ( λ emc , λ exc , x , y ) a ( λ emc , λ exc ) ) × 2 16 b ( λ emc , λ exc ) a ( λ emc , λ exc )
C = | I f I bck | | I f + I bck |

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