Abstract

We propose a multimodal endoscopic system based on white light (WL), multispectral (MS), and photometric stereo (PS) imaging for the examination of colorectal cancer (CRC). Recently, the enhancement of the diagnostic accuracy of CRC colonoscopy has been reported; however, tumor diagnosis for a variety of lesion types remains challenging using current endoscopy. In this study, we demonstrate that our developed system can simultaneously discriminate tumor distributions and provide three-dimensional (3D) morphological information about the colon surface using the WL, MS, and PS imaging modalities. The results demonstrate that the proposed system has considerable potential for CRC diagnosis.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

2017 (5)

N. H. Kim, Y. S. Jung, W. S. Jeong, H.-J. Yang, S.-K. Park, K. Choi, and D. I. Park, “Miss rate of colorectal neoplastic polyps and risk factors for missed polyps in consecutive colonoscopies,” Intest. Res. 15(3), 411–418 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Meier, K. Caca, A. Fischer, and A. Schmidt, “Endoscopic management of colorectal adenomas,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 30(6), 592–597 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Kim, A. Seo, J. Y. Kim, S. H. Choi, H. J. Yoon, E. Kim, and J. Y. Hwang, “A Multimodal Biomicroscopic System based on High-frequency Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse and Multispectral Imaging Techniques for Tumor Characterization Ex vivo,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17518 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Dai, H. Yang, T. Shan, H. Xie, S. A. Berceli, and H. Jiang, “Miniature endoscope for multimodal imaging,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 174–180 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Hoffman, H. Manner, J. W. Rey, and R. Kiesslich, “A guide to multimodal endoscopy imaging for gastrointestinal malignancy - an early indicator,” Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 14(7), 421–434 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

B. Regeling, B. Thies, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, J. Bendix, and W. Laffers, “Hyperspectral Imaging Using Flexible Endoscopy for Laryngeal Cancer Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 16(8), 1288 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, D. Cho, J. Kim, M. Kim, S. Youn, J. E. Jang, M. Je, D. H. Lee, B. Lee, D. L. Farkas, and J. Y. Hwang, “Smartphone-based multispectral imaging: system development and potential for mobile skin diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5294–5307 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

J. Burggraaf, I. M. Kamerling, P. B. Gordon, L. Schrier, M. L. de Kam, A. J. Kales, R. Bendiksen, B. Indrevoll, R. M. Bjerke, S. A. Moestue, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Langers, M. Swaerd-Nordmo, G. Torheim, M. V. Warren, H. Morreau, P. W. Voorneveld, T. Buckle, F. W. van Leeuwen, L. I. Ødegårdstuen, G. T. Dalsgaard, A. Healey, and J. C. Hardwick, “Detection of colorectal polyps in humans using an intravenously administered fluorescent peptide targeted against c-Met,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 955–961 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

S. J. Chung, D. Kim, J. H. Song, H. Y. Kang, G. E. Chung, J. Choi, Y. S. Kim, M. J. Park, and J. S. Kim, “Comparison of detection and miss rates of narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging chromoendoscopy and white light at screening colonoscopy: a randomised controlled back-to-back study,” Gut 63(5), 785–791 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Parot, D. Lim, G. González, G. Traverso, N. S. Nishioka, B. J. Vakoc, and N. J. Durr, “Photometric stereo endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076017 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Kishimoto, M. Momiyama, R. Aki, H. Kimura, A. Suetsugu, M. Bouvet, T. Fujiwara, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of a clinically-precise mouse model of rectal cancer,” PLoS One 8(11), e79453 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

C. Schmalz, F. Forster, A. Schick, and E. Angelopoulou, “An endoscopic 3D scanner based on structured light,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1063–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Martin, B. Thies, and A. O. Gerstner, “Hyperspectral hybrid method classification for detecting altered mucosa of the human larynx,” Int. J. Health Geogr. 11(1), 21 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. O. Gerstner, W. Laffers, F. Bootz, D. L. Farkas, R. Martin, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Hyperspectral imaging of mucosal surfaces in patients,” J. Biophotonics 5(3), 255–262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Iftimia, A. K. Iyer, D. X. Hammer, N. Lue, M. Mujat, M. Pitman, R. D. Ferguson, and M. Amiji, “Fluorescence-guided optical coherence tomography imaging for colon cancer screening: a preliminary mouse study,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 178–191 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Wall and J. K. Barton, “Fluorescence-based surface magnifying chromoendoscopy and optical coherence tomography endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 086003 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

H. Akbari, K. Uto, Y. Kosugi, K. Kojima, and N. Tanaka, “Cancer detection using infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Cancer Sci. 102(4), 852–857 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

D. Ramsoekh, J. Haringsma, J. W. Poley, P. van Putten, H. van Dekken, E. W. Steyerberg, M. E. van Leerdam, and E. J. Kuipers, “A back-to-back comparison of white light video endoscopy with autofluorescence endoscopy for adenoma detection in high-risk subjects,” Gut 59(6), 785–793 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-H. Han, J. Lee, and J. U. Kang, “Pixelation effect removal from fiber bundle probe based optical coherence tomography imaging,” Opt. Express 18(7), 7427–7439 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

