Abstract

Endoscopic imaging allows longitudinal observation of epithelial pathologies in tubular organs throughout the body. However, the imaging and optical diagnosis of tubular biostructures such as small animal models and small pediatric organs require appropriately miniaturized devices. A miniaturized catadioptric flexible side-view endoscope is proposed with omnidirectional field of view (FOV) in the transverse direction and sub-mm-scale feature resolution. The FOV in the longitudinal direction is 50°. Images are unwrapped and stitched together to form composite images of the target by two different algorithms, revealing a composite FOV of more than 3.5 cm × 360°. The endoscope is well suited for minimally invasive rapid monitoring of thin tubular organs in pediatric patients, as well as for imaging of small animal disease models at near-cellular resolution.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (4)

M. A. Tadayon, I. Pavlova, K. M. Martyniuk, A. Mohanty, S. P. Roberts, F. Barbosa, C. A. Denny, and M. Lipson, “Microphotonic needle for minimally invasive endoscopic imaging with sub-cellular resolution,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10756 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Hite, A. Klinger, L. Hellmers, G. A. Maresh, P. E. Miller, X. Zhang, L. Li, and D. A. Margolin, “An Optimal Orthotopic Mouse Model for Human Colorectal Cancer Primary Tumor Growth and Spontaneous Metastasis,” Dis. Colon Rectum 61(6), 698–705 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Fumagalli, S. J. E. Suijkerbuijk, H. Begthel, E. Beerling, K. C. Oost, H. J. Snippert, J. van Rheenen, and J. Drost, “A surgical orthotopic organoid transplantation approach in mice to visualize and study colorectal cancer progression,” Nat. Protoc. 13(2), 235–247 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. L. Stone, M. S. Butler, W. Phetsang, M. A. Cooper, and M. A. T. Blaskovich, “Fluorescent Antibiotics: New Research Tools to Fight Antibiotic Resistance,” Trends Biotechnol. 36(5), 523–536 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

Q. Liu, J. Bai, and Y. Luo, “Design of high resolution panoramic endoscope imaging system based on freeform surface,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 680, 012011 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Sahli, R. Wang, A. Murthy, D. Arnstrong, M. J. Deen, and Q. Fang, “A 360 degree side view endoscope for lower gi tract mapping,” Phys. Can. 71, 18–20 (2015).

R. Katkam, B. Banerjee, C. Y. Huang, X. Zhu, L. Ocampo, J.-L. Kincade, and R. Liang, “Compact dual-view endoscope without field obscuration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076007 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-J. Sheu, C.-W. Chiang, W.-S. Sun, J.-J. Wang, and J.-W. Pan, “Dual view capsule endoscopic lens design,” Opt. Express 23(7), 8565–8575 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

T. F. Vandamme, “Use of rodents as models of human diseases,” J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci. 6(1), 2–9 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Klimas and E. Entcheva, “Toward microendoscopy-inspired cardiac optogenetics in vivo: technical overview and perspective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080701 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Do, H. Yoo, and D.-G. Gweon, “Fiber-optic raster scanning two-photon endomicroscope using a tubular piezoelectric actuator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 066010 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

M. Ou-Yang and W.-D. Jeng, “Design and analysis of radial imaging capsule endoscope (RICE) system,” Opt. Express 19(5), 4369–4383 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Zigmond, Z. Halpern, E. Elinav, E. Brazowski, S. Jung, and C. Varol, “Utilization of Murine Colonoscopy for Orthotopic Implantation of Colorectal Cancer,” PLoS One 6(12), e28858 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. C. C. Wang, M. J. Deen, D. Armstrong, and Q. Fang, “Development of a catadioptric endoscope objective with forward and side views,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

