Abstract

We present a microscopic image guidance platform for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a clinical balloon-catheter-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) system, currently used in the surveillance of Barrett’s esophagus patients. Our integrated thermal therapy delivery and monitoring platform consists of a flexible, customized bipolar RFA electrode array designed for use with a clinical balloon OCT catheter and a processing algorithm to accurately map the thermal coagulation process. Non-uniform rotation distortion was corrected using a feature tracking-based technique, which enables robust, frame-to-frame analysis of the temporal fluctuation of the complex OCT signal. With proper noise calibration, precise delineation of the thermal therapy zone was demonstrated using cumulative complex differential variance in porcine esophagus ex vivo with the integrated OCT-RFA system, as validated by nitroblue tetrazolium chloride (NBTC) histology. The ability to directly and accurately visualize the thermal coagulation process at high resolution is critical to the precise delivery of thermal energy to a wide range of epithelial lesions.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (3)

2017 (4)

T.-H. Tsai, C. L. Leggett, A. J. Trindade, A. Sethi, A.-F. Swager, V. Joshi, J. J. Bergman, H. Mashimo, N. S. Nishioka, and E. Namati, “Optical coherence tomography in gastroenterology: A review and future outlook,” JBO, JBOPFO 22, 121716 (2017).

D. A. Gil, L. M. Swift, H. Asfour, N. Muselimyan, M. A. Mercader, and N. A. Sarvazyan, “Autofluorescence hyperspectral imaging of radiofrequency ablation lesions in porcine cardiac tissue,” J. Biophotonics 10, 1008–1017 (2017).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, J. J. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, Q. Huang, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of the radiofrequency ablation dynamics of esophageal tissue with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22, 076001 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 10, 84–91 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

K. Kurokawa, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Investigation of thermal effects of photocoagulation on retinal tissue using fine-motion-sensitive dynamic optical coherence tomography,” PLoS ONE 11, 1–12 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. Ahmad, A. Gribble, M. Ikram, M. Pop, and A. Vitkin, “Polarimetric assessment of healthy and radiofrequency ablated porcine myocardial tissue,” J. Biophotonics 9, 750–759 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

2014 (5)

2013 (5)

J. Akiyama, A. Roorda, and G. Triadafilopoulos, “Managing Barrett’s esophagus with radiofrequency ablation,” Gastroenterol. Rep. 1, 95–104 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. J. Bulsiewicz, H. P. Kim, E. S. Dellon, C. C. Cotton, S. Pasricha, R. D. Madanick, M. B. Spacek, S. E. Bream, X. Chen, R. C. Orlando, and N. J. Shaheen, “Safety and Efficacy of Endoscopic Mucosal Therapy With Radiofrequency Ablation for Patients With Neoplastic Barrett’s Esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 636–642 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. P. Fleming, H. Wang, K. J. Quan, and A. M. Rollins, “Real-time monitoring of cardiac radio-frequency ablation lesion formation using an optical coherence tomography forward-imaging catheter,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 030516 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Geissbuehler and T. Lasser, “How to display data by color schemes compatible with red-green color perception deficiencies,” Opt. Express 21, 9862–9874 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Trujillo and E. Berjano, “Review of the mathematical functions used to model the temperature dependence of electrical and thermal conductivities of biological tissue in radiofrequency ablation,” Int. J. Hyperth. 6736, 1–8 (2013).

2012 (2)

C. Zhou, T.-H. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, T. Kirtane, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, O. O. Ahsen, D. C. Adler, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Characterization of buried glands before and after radiofrequency ablation by using 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76, 32–40 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Nelsen, R. H. Hawes, and P. G. Iyer, “Diagnosis and Management of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 92, 1135–1154 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

H. Wang, W. Kang, T. Carrigan, A. Bishop, N. Rosenthal, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo intracardiac optical coherence tomography imaging through percutaneous access: Toward image-guided radio-frequency ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 110505 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Kang, H. Wang, Z. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, G. A. Isenberg, A. Chak, and A. M. Rollins, “Motion artifacts associated with in vivo endoscopic oct images of the esophagus,” Opt. Express 19, 20722–20735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 118001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Liu, W. Qi, L. Yu, and Z. Chen, “Real-time bulk-motion-correction free Doppler variance optical coherence tomography for choroidal capillary vasculature imaging,” Opt. Express 19, 3657–3666 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