J. E. East, N. Suzuki, M. Stavrinidis, T. Guenther, H. J. Thomas, and B. P. Saunders, “Narrow band imaging for colonoscopic surveillance in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer,” Gut 57(1), 65–70 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

R. M. Levenson and J. R. Mansfield, “Multispectral imaging in biology and medicine: slices of life,” Cytometry A 69(8), 748–758 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. Unsalan and K. L. Boyer, “Linearized vegetation indices based on a formal statistical framework,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42(7), 1575–1585 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Barsky and M. Petrou, “The 4-source photometric stereo technique for three-dimensional surfaces in the presence of highlights and shadows,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 25(10), 1239–1252 (2003).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

S. Kudo, “Endoscopic mucosal resection of flat and depressed types of early colorectal cancer,” Endoscopy 25(7), 455–461 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

M. J. O’Brien, S. J. Winawer, A. G. Zauber, L. S. Gottlieb, S. S. Sternberg, B. Diaz, G. R. Dickersin, S. Ewing, S. Geller, D. Kasimian, R. Komorowski, and A. Szporn, “The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas,” Gastroenterology 98(2), 371–379 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36(2), 105–111 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

B. Vogelstein, E. R. Fearon, S. R. Hamilton, S. E. Kern, A. C. Preisinger, M. Leppert, Y. Nakamura, R. White, A. M. Smits, and J. L. Bos, “Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development,” N. Engl. J. Med. 319(9), 525–532 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. T. Frankot and R. Chellappa, “A method for enforcing integrability in shape from shading algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10(4), 439–451 (1988).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

R. J. Woodham, “Photometric method for determining surface orientation from multiple images,” Opt. Eng. 19(1), 191139 (1980).
[Crossref]

Aggarwal, A.

R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Akbari, H.

H. Akbari, K. Uto, Y. Kosugi, K. Kojima, and N. Tanaka, “Cancer detection using infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Cancer Sci. 102(4), 852–857 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aki, R.

H. Kishimoto, M. Momiyama, R. Aki, H. Kimura, A. Suetsugu, M. Bouvet, T. Fujiwara, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of a clinically-precise mouse model of rectal cancer,” PLoS One 8(11), e79453 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alatise, O. I.

R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amiji, M.

Anderson, B. O.

R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angelopoulou, E.

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R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
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R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
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R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
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R. A. Wall and J. K. Barton, “Fluorescence-based surface magnifying chromoendoscopy and optical coherence tomography endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 086003 (2012).
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J. Burggraaf, I. M. Kamerling, P. B. Gordon, L. Schrier, M. L. de Kam, A. J. Kales, R. Bendiksen, B. Indrevoll, R. M. Bjerke, S. A. Moestue, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Langers, M. Swaerd-Nordmo, G. Torheim, M. V. Warren, H. Morreau, P. W. Voorneveld, T. Buckle, F. W. van Leeuwen, L. I. Ødegårdstuen, G. T. Dalsgaard, A. Healey, and J. C. Hardwick, “Detection of colorectal polyps in humans using an intravenously administered fluorescent peptide targeted against c-Met,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 955–961 (2015).
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Bendix, J.

B. Regeling, B. Thies, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, J. Bendix, and W. Laffers, “Hyperspectral Imaging Using Flexible Endoscopy for Laryngeal Cancer Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 16(8), 1288 (2016).
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A. O. Gerstner, W. Laffers, F. Bootz, D. L. Farkas, R. Martin, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Hyperspectral imaging of mucosal surfaces in patients,” J. Biophotonics 5(3), 255–262 (2012).
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Berceli, S. A.

X. Dai, H. Yang, T. Shan, H. Xie, S. A. Berceli, and H. Jiang, “Miniature endoscope for multimodal imaging,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 174–180 (2017).
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J. Burggraaf, I. M. Kamerling, P. B. Gordon, L. Schrier, M. L. de Kam, A. J. Kales, R. Bendiksen, B. Indrevoll, R. M. Bjerke, S. A. Moestue, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Langers, M. Swaerd-Nordmo, G. Torheim, M. V. Warren, H. Morreau, P. W. Voorneveld, T. Buckle, F. W. van Leeuwen, L. I. Ødegårdstuen, G. T. Dalsgaard, A. Healey, and J. C. Hardwick, “Detection of colorectal polyps in humans using an intravenously administered fluorescent peptide targeted against c-Met,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 955–961 (2015).
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R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36(2), 105–111 (1990).
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A. O. Gerstner, W. Laffers, F. Bootz, D. L. Farkas, R. Martin, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Hyperspectral imaging of mucosal surfaces in patients,” J. Biophotonics 5(3), 255–262 (2012).
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B. Vogelstein, E. R. Fearon, S. R. Hamilton, S. E. Kern, A. C. Preisinger, M. Leppert, Y. Nakamura, R. White, A. M. Smits, and J. L. Bos, “Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development,” N. Engl. J. Med. 319(9), 525–532 (1988).
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H. Kishimoto, M. Momiyama, R. Aki, H. Kimura, A. Suetsugu, M. Bouvet, T. Fujiwara, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of a clinically-precise mouse model of rectal cancer,” PLoS One 8(11), e79453 (2013).
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Boyce, G. A.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36(2), 105–111 (1990).
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C. Unsalan and K. L. Boyer, “Linearized vegetation indices based on a formal statistical framework,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42(7), 1575–1585 (2004).
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R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
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Buckle, T.