N. Barker, R. A. Ridgway, J. H. van Es, M. van de Wetering, H. Begthel, M. van den Born, E. Danenberg, A. R. Clarke, O. J. Sansom, and H. Clevers, “Crypt stem cells as the cells-of-origin of intestinal cancer,” Nature 457(7229), 608–611 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. L. Mariottini and D. Prattichizzo, “Image-based Visual Servoing with Central Catadioptric Cameras,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 27(1), 41–56 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Pellisé, G. Fernández-Esparrach, A. Cárdenas, O. Sendino, E. Ricart, E. Vaquero, A. Z. Gimeno-García, C. R. de Miguel, M. Zabalza, A. Ginès, J. M. Piqué, J. Llach, and A. Castells, “Impact of Wide-Angle, High-Definition Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of Colorectal Neoplasia: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1062–1068 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Brown and D. G. Lowe, “Automatic Panoramic Image Stitching using Invariant Features,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 74(1), 59–73 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2002 (2)

N. S. Buttar, K. K. Wang, O. Leontovich, J. Y. Westcott, R. J. Pacifico, M. A. Anderson, K. K. Krishnadath, L. S. Lutzke, and L. J. Burgart, “Chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma by COX-2 inhibitors in an animal model of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 122(4), 1101–1112 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. G. Opitz, H. Harada, Y. Suliman, B. Rhoades, N. E. Sharpless, R. Kent, L. Kopelovich, H. Nakagawa, and A. K. Rustgi, “A mouse model of human oral-esophageal cancer,” J. Clin. Invest. 110(6), 761–769 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

X. Chen, Y. W. Ding, G. Yang, F. Bondoc, M. J. Lee, and C. S. Yang, “Oxidative damage in an esophageal adenocarcinoma model with rats,” Carcinogenesis 21(2), 257–263 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. Baker and S. K. Nayar, “A Theory of Single-Viewpoint Catadioptric Image Formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35(2), 175–196 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Pocard, H. Tsukui, R. J. Salmon, B. Dutrillaux, and M. F. Poupon, “Efficiency of orthotopic xenograft models for human colon cancers,” In Vivo 10(5), 463–469 (1996).
[PubMed]

Anandasabapathy, S.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. A.

N. S. Buttar, K. K. Wang, O. Leontovich, J. Y. Westcott, R. J. Pacifico, M. A. Anderson, K. K. Krishnadath, L. S. Lutzke, and L. J. Burgart, “Chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma by COX-2 inhibitors in an animal model of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 122(4), 1101–1112 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aparicio Fernandes, J. C.

J. C. Aparicio Fernandes and J. A. B. Campos Neves, “Using Conical and Spherical Mirrors with Conventional Cameras for 360°; Panorama Views in a Single Image,” in 2006 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 157–160.
[Crossref]

Armstrong, D.

R. C. C. Wang, M. J. Deen, D. Armstrong, and Q. Fang, “Development of a catadioptric endoscope objective with forward and side views,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnstrong, D.

S. Sahli, R. Wang, A. Murthy, D. Arnstrong, M. J. Deen, and Q. Fang, “A 360 degree side view endoscope for lower gi tract mapping,” Phys. Can. 71, 18–20 (2015).

Attardo, A.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, J.

Q. Liu, J. Bai, and Y. Luo, “Design of high resolution panoramic endoscope imaging system based on freeform surface,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 680, 012011 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bajcsy, R.

Baker, S.

S. Baker and S. K. Nayar, “A Theory of Single-Viewpoint Catadioptric Image Formation,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 35(2), 175–196 (1999).
[Crossref]

Banerjee, B.

R. Katkam, B. Banerjee, C. Y. Huang, X. Zhu, L. Ocampo, J.-L. Kincade, and R. Liang, “Compact dual-view endoscope without field obscuration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076007 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbosa, F.

M. A. Tadayon, I. Pavlova, K. M. Martyniuk, A. Mohanty, S. P. Roberts, F. Barbosa, C. A. Denny, and M. Lipson, “Microphotonic needle for minimally invasive endoscopic imaging with sub-cellular resolution,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10756 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barker, N.

N. Barker, R. A. Ridgway, J. H. van Es, M. van de Wetering, H. Begthel, M. van den Born, E. Danenberg, A. R. Clarke, O. J. Sansom, and H. Clevers, “Crypt stem cells as the cells-of-origin of intestinal cancer,” Nature 457(7229), 608–611 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barretto, R. P. J.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beerling, E.