D. Wagner, G. Reitmayr, A. Mulloni, T. Drummond, and D. Schmalstieg, “Real-Time Detection and Tracking for Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones,” IEEE Transactions on Vis. Comput. Graph. 16, 355–368 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. P. Fleming, K. J. Quan, H. Wang, G. Amit, and A. M. Rollins, “In vitro characterization of cardiac radiofrequency ablation lesions using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18, 3079–3092 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Bellizzi and R. D. Odze, “Histopathology of Barrett’s esophagus: A review for the practicing gastroenterologist,” Tech. Gastrointest. Endosc. 12, 69–81 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Wani, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, “Endoscopic eradication of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71, 147–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. J. Shaheen and D. J. Frantz, “When to consider endoscopic ablation therapy for Barrett’s esophagus,” Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 26, 361–366 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T.-H. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neosquamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41, 773–776 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. D. Lyday, F. S. Corbett, D. A. Kuperman, I. Kalvaria, P. G. Mavrelis, A. B. Shughoury, R. E. Pruitt, C. Prevention, N. Therapy, and S. M. Hospital, “Radiofrequency ablation of Barrett’s esophagus : Outcomes of 429 patients from a multicenter community practice registry,” Endoscopy 42, 272–278 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745–753 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. K. Wang and R. E. Sampliner, “Updated Guidelines 2008 for the Diagnosis, Surveillance and Therapy of Barrett’s Esophagus,” The Am. J. Gastroenterol. 103, 788–797 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. E. Fleischer and V. K. Sharma, “Endoscopic Ablation of Barrett’s Esophagus Using the Halo System,” Dig. Dis. 26, 280–284 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

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M. Brown and D. G. Lowe, “Automatic Panoramic Image Stitching using Invariant Features,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 74, 59–73 (2007).
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2006 (4)

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1998 (1)

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B. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. Bejarano, C. Smith, K. Chang, A. Livingstone, and W. Melvin, “Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device,” Surg. Endosc. Other Interv. Tech. 20, 125–130 (2006).
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B. J. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. A. Bejarano, C. D. Smith, K. Chang, A. S. Livingstone, and W. S. Melvin, “Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device,” Surg. Endosc. 20, 125–130 (2006).
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M. Trujillo and E. Berjano, “Review of the mathematical functions used to model the temperature dependence of electrical and thermal conductivities of biological tissue in radiofrequency ablation,” Int. J. Hyperth. 6736, 1–8 (2013).

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E. J. Berjano, “Theoretical modeling for radiofrequency ablation: state-of-the-art and challenges for the future,” Biomed. Eng. Online 5, 24 (2006).
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Bishop, A.

H. Wang, W. Kang, T. Carrigan, A. Bishop, N. Rosenthal, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo intracardiac optical coherence tomography imaging through percutaneous access: Toward image-guided radio-frequency ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 110505 (2011).
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Blumenthal, C.

Bouma, B.

Bouma, B. E.

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 10, 84–91 (2017).
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N. Uribe-Patarroyo and B. E. Bouma, “Rotational distortion correction in endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on speckle decorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5518–5521 (2015).
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M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: A pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
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M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 118001 (2011).
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M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745–753 (2008).
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B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020501 (2007).
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W. J. Bulsiewicz, H. P. Kim, E. S. Dellon, C. C. Cotton, S. Pasricha, R. D. Madanick, M. B. Spacek, S. E. Bream, X. Chen, R. C. Orlando, and N. J. Shaheen, “Safety and Efficacy of Endoscopic Mucosal Therapy With Radiofrequency Ablation for Patients With Neoplastic Barrett’s Esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 636–642 (2013).
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Bronner, M. P.

N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
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Brown, M.

M. Brown and D. G. Lowe, “Automatic Panoramic Image Stitching using Invariant Features,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 74, 59–73 (2007).
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Bulsiewicz, W. J.

W. J. Bulsiewicz, H. P. Kim, E. S. Dellon, C. C. Cotton, S. Pasricha, R. D. Madanick, M. B. Spacek, S. E. Bream, X. Chen, R. C. Orlando, and N. J. Shaheen, “Safety and Efficacy of Endoscopic Mucosal Therapy With Radiofrequency Ablation for Patients With Neoplastic Barrett’s Esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 636–642 (2013).
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Carrigan, T.