J. Burggraaf, I. M. Kamerling, P. B. Gordon, L. Schrier, M. L. de Kam, A. J. Kales, R. Bendiksen, B. Indrevoll, R. M. Bjerke, S. A. Moestue, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Langers, M. Swaerd-Nordmo, G. Torheim, M. V. Warren, H. Morreau, P. W. Voorneveld, T. Buckle, F. W. van Leeuwen, L. I. Ødegårdstuen, G. T. Dalsgaard, A. Healey, and J. C. Hardwick, “Detection of colorectal polyps in humans using an intravenously administered fluorescent peptide targeted against c-Met,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 955–961 (2015).
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J. Burggraaf, I. M. Kamerling, P. B. Gordon, L. Schrier, M. L. de Kam, A. J. Kales, R. Bendiksen, B. Indrevoll, R. M. Bjerke, S. A. Moestue, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Langers, M. Swaerd-Nordmo, G. Torheim, M. V. Warren, H. Morreau, P. W. Voorneveld, T. Buckle, F. W. van Leeuwen, L. I. Ødegårdstuen, G. T. Dalsgaard, A. Healey, and J. C. Hardwick, “Detection of colorectal polyps in humans using an intravenously administered fluorescent peptide targeted against c-Met,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 955–961 (2015).
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B. Meier, K. Caca, A. Fischer, and A. Schmidt, “Endoscopic management of colorectal adenomas,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 30(6), 592–597 (2017).
[PubMed]

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R. T. Frankot and R. Chellappa, “A method for enforcing integrability in shape from shading algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10(4), 439–451 (1988).
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Chen, Z.

Cho, D.

Choi, J.

S. J. Chung, D. Kim, J. H. Song, H. Y. Kang, G. E. Chung, J. Choi, Y. S. Kim, M. J. Park, and J. S. Kim, “Comparison of detection and miss rates of narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging chromoendoscopy and white light at screening colonoscopy: a randomised controlled back-to-back study,” Gut 63(5), 785–791 (2014).
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N. H. Kim, Y. S. Jung, W. S. Jeong, H.-J. Yang, S.-K. Park, K. Choi, and D. I. Park, “Miss rate of colorectal neoplastic polyps and risk factors for missed polyps in consecutive colonoscopies,” Intest. Res. 15(3), 411–418 (2017).
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S. J. Chung, D. Kim, J. H. Song, H. Y. Kang, G. E. Chung, J. Choi, Y. S. Kim, M. J. Park, and J. S. Kim, “Comparison of detection and miss rates of narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging chromoendoscopy and white light at screening colonoscopy: a randomised controlled back-to-back study,” Gut 63(5), 785–791 (2014).
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S. J. Chung, D. Kim, J. H. Song, H. Y. Kang, G. E. Chung, J. Choi, Y. S. Kim, M. J. Park, and J. S. Kim, “Comparison of detection and miss rates of narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging chromoendoscopy and white light at screening colonoscopy: a randomised controlled back-to-back study,” Gut 63(5), 785–791 (2014).
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Cothren, R. M.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36(2), 105–111 (1990).
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D’Cruz, A.

R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
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Dai, X.

X. Dai, H. Yang, T. Shan, H. Xie, S. A. Berceli, and H. Jiang, “Miniature endoscope for multimodal imaging,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 174–180 (2017).
[Crossref]

Dalsgaard, G. T.

J. Burggraaf, I. M. Kamerling, P. B. Gordon, L. Schrier, M. L. de Kam, A. J. Kales, R. Bendiksen, B. Indrevoll, R. M. Bjerke, S. A. Moestue, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Langers, M. Swaerd-Nordmo, G. Torheim, M. V. Warren, H. Morreau, P. W. Voorneveld, T. Buckle, F. W. van Leeuwen, L. I. Ødegårdstuen, G. T. Dalsgaard, A. Healey, and J. C. Hardwick, “Detection of colorectal polyps in humans using an intravenously administered fluorescent peptide targeted against c-Met,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 955–961 (2015).
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Dare, A.