A. Fumagalli, S. J. E. Suijkerbuijk, H. Begthel, E. Beerling, K. C. Oost, H. J. Snippert, J. van Rheenen, and J. Drost, “A surgical orthotopic organoid transplantation approach in mice to visualize and study colorectal cancer progression,” Nat. Protoc. 13(2), 235–247 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Begthel, H.

A. Fumagalli, S. J. E. Suijkerbuijk, H. Begthel, E. Beerling, K. C. Oost, H. J. Snippert, J. van Rheenen, and J. Drost, “A surgical orthotopic organoid transplantation approach in mice to visualize and study colorectal cancer progression,” Nat. Protoc. 13(2), 235–247 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Barker, R. A. Ridgway, J. H. van Es, M. van de Wetering, H. Begthel, M. van den Born, E. Danenberg, A. R. Clarke, O. J. Sansom, and H. Clevers, “Crypt stem cells as the cells-of-origin of intestinal cancer,” Nature 457(7229), 608–611 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhutani, M. S.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blaskovich, M. A. T.

M. R. L. Stone, M. S. Butler, W. Phetsang, M. A. Cooper, and M. A. T. Blaskovich, “Fluorescent Antibiotics: New Research Tools to Fight Antibiotic Resistance,” Trends Biotechnol. 36(5), 523–536 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bondoc, F.

X. Chen, Y. W. Ding, G. Yang, F. Bondoc, M. J. Lee, and C. S. Yang, “Oxidative damage in an esophageal adenocarcinoma model with rats,” Carcinogenesis 21(2), 257–263 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brazowski, E.

E. Zigmond, Z. Halpern, E. Elinav, E. Brazowski, S. Jung, and C. Varol, “Utilization of Murine Colonoscopy for Orthotopic Implantation of Colorectal Cancer,” PLoS One 6(12), e28858 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, M.

M. Brown and D. G. Lowe, “Automatic Panoramic Image Stitching using Invariant Features,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 74(1), 59–73 (2007).
[Crossref]

Burgart, L. J.

N. S. Buttar, K. K. Wang, O. Leontovich, J. Y. Westcott, R. J. Pacifico, M. A. Anderson, K. K. Krishnadath, L. S. Lutzke, and L. J. Burgart, “Chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma by COX-2 inhibitors in an animal model of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 122(4), 1101–1112 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butler, M. S.

M. R. L. Stone, M. S. Butler, W. Phetsang, M. A. Cooper, and M. A. T. Blaskovich, “Fluorescent Antibiotics: New Research Tools to Fight Antibiotic Resistance,” Trends Biotechnol. 36(5), 523–536 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buttar, N. S.

N. S. Buttar, K. K. Wang, O. Leontovich, J. Y. Westcott, R. J. Pacifico, M. A. Anderson, K. K. Krishnadath, L. S. Lutzke, and L. J. Burgart, “Chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma by COX-2 inhibitors in an animal model of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 122(4), 1101–1112 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campos Neves, J. A. B.

J. C. Aparicio Fernandes and J. A. B. Campos Neves, “Using Conical and Spherical Mirrors with Conventional Cameras for 360°; Panorama Views in a Single Image,” in 2006 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics (IEEE, 2006), pp. 157–160.
[Crossref]