H. Wang, W. Kang, T. Carrigan, A. Bishop, N. Rosenthal, M. Arruda, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo intracardiac optical coherence tomography imaging through percutaneous access: Toward image-guided radio-frequency ablation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 110505 (2011).
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Chak, A.

W. Kang, H. Wang, Z. Wang, M. W. Jenkins, G. A. Isenberg, A. Chak, and A. M. Rollins, “Motion artifacts associated with in vivo endoscopic oct images of the esophagus,” Opt. Express 19, 20722–20735 (2011).
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Chang, K.

B. J. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. A. Bejarano, C. D. Smith, K. Chang, A. S. Livingstone, and W. S. Melvin, “Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device,” Surg. Endosc. 20, 125–130 (2006).
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B. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. Bejarano, C. Smith, K. Chang, A. Livingstone, and W. Melvin, “Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device,” Surg. Endosc. Other Interv. Tech. 20, 125–130 (2006).
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Chang, K. J.

N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
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V. K. Sharma, K. K. Wang, B. F. Overholt, C. J. Lightdale, M. B. Fennerty, P. J. Dean, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, A. Reymunde, N. Santiago, K. J. Chang, M. B. Kimmey, and D. E. Fleischer, “Balloon-based, circumferential, endoscopic radiofrequency ablation of Barrett’s esophagus: 1-year follow-up of 100 patients (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 185–195 (2007).
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Chen, X.

W. J. Bulsiewicz, H. P. Kim, E. S. Dellon, C. C. Cotton, S. Pasricha, R. D. Madanick, M. B. Spacek, S. E. Bream, X. Chen, R. C. Orlando, and N. J. Shaheen, “Safety and Efficacy of Endoscopic Mucosal Therapy With Radiofrequency Ablation for Patients With Neoplastic Barrett’s Esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 636–642 (2013).
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Chen, Z.

Chico-Calero, I.

Chuttani, R.

V. K. Sharma, K. K. Wang, B. F. Overholt, C. J. Lightdale, M. B. Fennerty, P. J. Dean, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, A. Reymunde, N. Santiago, K. J. Chang, M. B. Kimmey, and D. E. Fleischer, “Balloon-based, circumferential, endoscopic radiofrequency ablation of Barrett’s esophagus: 1-year follow-up of 100 patients (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 185–195 (2007).
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Corbett, F. S.

W. D. Lyday, F. S. Corbett, D. A. Kuperman, I. Kalvaria, P. G. Mavrelis, A. B. Shughoury, R. E. Pruitt, C. Prevention, N. Therapy, and S. M. Hospital, “Radiofrequency ablation of Barrett’s esophagus : Outcomes of 429 patients from a multicenter community practice registry,” Endoscopy 42, 272–278 (2009).
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Cotton, C. C.

W. J. Bulsiewicz, H. P. Kim, E. S. Dellon, C. C. Cotton, S. Pasricha, R. D. Madanick, M. B. Spacek, S. E. Bream, X. Chen, R. C. Orlando, and N. J. Shaheen, “Safety and Efficacy of Endoscopic Mucosal Therapy With Radiofrequency Ablation for Patients With Neoplastic Barrett’s Esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 636–642 (2013).
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de Boer, J.

Dean, P. J.

V. K. Sharma, K. K. Wang, B. F. Overholt, C. J. Lightdale, M. B. Fennerty, P. J. Dean, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, A. Reymunde, N. Santiago, K. J. Chang, M. B. Kimmey, and D. E. Fleischer, “Balloon-based, circumferential, endoscopic radiofrequency ablation of Barrett’s esophagus: 1-year follow-up of 100 patients (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 185–195 (2007).
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Dellon, E. S.

W. J. Bulsiewicz, H. P. Kim, E. S. Dellon, C. C. Cotton, S. Pasricha, R. D. Madanick, M. B. Spacek, S. E. Bream, X. Chen, R. C. Orlando, and N. J. Shaheen, “Safety and Efficacy of Endoscopic Mucosal Therapy With Radiofrequency Ablation for Patients With Neoplastic Barrett’s Esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 636–642 (2013).
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Desjardins, A. E.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. a Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898–905 (2007).
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D. Wagner, G. Reitmayr, A. Mulloni, T. Drummond, and D. Schmalstieg, “Real-Time Detection and Tracking for Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones,” IEEE Transactions on Vis. Comput. Graph. 16, 355–368 (2010).
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Dunkin, B.

B. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. Bejarano, C. Smith, K. Chang, A. Livingstone, and W. Melvin, “Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device,” Surg. Endosc. Other Interv. Tech. 20, 125–130 (2006).
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Dunkin, B. J.

B. J. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. A. Bejarano, C. D. Smith, K. Chang, A. S. Livingstone, and W. S. Melvin, “Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device,” Surg. Endosc. 20, 125–130 (2006).
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Edmundowicz, S. A.

N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
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Eisen, G. M.

N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
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Evans, J. a

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. a Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898–905 (2007).
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Falk, G. W.

N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
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H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, J. J. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, Q. Huang, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of the radiofrequency ablation dynamics of esophageal tissue with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22, 076001 (2017).
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Herranz, D.

Hoffman, B. J.

N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
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I. Ahmad, A. Gribble, M. Ikram, M. Pop, and A. Vitkin, “Polarimetric assessment of healthy and radiofrequency ablated porcine myocardial tissue,” J. Biophotonics 9, 750–759 (2016).
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N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
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Iyer, P. G.

E. M. Nelsen, R. H. Hawes, and P. G. Iyer, “Diagnosis and Management of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Surg. Clin. North Am. 92, 1135–1154 (2012).
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O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, M. G. Giacomelli, Z. Wang, K. Liang, T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Correction of rotational distortion for catheter-based en face oct and oct angiography,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5973–5976 (2014).
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Santiago, N.

V. K. Sharma, K. K. Wang, B. F. Overholt, C. J. Lightdale, M. B. Fennerty, P. J. Dean, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, A. Reymunde, N. Santiago, K. J. Chang, M. B. Kimmey, and D. E. Fleischer, “Balloon-based, circumferential, endoscopic radiofrequency ablation of Barrett’s esophagus: 1-year follow-up of 100 patients (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 185–195 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarvazyan, N. A.

D. A. Gil, L. M. Swift, H. Asfour, N. Muselimyan, M. A. Mercader, and N. A. Sarvazyan, “Autofluorescence hyperspectral imaging of radiofrequency ablation lesions in porcine cardiac tissue,” J. Biophotonics 10, 1008–1017 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sauk, J.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: A pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
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Sayana, H.

S. Wani, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, “Endoscopic eradication of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71, 147–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schmalstieg, D.

D. Wagner, G. Reitmayr, A. Mulloni, T. Drummond, and D. Schmalstieg, “Real-Time Detection and Tracking for Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones,” IEEE Transactions on Vis. Comput. Graph. 16, 355–368 (2010).
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Schmitt, J. M.

C. Zhou, T.-H. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, T. Kirtane, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, O. O. Ahsen, D. C. Adler, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Characterization of buried glands before and after radiofrequency ablation by using 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76, 32–40 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T.-H. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neosquamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41, 773–776 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sethi, A.

T.-H. Tsai, C. L. Leggett, A. J. Trindade, A. Sethi, A.-F. Swager, V. Joshi, J. J. Bergman, H. Mashimo, N. S. Nishioka, and E. Namati, “Optical coherence tomography in gastroenterology: A review and future outlook,” JBO, JBOPFO 22, 121716 (2017).

Shaheen, N. J.

W. J. Bulsiewicz, H. P. Kim, E. S. Dellon, C. C. Cotton, S. Pasricha, R. D. Madanick, M. B. Spacek, S. E. Bream, X. Chen, R. C. Orlando, and N. J. Shaheen, “Safety and Efficacy of Endoscopic Mucosal Therapy With Radiofrequency Ablation for Patients With Neoplastic Barrett’s Esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 636–642 (2013).
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N. J. Shaheen and D. J. Frantz, “When to consider endoscopic ablation therapy for Barrett’s esophagus,” Curr. Opin. Gastroenterol. 26, 361–366 (2010).
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N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
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J. T. Wei, P. Sharma, and N. J. Shaheen, “Endoscopic ablation therapies for Barrett’s esophagus: A meta-analysis of stricture complications,” The Am. J. Gastroenterol. 98, S33 (2003).