R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
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J. Burggraaf, I. M. Kamerling, P. B. Gordon, L. Schrier, M. L. de Kam, A. J. Kales, R. Bendiksen, B. Indrevoll, R. M. Bjerke, S. A. Moestue, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Langers, M. Swaerd-Nordmo, G. Torheim, M. V. Warren, H. Morreau, P. W. Voorneveld, T. Buckle, F. W. van Leeuwen, L. I. Ødegårdstuen, G. T. Dalsgaard, A. Healey, and J. C. Hardwick, “Detection of colorectal polyps in humans using an intravenously administered fluorescent peptide targeted against c-Met,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 955–961 (2015).
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M. J. O’Brien, S. J. Winawer, A. G. Zauber, L. S. Gottlieb, S. S. Sternberg, B. Diaz, G. R. Dickersin, S. Ewing, S. Geller, D. Kasimian, R. Komorowski, and A. Szporn, “The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas,” Gastroenterology 98(2), 371–379 (1990).
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M. J. O’Brien, S. J. Winawer, A. G. Zauber, L. S. Gottlieb, S. S. Sternberg, B. Diaz, G. R. Dickersin, S. Ewing, S. Geller, D. Kasimian, R. Komorowski, and A. Szporn, “The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas,” Gastroenterology 98(2), 371–379 (1990).
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Doxtader, M.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36(2), 105–111 (1990).
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V. Parot, D. Lim, G. González, G. Traverso, N. S. Nishioka, B. J. Vakoc, and N. J. Durr, “Photometric stereo endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076017 (2013).
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J. E. East, N. Suzuki, M. Stavrinidis, T. Guenther, H. J. Thomas, and B. P. Saunders, “Narrow band imaging for colonoscopic surveillance in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer,” Gut 57(1), 65–70 (2007).
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Eggermont, A. M.

R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
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J. Penne, K. Höller, M. Stürmer, T. Schrauder, A. Schneider, R. Engelbrecht, H. Feußner, B. Schmauss, and J. Hornegger, “Time-of-flight 3-D endoscopy,” in International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, (Springer, 2009), 467–474.

Ewing, S.

M. J. O’Brien, S. J. Winawer, A. G. Zauber, L. S. Gottlieb, S. S. Sternberg, B. Diaz, G. R. Dickersin, S. Ewing, S. Geller, D. Kasimian, R. Komorowski, and A. Szporn, “The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas,” Gastroenterology 98(2), 371–379 (1990).
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Farkas, D. L.

Fearon, E. R.

B. Vogelstein, E. R. Fearon, S. R. Hamilton, S. E. Kern, A. C. Preisinger, M. Leppert, Y. Nakamura, R. White, A. M. Smits, and J. L. Bos, “Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development,” N. Engl. J. Med. 319(9), 525–532 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36(2), 105–111 (1990).
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Ferguson, R. D.

Feußner, H.

J. Penne, K. Höller, M. Stürmer, T. Schrauder, A. Schneider, R. Engelbrecht, H. Feußner, B. Schmauss, and J. Hornegger, “Time-of-flight 3-D endoscopy,” in International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention, (Springer, 2009), 467–474.

Fischer, A.

B. Meier, K. Caca, A. Fischer, and A. Schmidt, “Endoscopic management of colorectal adenomas,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 30(6), 592–597 (2017).
[PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36(2), 105–111 (1990).
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Fleming, K.

R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Forster, F.

C. Schmalz, F. Forster, A. Schick, and E. Angelopoulou, “An endoscopic 3D scanner based on structured light,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1063–1072 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frankot, R. T.

R. T. Frankot and R. Chellappa, “A method for enforcing integrability in shape from shading algorithms,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 10(4), 439–451 (1988).
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Fujita, Y.

S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
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Fujiwara, T.

H. Kishimoto, M. Momiyama, R. Aki, H. Kimura, A. Suetsugu, M. Bouvet, T. Fujiwara, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of a clinically-precise mouse model of rectal cancer,” PLoS One 8(11), e79453 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geller, S.

M. J. O’Brien, S. J. Winawer, A. G. Zauber, L. S. Gottlieb, S. S. Sternberg, B. Diaz, G. R. Dickersin, S. Ewing, S. Geller, D. Kasimian, R. Komorowski, and A. Szporn, “The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas,” Gastroenterology 98(2), 371–379 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerstner, A. O.

B. Regeling, B. Thies, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, J. Bendix, and W. Laffers, “Hyperspectral Imaging Using Flexible Endoscopy for Laryngeal Cancer Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 16(8), 1288 (2016).
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R. Martin, B. Thies, and A. O. Gerstner, “Hyperspectral hybrid method classification for detecting altered mucosa of the human larynx,” Int. J. Health Geogr. 11(1), 21 (2012).
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A. O. Gerstner, W. Laffers, F. Bootz, D. L. Farkas, R. Martin, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Hyperspectral imaging of mucosal surfaces in patients,” J. Biophotonics 5(3), 255–262 (2012).
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H. Kishimoto, M. Momiyama, R. Aki, H. Kimura, A. Suetsugu, M. Bouvet, T. Fujiwara, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of a clinically-precise mouse model of rectal cancer,” PLoS One 8(11), e79453 (2013).
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Hwang, J. Y.