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A. Klimas and E. Entcheva, “Toward microendoscopy-inspired cardiac optogenetics in vivo: technical overview and perspective,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(8), 080701 (2014).
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X. Chen, Y. W. Ding, G. Yang, F. Bondoc, M. J. Lee, and C. S. Yang, “Oxidative damage in an esophageal adenocarcinoma model with rats,” Carcinogenesis 21(2), 257–263 (2000).
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J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
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N. Hite, A. Klinger, L. Hellmers, G. A. Maresh, P. E. Miller, X. Zhang, L. Li, and D. A. Margolin, “An Optimal Orthotopic Mouse Model for Human Colorectal Cancer Primary Tumor Growth and Spontaneous Metastasis,” Dis. Colon Rectum 61(6), 698–705 (2018).
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R. Katkam, B. Banerjee, C. Y. Huang, X. Zhu, L. Ocampo, J.-L. Kincade, and R. Liang, “Compact dual-view endoscope without field obscuration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076007 (2015).
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N. S. Buttar, K. K. Wang, O. Leontovich, J. Y. Westcott, R. J. Pacifico, M. A. Anderson, K. K. Krishnadath, L. S. Lutzke, and L. J. Burgart, “Chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma by COX-2 inhibitors in an animal model of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 122(4), 1101–1112 (2002).
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N. Hite, A. Klinger, L. Hellmers, G. A. Maresh, P. E. Miller, X. Zhang, L. Li, and D. A. Margolin, “An Optimal Orthotopic Mouse Model for Human Colorectal Cancer Primary Tumor Growth and Spontaneous Metastasis,” Dis. Colon Rectum 61(6), 698–705 (2018).
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N. Hite, A. Klinger, L. Hellmers, G. A. Maresh, P. E. Miller, X. Zhang, L. Li, and D. A. Margolin, “An Optimal Orthotopic Mouse Model for Human Colorectal Cancer Primary Tumor Growth and Spontaneous Metastasis,” Dis. Colon Rectum 61(6), 698–705 (2018).
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N. Hite, A. Klinger, L. Hellmers, G. A. Maresh, P. E. Miller, X. Zhang, L. Li, and D. A. Margolin, “An Optimal Orthotopic Mouse Model for Human Colorectal Cancer Primary Tumor Growth and Spontaneous Metastasis,” Dis. Colon Rectum 61(6), 698–705 (2018).
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P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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M. A. Tadayon, I. Pavlova, K. M. Martyniuk, A. Mohanty, S. P. Roberts, F. Barbosa, C. A. Denny, and M. Lipson, “Microphotonic needle for minimally invasive endoscopic imaging with sub-cellular resolution,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10756 (2018).
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S. Sahli, R. Wang, A. Murthy, D. Arnstrong, M. J. Deen, and Q. Fang, “A 360 degree side view endoscope for lower gi tract mapping,” Phys. Can. 71, 18–20 (2015).

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A. Fumagalli, S. J. E. Suijkerbuijk, H. Begthel, E. Beerling, K. C. Oost, H. J. Snippert, J. van Rheenen, and J. Drost, “A surgical orthotopic organoid transplantation approach in mice to visualize and study colorectal cancer progression,” Nat. Protoc. 13(2), 235–247 (2018).
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O. G. Opitz, H. Harada, Y. Suliman, B. Rhoades, N. E. Sharpless, R. Kent, L. Kopelovich, H. Nakagawa, and A. K. Rustgi, “A mouse model of human oral-esophageal cancer,” J. Clin. Invest. 110(6), 761–769 (2002).
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Ou-Yang, M.

Pacifico, R. J.

N. S. Buttar, K. K. Wang, O. Leontovich, J. Y. Westcott, R. J. Pacifico, M. A. Anderson, K. K. Krishnadath, L. S. Lutzke, and L. J. Burgart, “Chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma by COX-2 inhibitors in an animal model of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 122(4), 1101–1112 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, J.-W.

Parikh, N.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavlova, I.

M. A. Tadayon, I. Pavlova, K. M. Martyniuk, A. Mohanty, S. P. Roberts, F. Barbosa, C. A. Denny, and M. Lipson, “Microphotonic needle for minimally invasive endoscopic imaging with sub-cellular resolution,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10756 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pellisé, M.

M. Pellisé, G. Fernández-Esparrach, A. Cárdenas, O. Sendino, E. Ricart, E. Vaquero, A. Z. Gimeno-García, C. R. de Miguel, M. Zabalza, A. Ginès, J. M. Piqué, J. Llach, and A. Castells, “Impact of Wide-Angle, High-Definition Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of Colorectal Neoplasia: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1062–1068 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phetsang, W.

M. R. L. Stone, M. S. Butler, W. Phetsang, M. A. Cooper, and M. A. T. Blaskovich, “Fluorescent Antibiotics: New Research Tools to Fight Antibiotic Resistance,” Trends Biotechnol. 36(5), 523–536 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piqué, J. M.