Sharma, P.

H. C. Wolfsen, P. Sharma, M. B. Wallace, C. Leggett, G. Tearney, and K. K. Wang, “Safety and feasibility of volumetric laser endomicroscopy in patients with Barrett’s esophagus (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 82, 631(2015).
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S. Wani, H. Sayana, and P. Sharma, “Endoscopic eradication of Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 71, 147–166 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
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J. T. Wei, P. Sharma, and N. J. Shaheen, “Endoscopic ablation therapies for Barrett’s esophagus: A meta-analysis of stricture complications,” The Am. J. Gastroenterol. 98, S33 (2003).

Sharma, V. K.

N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
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D. E. Fleischer and V. K. Sharma, “Endoscopic Ablation of Barrett’s Esophagus Using the Halo System,” Dig. Dis. 26, 280–284 (2008).
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V. K. Sharma, K. K. Wang, B. F. Overholt, C. J. Lightdale, M. B. Fennerty, P. J. Dean, D. K. Pleskow, R. Chuttani, A. Reymunde, N. Santiago, K. J. Chang, M. B. Kimmey, and D. E. Fleischer, “Balloon-based, circumferential, endoscopic radiofrequency ablation of Barrett’s esophagus: 1-year follow-up of 100 patients (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 185–195 (2007).
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Shishko, M.

B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. a Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898–905 (2007).
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Shishkov, M.

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745–753 (2008).
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Shughoury, A. B.

W. D. Lyday, F. S. Corbett, D. A. Kuperman, I. Kalvaria, P. G. Mavrelis, A. B. Shughoury, R. E. Pruitt, C. Prevention, N. Therapy, and S. M. Hospital, “Radiofrequency ablation of Barrett’s esophagus : Outcomes of 429 patients from a multicenter community practice registry,” Endoscopy 42, 272–278 (2009).
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Siddiqui, A. A.

N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
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Smith, C.

B. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. Bejarano, C. Smith, K. Chang, A. Livingstone, and W. Melvin, “Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device,” Surg. Endosc. Other Interv. Tech. 20, 125–130 (2006).
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Smith, C. D.

B. J. Dunkin, J. Martinez, P. A. Bejarano, C. D. Smith, K. Chang, A. S. Livingstone, and W. S. Melvin, “Thin-layer ablation of human esophageal epithelium using a bipolar radiofrequency balloon device,” Surg. Endosc. 20, 125–130 (2006).
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Snyder, C.

Soomro, A. R.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: A pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
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Soroka, A.

M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 118001 (2011).
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Souza, R. F.

N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
[Crossref]

Spacek, M. B.

W. J. Bulsiewicz, H. P. Kim, E. S. Dellon, C. C. Cotton, S. Pasricha, R. D. Madanick, M. B. Spacek, S. E. Bream, X. Chen, R. C. Orlando, and N. J. Shaheen, “Safety and Efficacy of Endoscopic Mucosal Therapy With Radiofrequency Ablation for Patients With Neoplastic Barrett’s Esophagus,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 11, 636–642 (2013).
[Crossref]

Spechler, S. J.

N. J. Shaheen, P. Sharma, B. F. Overholt, H. C. Wolfsen, R. E. Sampliner, K. K. Wang, J. A. Galanko, M. P. Bronner, J. R. Goldblum, A. E. Bennett, B. A. Jobe, G. M. Eisen, M. B. Fennerty, J. G. Hunter, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, R. H. Hawes, B. J. Hoffman, R. I. Rothstein, S. R. Gordon, H. Mashimo, K. J. Chang, V. R. Muthusamy, S. A. Edmundowicz, S. J. Spechler, A. A. Siddiqui, R. F. Souza, A. Infantolino, G. W. Falk, M. B. Kimmey, R. D. Madanick, A. Chak, and C. J. Lightdale, “Radiofrequency ablation in Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia,” The New Engl. J. Medicine 360, 2277–2288 (2009).
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Srinivas, S.

Stern, R. A.