J. Kim, A. Seo, J. Y. Kim, S. H. Choi, H. J. Yoon, E. Kim, and J. Y. Hwang, “A Multimodal Biomicroscopic System based on High-frequency Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse and Multispectral Imaging Techniques for Tumor Characterization Ex vivo,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17518 (2017).
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Jung, Y. S.

N. H. Kim, Y. S. Jung, W. S. Jeong, H.-J. Yang, S.-K. Park, K. Choi, and D. I. Park, “Miss rate of colorectal neoplastic polyps and risk factors for missed polyps in consecutive colonoscopies,” Intest. Res. 15(3), 411–418 (2017).
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J. Burggraaf, I. M. Kamerling, P. B. Gordon, L. Schrier, M. L. de Kam, A. J. Kales, R. Bendiksen, B. Indrevoll, R. M. Bjerke, S. A. Moestue, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Langers, M. Swaerd-Nordmo, G. Torheim, M. V. Warren, H. Morreau, P. W. Voorneveld, T. Buckle, F. W. van Leeuwen, L. I. Ødegårdstuen, G. T. Dalsgaard, A. Healey, and J. C. Hardwick, “Detection of colorectal polyps in humans using an intravenously administered fluorescent peptide targeted against c-Met,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 955–961 (2015).
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J. Burggraaf, I. M. Kamerling, P. B. Gordon, L. Schrier, M. L. de Kam, A. J. Kales, R. Bendiksen, B. Indrevoll, R. M. Bjerke, S. A. Moestue, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Langers, M. Swaerd-Nordmo, G. Torheim, M. V. Warren, H. Morreau, P. W. Voorneveld, T. Buckle, F. W. van Leeuwen, L. I. Ødegårdstuen, G. T. Dalsgaard, A. Healey, and J. C. Hardwick, “Detection of colorectal polyps in humans using an intravenously administered fluorescent peptide targeted against c-Met,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 955–961 (2015).
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Kasimian, D.

M. J. O’Brien, S. J. Winawer, A. G. Zauber, L. S. Gottlieb, S. S. Sternberg, B. Diaz, G. R. Dickersin, S. Ewing, S. Geller, D. Kasimian, R. Komorowski, and A. Szporn, “The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas,” Gastroenterology 98(2), 371–379 (1990).
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B. Vogelstein, E. R. Fearon, S. R. Hamilton, S. E. Kern, A. C. Preisinger, M. Leppert, Y. Nakamura, R. White, A. M. Smits, and J. L. Bos, “Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development,” N. Engl. J. Med. 319(9), 525–532 (1988).
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A. Hoffman, H. Manner, J. W. Rey, and R. Kiesslich, “A guide to multimodal endoscopy imaging for gastrointestinal malignancy - an early indicator,” Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 14(7), 421–434 (2017).
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S. J. Chung, D. Kim, J. H. Song, H. Y. Kang, G. E. Chung, J. Choi, Y. S. Kim, M. J. Park, and J. S. Kim, “Comparison of detection and miss rates of narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging chromoendoscopy and white light at screening colonoscopy: a randomised controlled back-to-back study,” Gut 63(5), 785–791 (2014).
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J. Kim, A. Seo, J. Y. Kim, S. H. Choi, H. J. Yoon, E. Kim, and J. Y. Hwang, “A Multimodal Biomicroscopic System based on High-frequency Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse and Multispectral Imaging Techniques for Tumor Characterization Ex vivo,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17518 (2017).
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J. Kim, A. Seo, J. Y. Kim, S. H. Choi, H. J. Yoon, E. Kim, and J. Y. Hwang, “A Multimodal Biomicroscopic System based on High-frequency Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse and Multispectral Imaging Techniques for Tumor Characterization Ex vivo,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17518 (2017).
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S. Kim, D. Cho, J. Kim, M. Kim, S. Youn, J. E. Jang, M. Je, D. H. Lee, B. Lee, D. L. Farkas, and J. Y. Hwang, “Smartphone-based multispectral imaging: system development and potential for mobile skin diagnosis,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5294–5307 (2016).
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S. J. Chung, D. Kim, J. H. Song, H. Y. Kang, G. E. Chung, J. Choi, Y. S. Kim, M. J. Park, and J. S. Kim, “Comparison of detection and miss rates of narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging chromoendoscopy and white light at screening colonoscopy: a randomised controlled back-to-back study,” Gut 63(5), 785–791 (2014).
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J. Kim, A. Seo, J. Y. Kim, S. H. Choi, H. J. Yoon, E. Kim, and J. Y. Hwang, “A Multimodal Biomicroscopic System based on High-frequency Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse and Multispectral Imaging Techniques for Tumor Characterization Ex vivo,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17518 (2017).
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Kim, M.

Kim, N. H.

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Kim, Y. S.