M. Pellisé, G. Fernández-Esparrach, A. Cárdenas, O. Sendino, E. Ricart, E. Vaquero, A. Z. Gimeno-García, C. R. de Miguel, M. Zabalza, A. Ginès, J. M. Piqué, J. Llach, and A. Castells, “Impact of Wide-Angle, High-Definition Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of Colorectal Neoplasia: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1062–1068 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pocard, M.

M. Pocard, H. Tsukui, R. J. Salmon, B. Dutrillaux, and M. F. Poupon, “Efficiency of orthotopic xenograft models for human colon cancers,” In Vivo 10(5), 463–469 (1996).
[PubMed]

Polydorides, A. D.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poupon, M. F.

M. Pocard, H. Tsukui, R. J. Salmon, B. Dutrillaux, and M. F. Poupon, “Efficiency of orthotopic xenograft models for human colon cancers,” In Vivo 10(5), 463–469 (1996).
[PubMed]

Prattichizzo, D.

G. L. Mariottini and D. Prattichizzo, “Image-based Visual Servoing with Central Catadioptric Cameras,” Int. J. Robot. Res. 27(1), 41–56 (2008).
[Crossref]

Protano, M.-A.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quang, T.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Recht, L.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rhoades, B.

O. G. Opitz, H. Harada, Y. Suliman, B. Rhoades, N. E. Sharpless, R. Kent, L. Kopelovich, H. Nakagawa, and A. K. Rustgi, “A mouse model of human oral-esophageal cancer,” J. Clin. Invest. 110(6), 761–769 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ricart, E.

M. Pellisé, G. Fernández-Esparrach, A. Cárdenas, O. Sendino, E. Ricart, E. Vaquero, A. Z. Gimeno-García, C. R. de Miguel, M. Zabalza, A. Ginès, J. M. Piqué, J. Llach, and A. Castells, “Impact of Wide-Angle, High-Definition Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of Colorectal Neoplasia: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1062–1068 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ridgway, R. A.

N. Barker, R. A. Ridgway, J. H. van Es, M. van de Wetering, H. Begthel, M. van den Born, E. Danenberg, A. R. Clarke, O. J. Sansom, and H. Clevers, “Crypt stem cells as the cells-of-origin of intestinal cancer,” Nature 457(7229), 608–611 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roberts, S. P.

M. A. Tadayon, I. Pavlova, K. M. Martyniuk, A. Mohanty, S. P. Roberts, F. Barbosa, C. A. Denny, and M. Lipson, “Microphotonic needle for minimally invasive endoscopic imaging with sub-cellular resolution,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10756 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rustgi, A. K.

O. G. Opitz, H. Harada, Y. Suliman, B. Rhoades, N. E. Sharpless, R. Kent, L. Kopelovich, H. Nakagawa, and A. K. Rustgi, “A mouse model of human oral-esophageal cancer,” J. Clin. Invest. 110(6), 761–769 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sahli, S.

S. Sahli, R. Wang, A. Murthy, D. Arnstrong, M. J. Deen, and Q. Fang, “A 360 degree side view endoscope for lower gi tract mapping,” Phys. Can. 71, 18–20 (2015).

Salmon, R. J.

M. Pocard, H. Tsukui, R. J. Salmon, B. Dutrillaux, and M. F. Poupon, “Efficiency of orthotopic xenograft models for human colon cancers,” In Vivo 10(5), 463–469 (1996).
[PubMed]

Sansom, O. J.

N. Barker, R. A. Ridgway, J. H. van Es, M. van de Wetering, H. Begthel, M. van den Born, E. Danenberg, A. R. Clarke, O. J. Sansom, and H. Clevers, “Crypt stem cells as the cells-of-origin of intestinal cancer,” Nature 457(7229), 608–611 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwarz, R. A.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sendino, O.

M. Pellisé, G. Fernández-Esparrach, A. Cárdenas, O. Sendino, E. Ricart, E. Vaquero, A. Z. Gimeno-García, C. R. de Miguel, M. Zabalza, A. Ginès, J. M. Piqué, J. Llach, and A. Castells, “Impact of Wide-Angle, High-Definition Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of Colorectal Neoplasia: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1062–1068 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharpless, N. E.