R. A. Ganz, D. S. Utley, R. A. Stern, J. Jackson, K. P. Batts, and P. Termin, “Complete ablation of esophageal epithelium with a balloon-based bipolar electrode: A phased evaluation in the porcine and in the human esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 60, 1002–1010 (2004).
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Suter, M. J.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: A pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
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M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745–753 (2008).
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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. a Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898–905 (2007).
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Swager, A.-F.

T.-H. Tsai, C. L. Leggett, A. J. Trindade, A. Sethi, A.-F. Swager, V. Joshi, J. J. Bergman, H. Mashimo, N. S. Nishioka, and E. Namati, “Optical coherence tomography in gastroenterology: A review and future outlook,” JBO, JBOPFO 22, 121716 (2017).

Swift, L. M.

D. A. Gil, L. M. Swift, H. Asfour, N. Muselimyan, M. A. Mercader, and N. A. Sarvazyan, “Autofluorescence hyperspectral imaging of radiofrequency ablation lesions in porcine cardiac tissue,” J. Biophotonics 10, 1008–1017 (2017).
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Tan, K. M.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: A pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
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Tao, Y. K.

C. Zhou, T.-H. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, T. Kirtane, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, O. O. Ahsen, D. C. Adler, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Characterization of buried glands before and after radiofrequency ablation by using 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76, 32–40 (2012).
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Tearney, G.

Tearney, G. J.

M. J. Suter, M. J. Gora, G. Y. Lauwers, T. Arnason, J. Sauk, K. A. Gallagher, L. Kava, K. M. Tan, A. R. Soomro, T. P. Gallagher, J. A. Gardecki, B. E. Bouma, M. Rosenberg, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Esophageal-guided biopsy with volumetric laser endomicroscopy and laser cautery marking: A pilot clinical study,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 79, 886–896 (2014).
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M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 118001 (2011).
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M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745–753 (2008).
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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. a Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898–905 (2007).
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B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020501 (2007).
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Termin, P.

R. A. Ganz, D. S. Utley, R. A. Stern, J. Jackson, K. P. Batts, and P. Termin, “Complete ablation of esophageal epithelium with a balloon-based bipolar electrode: A phased evaluation in the porcine and in the human esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 60, 1002–1010 (2004).
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Terriberry, T. B.

T. B. Terriberry, L. M. French, and J. Helmsen, “Gpu accelerating speeded-up robust features,” in Proceedings of 3DPVT, vol. 8 (Citeseer, 2008), pp. 355–362.

Therapy, N.

W. D. Lyday, F. S. Corbett, D. A. Kuperman, I. Kalvaria, P. G. Mavrelis, A. B. Shughoury, R. E. Pruitt, C. Prevention, N. Therapy, and S. M. Hospital, “Radiofrequency ablation of Barrett’s esophagus : Outcomes of 429 patients from a multicenter community practice registry,” Endoscopy 42, 272–278 (2009).
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A. P. Thrift, “Barrett’s Esophagus and Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: How Common Are They Really?” Dig. Dis. Sci. 63, 1988–1996 (2018).
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Triadafilopoulos, G.

J. Akiyama, A. Roorda, and G. Triadafilopoulos, “Managing Barrett’s esophagus with radiofrequency ablation,” Gastroenterol. Rep. 1, 95–104 (2013).
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Trindade, A. J.

T.-H. Tsai, C. L. Leggett, A. J. Trindade, A. Sethi, A.-F. Swager, V. Joshi, J. J. Bergman, H. Mashimo, N. S. Nishioka, and E. Namati, “Optical coherence tomography in gastroenterology: A review and future outlook,” JBO, JBOPFO 22, 121716 (2017).

Trujillo, M.

M. Trujillo and E. Berjano, “Review of the mathematical functions used to model the temperature dependence of electrical and thermal conductivities of biological tissue in radiofrequency ablation,” Int. J. Hyperth. 6736, 1–8 (2013).

Tsai, T.-H.

T.-H. Tsai, C. L. Leggett, A. J. Trindade, A. Sethi, A.-F. Swager, V. Joshi, J. J. Bergman, H. Mashimo, N. S. Nishioka, and E. Namati, “Optical coherence tomography in gastroenterology: A review and future outlook,” JBO, JBOPFO 22, 121716 (2017).