S. J. Chung, D. Kim, J. H. Song, H. Y. Kang, G. E. Chung, J. Choi, Y. S. Kim, M. J. Park, and J. S. Kim, “Comparison of detection and miss rates of narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging chromoendoscopy and white light at screening colonoscopy: a randomised controlled back-to-back study,” Gut 63(5), 785–791 (2014).
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H. Kishimoto, M. Momiyama, R. Aki, H. Kimura, A. Suetsugu, M. Bouvet, T. Fujiwara, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of a clinically-precise mouse model of rectal cancer,” PLoS One 8(11), e79453 (2013).
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S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
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M. J. O’Brien, S. J. Winawer, A. G. Zauber, L. S. Gottlieb, S. S. Sternberg, B. Diaz, G. R. Dickersin, S. Ewing, S. Geller, D. Kasimian, R. Komorowski, and A. Szporn, “The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas,” Gastroenterology 98(2), 371–379 (1990).
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H. Akbari, K. Uto, Y. Kosugi, K. Kojima, and N. Tanaka, “Cancer detection using infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Cancer Sci. 102(4), 852–857 (2011).
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J. Burggraaf, I. M. Kamerling, P. B. Gordon, L. Schrier, M. L. de Kam, A. J. Kales, R. Bendiksen, B. Indrevoll, R. M. Bjerke, S. A. Moestue, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Langers, M. Swaerd-Nordmo, G. Torheim, M. V. Warren, H. Morreau, P. W. Voorneveld, T. Buckle, F. W. van Leeuwen, L. I. Ødegårdstuen, G. T. Dalsgaard, A. Healey, and J. C. Hardwick, “Detection of colorectal polyps in humans using an intravenously administered fluorescent peptide targeted against c-Met,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 955–961 (2015).
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R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
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A. Hoffman, H. Manner, J. W. Rey, and R. Kiesslich, “A guide to multimodal endoscopy imaging for gastrointestinal malignancy - an early indicator,” Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 14(7), 421–434 (2017).
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R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westermann, S.

B. Regeling, B. Thies, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, J. Bendix, and W. Laffers, “Hyperspectral Imaging Using Flexible Endoscopy for Laryngeal Cancer Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 16(8), 1288 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, R.

B. Vogelstein, E. R. Fearon, S. R. Hamilton, S. E. Kern, A. C. Preisinger, M. Leppert, Y. Nakamura, R. White, A. M. Smits, and J. L. Bos, “Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development,” N. Engl. J. Med. 319(9), 525–532 (1988).
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Winawer, S. J.

M. J. O’Brien, S. J. Winawer, A. G. Zauber, L. S. Gottlieb, S. S. Sternberg, B. Diaz, G. R. Dickersin, S. Ewing, S. Geller, D. Kasimian, R. Komorowski, and A. Szporn, “The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas,” Gastroenterology 98(2), 371–379 (1990).
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Woodham, R. J.

R. J. Woodham, “Photometric method for determining surface orientation from multiple images,” Opt. Eng. 19(1), 191139 (1980).
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Wu, Y. L.

R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
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Xie, H.

X. Dai, H. Yang, T. Shan, H. Xie, S. A. Berceli, and H. Jiang, “Miniature endoscope for multimodal imaging,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 174–180 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

X. Dai, H. Yang, T. Shan, H. Xie, S. A. Berceli, and H. Jiang, “Miniature endoscope for multimodal imaging,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 174–180 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.-J.

N. H. Kim, Y. S. Jung, W. S. Jeong, H.-J. Yang, S.-K. Park, K. Choi, and D. I. Park, “Miss rate of colorectal neoplastic polyps and risk factors for missed polyps in consecutive colonoscopies,” Intest. Res. 15(3), 411–418 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Yazdanfar, S.

J. Burggraaf, I. M. Kamerling, P. B. Gordon, L. Schrier, M. L. de Kam, A. J. Kales, R. Bendiksen, B. Indrevoll, R. M. Bjerke, S. A. Moestue, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Langers, M. Swaerd-Nordmo, G. Torheim, M. V. Warren, H. Morreau, P. W. Voorneveld, T. Buckle, F. W. van Leeuwen, L. I. Ødegårdstuen, G. T. Dalsgaard, A. Healey, and J. C. Hardwick, “Detection of colorectal polyps in humans using an intravenously administered fluorescent peptide targeted against c-Met,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 955–961 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, H. J.

J. Kim, A. Seo, J. Y. Kim, S. H. Choi, H. J. Yoon, E. Kim, and J. Y. Hwang, “A Multimodal Biomicroscopic System based on High-frequency Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse and Multispectral Imaging Techniques for Tumor Characterization Ex vivo,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17518 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Youn, S.

Yu, J.

Zauber, A. G.

M. J. O’Brien, S. J. Winawer, A. G. Zauber, L. S. Gottlieb, S. S. Sternberg, B. Diaz, G. R. Dickersin, S. Ewing, S. Geller, D. Kasimian, R. Komorowski, and A. Szporn, “The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas,” Gastroenterology 98(2), 371–379 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeiton, M.