O. G. Opitz, H. Harada, Y. Suliman, B. Rhoades, N. E. Sharpless, R. Kent, L. Kopelovich, H. Nakagawa, and A. K. Rustgi, “A mouse model of human oral-esophageal cancer,” J. Clin. Invest. 110(6), 761–769 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheu, M.-J.

Shin, D.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Snippert, H. J.

A. Fumagalli, S. J. E. Suijkerbuijk, H. Begthel, E. Beerling, K. C. Oost, H. J. Snippert, J. van Rheenen, and J. Drost, “A surgical orthotopic organoid transplantation approach in mice to visualize and study colorectal cancer progression,” Nat. Protoc. 13(2), 235–247 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, M. R. L.

M. R. L. Stone, M. S. Butler, W. Phetsang, M. A. Cooper, and M. A. T. Blaskovich, “Fluorescent Antibiotics: New Research Tools to Fight Antibiotic Resistance,” Trends Biotechnol. 36(5), 523–536 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suijkerbuijk, S. J. E.

A. Fumagalli, S. J. E. Suijkerbuijk, H. Begthel, E. Beerling, K. C. Oost, H. J. Snippert, J. van Rheenen, and J. Drost, “A surgical orthotopic organoid transplantation approach in mice to visualize and study colorectal cancer progression,” Nat. Protoc. 13(2), 235–247 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suliman, Y.

O. G. Opitz, H. Harada, Y. Suliman, B. Rhoades, N. E. Sharpless, R. Kent, L. Kopelovich, H. Nakagawa, and A. K. Rustgi, “A mouse model of human oral-esophageal cancer,” J. Clin. Invest. 110(6), 761–769 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, W.-S.

Tadayon, M. A.

M. A. Tadayon, I. Pavlova, K. M. Martyniuk, A. Mohanty, S. P. Roberts, F. Barbosa, C. A. Denny, and M. Lipson, “Microphotonic needle for minimally invasive endoscopic imaging with sub-cellular resolution,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10756 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsukui, H.

M. Pocard, H. Tsukui, R. J. Salmon, B. Dutrillaux, and M. F. Poupon, “Efficiency of orthotopic xenograft models for human colon cancers,” In Vivo 10(5), 463–469 (1996).
[PubMed]

van de Wetering, M.

N. Barker, R. A. Ridgway, J. H. van Es, M. van de Wetering, H. Begthel, M. van den Born, E. Danenberg, A. R. Clarke, O. J. Sansom, and H. Clevers, “Crypt stem cells as the cells-of-origin of intestinal cancer,” Nature 457(7229), 608–611 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van den Born, M.

N. Barker, R. A. Ridgway, J. H. van Es, M. van de Wetering, H. Begthel, M. van den Born, E. Danenberg, A. R. Clarke, O. J. Sansom, and H. Clevers, “Crypt stem cells as the cells-of-origin of intestinal cancer,” Nature 457(7229), 608–611 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Es, J. H.

N. Barker, R. A. Ridgway, J. H. van Es, M. van de Wetering, H. Begthel, M. van den Born, E. Danenberg, A. R. Clarke, O. J. Sansom, and H. Clevers, “Crypt stem cells as the cells-of-origin of intestinal cancer,” Nature 457(7229), 608–611 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Rheenen, J.

A. Fumagalli, S. J. E. Suijkerbuijk, H. Begthel, E. Beerling, K. C. Oost, H. J. Snippert, J. van Rheenen, and J. Drost, “A surgical orthotopic organoid transplantation approach in mice to visualize and study colorectal cancer progression,” Nat. Protoc. 13(2), 235–247 (2018).
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Vandamme, T. F.

T. F. Vandamme, “Use of rodents as models of human diseases,” J. Pharm. Bioallied Sci. 6(1), 2–9 (2014).
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Vaquero, E.