H.-C. Lee, O. O. Ahsen, J. J. Liu, T.-H. Tsai, Q. Huang, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Assessment of the radiofrequency ablation dynamics of esophageal tissue with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22, 076001 (2017).
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O. O. Ahsen, H.-C. Lee, M. G. Giacomelli, Z. Wang, K. Liang, T.-H. Tsai, B. Potsaid, H. Mashimo, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Correction of rotational distortion for catheter-based en face oct and oct angiography,” Opt. Lett. 39, 5973–5976 (2014).
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C. Zhou, T.-H. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, T. Kirtane, M. Figueiredo, Y. K. Tao, O. O. Ahsen, D. C. Adler, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Characterization of buried glands before and after radiofrequency ablation by using 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography (with videos),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 76, 32–40 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, C. Zhou, T.-H. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, L. Becker, J. M. Schmitt, Q. Huang, J. G. Fujimoto, and H. Mashimo, “Three-dimensional optical coherence tomography of Barrett’s esophagus and buried glands beneath neosquamous epithelium following radiofrequency ablation,” Endoscopy 41, 773–776 (2009).
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Uribe-Patarroyo, N.

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 10, 84–91 (2017).
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N. Uribe-Patarroyo and B. E. Bouma, “Rotational distortion correction in endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on speckle decorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 40, 5518–5521 (2015).
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Utley, D. S.

R. A. Ganz, D. S. Utley, R. A. Stern, J. Jackson, K. P. Batts, and P. Termin, “Complete ablation of esophageal epithelium with a balloon-based bipolar electrode: A phased evaluation in the porcine and in the human esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 60, 1002–1010 (2004).
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Vakoc, B.

Vakoc, B. J.

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 10, 84–91 (2017).
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A. S. Nam, I. Chico-Calero, and B. J. Vakoc, “Complex differential variance algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3822–3832 (2014).
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A. S. Nam, I. Chico-Calero, and B. J. Vakoc, “Complex differential variance algorithm for optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5, 3822–3832 (2014).
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M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 118001 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Suter, B. J. Vakoc, P. S. Yachimski, M. Shishkov, G. Y. Lauwers, M. Mino-Kenudson, B. E. Bouma, N. S. Nishioka, and G. J. Tearney, “Comprehensive microscopy of the esophagus in human patients with optical frequency domain imaging,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68, 745–753 (2008).
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B. J. Vakoc, M. Shishko, S. H. Yun, W.-Y. Oh, M. J. Suter, A. E. Desjardins, J. a Evans, N. S. Nishioka, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Comprehensive esophageal microscopy by using optical frequency-domain imaging (with video),” Gastrointest. Endosc. 65, 898–905 (2007).
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B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 020501 (2007).
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Villiger, M.

W. C. Y. Lo, N. Uribe-Patarroyo, A. S. Nam, M. Villiger, B. J. Vakoc, and B. E. Bouma, “Laser thermal therapy monitoring using complex differential variance in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biophotonics 10, 84–91 (2017).
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M. Villiger, A. Soroka, G. J. Tearney, B. E. Bouma, and B. J. Vakoc, “Injury depth control from combined wavelength and power tuning in scanned beam laser thermal therapy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 118001 (2011).
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Vitkin, A.

I. Ahmad, A. Gribble, M. Ikram, M. Pop, and A. Vitkin, “Polarimetric assessment of healthy and radiofrequency ablated porcine myocardial tissue,” J. Biophotonics 9, 750–759 (2016).
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Wagner, D.