R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

ACS Photonics (1)

X. Dai, H. Yang, T. Shan, H. Xie, S. A. Berceli, and H. Jiang, “Miniature endoscope for multimodal imaging,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 174–180 (2017).
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B. Meier, K. Caca, A. Fischer, and A. Schmidt, “Endoscopic management of colorectal adenomas,” Ann. Gastroenterol. 30(6), 592–597 (2017).
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Cancer Sci. (1)

H. Akbari, K. Uto, Y. Kosugi, K. Kojima, and N. Tanaka, “Cancer detection using infrared hyperspectral imaging,” Cancer Sci. 102(4), 852–857 (2011).
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Cytometry A (1)

R. M. Levenson and J. R. Mansfield, “Multispectral imaging in biology and medicine: slices of life,” Cytometry A 69(8), 748–758 (2006).
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Gastroenterology (1)

M. J. O’Brien, S. J. Winawer, A. G. Zauber, L. S. Gottlieb, S. S. Sternberg, B. Diaz, G. R. Dickersin, S. Ewing, S. Geller, D. Kasimian, R. Komorowski, and A. Szporn, “The National Polyp Study. Patient and polyp characteristics associated with high-grade dysplasia in colorectal adenomas,” Gastroenterology 98(2), 371–379 (1990).
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R. M. Cothren, R. Richards-Kortum, M. V. Sivak, M. Fitzmaurice, R. P. Rava, G. A. Boyce, M. Doxtader, R. Blackman, T. B. Ivanc, G. B. Hayes, M. S. Feld, and R. E. Petras, “Gastrointestinal tissue diagnosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy at endoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 36(2), 105–111 (1990).
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J. E. East, N. Suzuki, M. Stavrinidis, T. Guenther, H. J. Thomas, and B. P. Saunders, “Narrow band imaging for colonoscopic surveillance in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer,” Gut 57(1), 65–70 (2007).
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D. Ramsoekh, J. Haringsma, J. W. Poley, P. van Putten, H. van Dekken, E. W. Steyerberg, M. E. van Leerdam, and E. J. Kuipers, “A back-to-back comparison of white light video endoscopy with autofluorescence endoscopy for adenoma detection in high-risk subjects,” Gut 59(6), 785–793 (2010).
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S. J. Chung, D. Kim, J. H. Song, H. Y. Kang, G. E. Chung, J. Choi, Y. S. Kim, M. J. Park, and J. S. Kim, “Comparison of detection and miss rates of narrow band imaging, flexible spectral imaging chromoendoscopy and white light at screening colonoscopy: a randomised controlled back-to-back study,” Gut 63(5), 785–791 (2014).
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IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

C. Unsalan and K. L. Boyer, “Linearized vegetation indices based on a formal statistical framework,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42(7), 1575–1585 (2004).
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Int. J. Health Geogr. (1)

R. Martin, B. Thies, and A. O. Gerstner, “Hyperspectral hybrid method classification for detecting altered mucosa of the human larynx,” Int. J. Health Geogr. 11(1), 21 (2012).
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Intest. Res. (1)

N. H. Kim, Y. S. Jung, W. S. Jeong, H.-J. Yang, S.-K. Park, K. Choi, and D. I. Park, “Miss rate of colorectal neoplastic polyps and risk factors for missed polyps in consecutive colonoscopies,” Intest. Res. 15(3), 411–418 (2017).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

R. A. Wall and J. K. Barton, “Fluorescence-based surface magnifying chromoendoscopy and optical coherence tomography endoscope,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(8), 086003 (2012).
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V. Parot, D. Lim, G. González, G. Traverso, N. S. Nishioka, B. J. Vakoc, and N. J. Durr, “Photometric stereo endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(7), 076017 (2013).
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S. Kiyotoki, J. Nishikawa, T. Okamoto, K. Hamabe, M. Saito, A. Goto, Y. Fujita, Y. Hamamoto, Y. Takeuchi, S. Satori, and I. Sakaida, “New method for detection of gastric cancer by hyperspectral imaging: a pilot study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026010 (2013).
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J. Biophotonics (1)

A. O. Gerstner, W. Laffers, F. Bootz, D. L. Farkas, R. Martin, J. Bendix, and B. Thies, “Hyperspectral imaging of mucosal surfaces in patients,” J. Biophotonics 5(3), 255–262 (2012).
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Lancet Oncol. (1)

R. Sullivan, O. I. Alatise, B. O. Anderson, R. Audisio, P. Autier, A. Aggarwal, C. Balch, M. F. Brennan, A. Dare, A. D’Cruz, A. M. Eggermont, K. Fleming, S. M. Gueye, L. Hagander, C. A. Herrera, H. Holmer, A. M. Ilbawi, A. Jarnheimer, J. F. Ji, T. P. Kingham, J. Liberman, A. J. Leather, J. G. Meara, S. Mukhopadhyay, S. S. Murthy, S. Omar, G. P. Parham, C. S. Pramesh, R. Riviello, D. Rodin, L. Santini, S. V. Shrikhande, M. Shrime, R. Thomas, A. T. Tsunoda, C. van de Velde, U. Veronesi, D. K. Vijaykumar, D. Watters, S. Wang, Y. L. Wu, M. Zeiton, and A. Purushotham, “Global cancer surgery: delivering safe, affordable, and timely cancer surgery,” Lancet Oncol. 16(11), 1193–1224 (2015).
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Med. Image Anal. (1)