M. Pellisé, G. Fernández-Esparrach, A. Cárdenas, O. Sendino, E. Ricart, E. Vaquero, A. Z. Gimeno-García, C. R. de Miguel, M. Zabalza, A. Ginès, J. M. Piqué, J. Llach, and A. Castells, “Impact of Wide-Angle, High-Definition Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of Colorectal Neoplasia: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1062–1068 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Varol, C.

E. Zigmond, Z. Halpern, E. Elinav, E. Brazowski, S. Jung, and C. Varol, “Utilization of Murine Colonoscopy for Orthotopic Implantation of Colorectal Cancer,” PLoS One 6(12), e28858 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.-J.

Wang, K. K.

N. S. Buttar, K. K. Wang, O. Leontovich, J. Y. Westcott, R. J. Pacifico, M. A. Anderson, K. K. Krishnadath, L. S. Lutzke, and L. J. Burgart, “Chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma by COX-2 inhibitors in an animal model of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 122(4), 1101–1112 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

S. Sahli, R. Wang, A. Murthy, D. Arnstrong, M. J. Deen, and Q. Fang, “A 360 degree side view endoscope for lower gi tract mapping,” Phys. Can. 71, 18–20 (2015).

Wang, R. C. C.

R. C. C. Wang, M. J. Deen, D. Armstrong, and Q. Fang, “Development of a catadioptric endoscope objective with forward and side views,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(6), 066015 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T. J.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Waters, A. C.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Westcott, J. Y.

N. S. Buttar, K. K. Wang, O. Leontovich, J. Y. Westcott, R. J. Pacifico, M. A. Anderson, K. K. Krishnadath, L. S. Lutzke, and L. J. Burgart, “Chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma by COX-2 inhibitors in an animal model of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 122(4), 1101–1112 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, L.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, H.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. S.

X. Chen, Y. W. Ding, G. Yang, F. Bondoc, M. J. Lee, and C. S. Yang, “Oxidative damage in an esophageal adenocarcinoma model with rats,” Carcinogenesis 21(2), 257–263 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, G.

X. Chen, Y. W. Ding, G. Yang, F. Bondoc, M. J. Lee, and C. S. Yang, “Oxidative damage in an esophageal adenocarcinoma model with rats,” Carcinogenesis 21(2), 257–263 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, H.

D. Do, H. Yoo, and D.-G. Gweon, “Fiber-optic raster scanning two-photon endomicroscope using a tubular piezoelectric actuator,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19, 066010 (2014).
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Yun, S. H.

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, and S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zabalza, M.

M. Pellisé, G. Fernández-Esparrach, A. Cárdenas, O. Sendino, E. Ricart, E. Vaquero, A. Z. Gimeno-García, C. R. de Miguel, M. Zabalza, A. Ginès, J. M. Piqué, J. Llach, and A. Castells, “Impact of Wide-Angle, High-Definition Endoscopy in the Diagnosis of Colorectal Neoplasia: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1062–1068 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, F.

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

N. Hite, A. Klinger, L. Hellmers, G. A. Maresh, P. E. Miller, X. Zhang, L. Li, and D. A. Margolin, “An Optimal Orthotopic Mouse Model for Human Colorectal Cancer Primary Tumor Growth and Spontaneous Metastasis,” Dis. Colon Rectum 61(6), 698–705 (2018).
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Zhu, X.

R. Katkam, B. Banerjee, C. Y. Huang, X. Zhu, L. Ocampo, J.-L. Kincade, and R. Liang, “Compact dual-view endoscope without field obscuration,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(7), 076007 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zigmond, E.

E. Zigmond, Z. Halpern, E. Elinav, E. Brazowski, S. Jung, and C. Varol, “Utilization of Murine Colonoscopy for Orthotopic Implantation of Colorectal Cancer,” PLoS One 6(12), e28858 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziv, Y.