C. Schmalz, F. Forster, A. Schick, and E. Angelopoulou, “An endoscopic 3D scanner based on structured light,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1063–1072 (2012).
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N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

B. Vogelstein, E. R. Fearon, S. R. Hamilton, S. E. Kern, A. C. Preisinger, M. Leppert, Y. Nakamura, R. White, A. M. Smits, and J. L. Bos, “Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development,” N. Engl. J. Med. 319(9), 525–532 (1988).
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Nat. Med. (1)

J. Burggraaf, I. M. Kamerling, P. B. Gordon, L. Schrier, M. L. de Kam, A. J. Kales, R. Bendiksen, B. Indrevoll, R. M. Bjerke, S. A. Moestue, S. Yazdanfar, A. M. Langers, M. Swaerd-Nordmo, G. Torheim, M. V. Warren, H. Morreau, P. W. Voorneveld, T. Buckle, F. W. van Leeuwen, L. I. Ødegårdstuen, G. T. Dalsgaard, A. Healey, and J. C. Hardwick, “Detection of colorectal polyps in humans using an intravenously administered fluorescent peptide targeted against c-Met,” Nat. Med. 21(8), 955–961 (2015).
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Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

A. Hoffman, H. Manner, J. W. Rey, and R. Kiesslich, “A guide to multimodal endoscopy imaging for gastrointestinal malignancy - an early indicator,” Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 14(7), 421–434 (2017).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

R. J. Woodham, “Photometric method for determining surface orientation from multiple images,” Opt. Eng. 19(1), 191139 (1980).
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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

PLoS One (1)

H. Kishimoto, M. Momiyama, R. Aki, H. Kimura, A. Suetsugu, M. Bouvet, T. Fujiwara, and R. M. Hoffman, “Development of a clinically-precise mouse model of rectal cancer,” PLoS One 8(11), e79453 (2013).
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Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Kim, A. Seo, J. Y. Kim, S. H. Choi, H. J. Yoon, E. Kim, and J. Y. Hwang, “A Multimodal Biomicroscopic System based on High-frequency Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse and Multispectral Imaging Techniques for Tumor Characterization Ex vivo,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 17518 (2017).
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Sensors (Basel) (1)

B. Regeling, B. Thies, A. O. Gerstner, S. Westermann, N. A. Müller, J. Bendix, and W. Laffers, “Hyperspectral Imaging Using Flexible Endoscopy for Laryngeal Cancer Detection,” Sensors (Basel) 16(8), 1288 (2016).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Multimodal endoscopic system: (a) system diagram, (b) photographs of the system, and (c) endoscopic probe.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Color image of the grid target (left) and image corrected for barrel distortion (right) using WL imaging. (b) Target resolution (8 cycles/mm) (left) and intensity profiles in the lateral and axial directions along dotted lines A’ (middle) and B’ (right).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Transmission spectra of the optical bandpass filters, and (b) spectra of the WL and UV-light sources.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 White light and multispectral imaging of the polyp-mimicking phantom: (a) photograph of the polyp-mimicking phantom, (b) color image acquired by WL imaging, (c) fluorescence spectral image cube, (d) normalized spectral signatures of the fluorescent microspheres and skin-colored phantom, (e) spectral-classified image.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PS imaging of the polyp-mimicking phantom: (a–d) set of images acquired at different illumination directions, (e) calculated surface normal image, (f) albedo map, and (g) reconstructed the 3D morphological image.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 PS imaging of phantoms containing sessile polyp: (a) photograph of the phantom, and (b–j) 3D constructed images of phantoms containing sessile polyps.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Multimodal endoscopic imaging of colon tissues including tumors, ex vivo: (a) color image, (b) mean spectra with the standard deviation for colorectal cancer and normal tissues (n = 4), (c) spectral-classified image, (d) calculated surface normal image and (e) albedo image, (f) reconstructed 3D morphological image, and (g) H&E-stained images of the regions labeled 1 and 2 in (a), showing highly proliferative tumors (left) and normal colon structures (right).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SAM( s i , u i )= cos 1 ( l=1 L s il u jl ( l=1 L s il 2 ) 1 2 ( l=1 L u jl 2 ) 1 2 ),
[ I 1 I 2 I 3 I 4 ]=[ L 1 L 2 L 3 L 4 ] k d NI=LG,
L T I= L T LG,
G= ( L T L ) 1 ( L T I ),
k d = G ,
N= 1 k d G,
L=2( nr )nr,

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