R. P. J. Barretto, T. H. Ko, J. C. Jung, T. J. Wang, G. Capps, A. C. Waters, Y. Ziv, A. Attardo, L. Recht, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Time-lapse imaging of disease progression in deep brain areas using fluorescence microendoscopy,” Nat. Med. 17(2), 223–228 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carcinogenesis (1)

X. Chen, Y. W. Ding, G. Yang, F. Bondoc, M. J. Lee, and C. S. Yang, “Oxidative damage in an esophageal adenocarcinoma model with rats,” Carcinogenesis 21(2), 257–263 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

D. Shin, M.-A. Protano, A. D. Polydorides, S. M. Dawsey, M. C. Pierce, M. K. Kim, R. A. Schwarz, T. Quang, N. Parikh, M. S. Bhutani, F. Zhang, G. Wang, L. Xue, X. Wang, H. Xu, S. Anandasabapathy, and R. R. Richards-Kortum, “Quantitative Analysis of High-Resolution Microendoscopic Images for Diagnosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 13(2), 272–279 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dis. Colon Rectum (1)

N. Hite, A. Klinger, L. Hellmers, G. A. Maresh, P. E. Miller, X. Zhang, L. Li, and D. A. Margolin, “An Optimal Orthotopic Mouse Model for Human Colorectal Cancer Primary Tumor Growth and Spontaneous Metastasis,” Dis. Colon Rectum 61(6), 698–705 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (2)

N. S. Buttar, K. K. Wang, O. Leontovich, J. Y. Westcott, R. J. Pacifico, M. A. Anderson, K. K. Krishnadath, L. S. Lutzke, and L. J. Burgart, “Chemoprevention of esophageal adenocarcinoma by COX-2 inhibitors in an animal model of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastroenterology 122(4), 1101–1112 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Conception and realization of the miniaturized catadioptric device. (a) Example usage of a proposed flexible catadioptric micro-endoscope. The goal of the catadioptric device is to enable panoramic imaging into the thin tubular structures of the small animal and pediatric epithelial tissues. (b) The simple device consists of six parts and (c) as realized, allows imaging as well as illumination. (d) Scale design of a representative mirror mount and (e) lens mount for additive manufacturing.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of best focus image quality (a-e) for the catadioptric mirrors of Table 1, show that best combination of focus, resolution, and field of view are obtained (a-f) with Parabolic Mirror 1, a parabola of diameter 2.00 mm and focus 0.172 mm, and (g-i) the SEL 120 lens assembly. Note that (f) and (i) are intentionally identical.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical properties of the panoramic endoscope as-designed (a) Optical schematic of the device. (b) Spot sizes of the fields from +57° to −30°. (c) Calculated MTF of the device in selected fields. Measurements in mm denote object position axially from the mirror perpendicular. (d) Simulated cylindrical projection onto the image sensor.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Demonstration of the unwrapping and compositing processes with artificial images. (a) Schematic of panoramic image capture along the longitudinal axis. (b) Three panoramic grid images generated for testing of the algorithm. (c) Panoramic grid images unwrapped to cylinders show little distortion (d-e) Demonstration of unwrapping algorithm for video.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Sample unwrapping and compositing of test images, comparing the endoscope packaged within and outside of a quartz tube. (a) Wrapped cylindrical logo in air, imaged at three longitudinal points. (b) Unwrapped cylindrical logo for each of the images in (a). (c) Composite image of the images in (b). (d,e,f) With the probe packaged in a quartz tube, frames taken from a video of the wrapped cylindrical logo. (g) Frames unwrapped from the video in (d,e,f) show decreased contrast due to Fresnel reflections, but reduced image distortion and higher resolution overall. The unwrapping and composting of (a-c) demonstrates the algorithm used in Fig. 3(a)-3(c), which works well for nonconsecutive images with shared features, while that of (d-g) demonstrates the algorithm of Fig. 3(e)-3(f), which applies well to video images.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Slant edge derivation of modulation transfer function. (a) Raw image. (b) MTF.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Cylindrical imaging of a pediatric cardiac phantom. (a) Initial frame with overlaid extracted circular imaging region (red dash). (b) branching of artery is observed in the phantom (blue arrow). (c) The unwrapped cylindrical image, with the first frame imaging region marked (red dash). The imaging direction arrow (red) matches that in (a). (d) The image re-wrapped onto a cylinder in 3D modelling software for a fly-through examination.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of the mirrors

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications of the chip sensor

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