D. Wagner, G. Reitmayr, A. Mulloni, T. Drummond, and D. Schmalstieg, “Real-Time Detection and Tracking for Augmented Reality on Mobile Phones,” IEEE Transactions on Vis. Comput. Graph. 16, 355–368 (2010).
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Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Radiofrequency ablation monitoring using SNR-calibrated CDV in a clinical balloon catheter, demonstrating the ability to visualize the dynamics of the thermal coagulation process in porcine esophagus \emph{ex vivo}. The RFA therapy wa
» Visualization 2       Radiofrequency ablation monitoring using cumulative CDV (counterpart to the experiment in Fig.~\ref{fig:Exp_CDV1}), demonstrating the ability to more clearly visualize the evolution of thermal coagulation process in porcine esophagus
» Visualization 3       Radiofrequency ablation monitoring using calibrated CDV in a clinical balloon catheter with an applied voltage of $V_{\text{RMS}}=25$~V at 500~kHz for 10~s. In contrast to Fig.~\ref{fig:Exp_CDV1}, the region with increased CDV (purple
» Visualization 4       Radiofrequency ablation monitoring using cumulative CDV for the experiment in Fig.~\ref{fig:Exp_CDV2}. The region with increased cumulative CDV (red-purple) eventually reached all the way through the muscularis mucosa.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the microscopic thermal therapy monitoring setup integrating a flexible bipolar radiofrequency ablation electrode array with an optical coherence tomography system. Imaging is performed between alternating electrode pairs (+: active electrode, −: dispersive or ground electrode) to enable real-time microscopic image guidance.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Finite element model of a bipolar radiofrequency electrode array (11 electrodes, each 500 μm wide and 10 mm long, with a 500 μm spacing) on top of a two-layer tissue slab, with a progressively finer tetrahedral mesh around the electrode area. (b) Simulated cross-sectional temperature profile at the center of the bipolar RF array (between electrodes 5 and 6), with an applied voltage of VRMS = 20 V for 10 seconds. (c) Corresponding necrotic tissue fraction at 10 seconds (VRMS = 20 V) assuming an initial tissue temperature (T0) of 25 °C (i), 20 °C (ii), and 4 °C (iii), respectively. (d) Average surface temperature of the tissue under the electrode array as a function of time for different voltage settings (VRMS = 15 V, 20 V, 25 V, d = 0.5 mm for all three voltage settings). (e) Average surface temperature of the tissue for different distances between consecutive electrodes (d = 0.25 mm, 0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, respectively; VRMS = 20 V for all three distances).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Overview of the processing algorithm, illustrating the impact of NURD correction and SNR calibration on the ability to delineate the thermal lesion in this challenging setting. Blue (red) highlights regions of high CDV (cCDV). The intensity OCT images were used to globally align the frames using the a fiducial mark [RFA electrode connectors on each side, as indicated with white arrowheads, the bottom one used as fiducial; the active RFA region imaged between consecutive bipolar electrode pairs is indicated by the red star] (a), followed by feature tracking to correct for NURD artifacts (b). Using the NURD corrected frames, the calibrated CDV (c) is computed by extracting a static region within the tissue to determine the SNR calibration curve. The cumulative CDV (d) is computed to reveal the thermal lesion generated by the RFA therapy.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Exemplary raw complex-valued tomogram. (a) Tomogram intensity [red star: active RFA region imaged between consecutive bipolar electrode pairs; white arrowhead: RFA electrode connector, the first connector on the left –not shown– was used as fiducial mark for alignment], (b) tomogram phase, (c) modified cross-correlation coefficient, (d) phase of the pixel-per-pixel cross correlation term between adjacent B-scans. In (b), (c) and (d) regions with low intensity are white for visualization purposes.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Results after electrode registration and interpolation to 4096 A-lines. (a) Tomogram intensity [red star: active RFA region imaged between consecutive bipolar electrode pairs; white arrowhead: RFA electrode connector, the first connector on the left –not shown– was used as fiducial mark for alignment], (b) tomogram phase, (c) modified cross-correlation coefficient, (d) phase of the pixel-per-pixel cross correlation term between adjacent B-scans. In (b), (c) and (d) regions with low intensity are white for visualization purposes.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Speckle feature tracking for NURD correction. (a) Small region of interest comprising 192 A-lines and 192 pixels in depth, centered around the right side of the electrode. Large blue circles indicate detected features in frame m − 1 (m = 25 in this case) and small red circles, the counterparts in frame m. Orange traces indicate the motion of the features between frames. Among this pair of frames, the electrode region does not move significantly, the tissue under the electrode exhibits a small rightward motion, and the tissue at the right of the electrode has a large rightward motion. This matches the value of the modified cross-correlation coefficient in Fig. 5. (b) Displacement Δ x between adjacent frames of all the tracked features (blue dots) and the filtered features according to the explanation in the text (red dots). The yellow line shows the M(l, m) obtained from the interpolation of the filtered tracked features.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Results after feature tracking NURD correction. (a) Modified cross-correlation coefficient, (b) phase of the pixel-per-pixel cross correlation term between adjacent B-scans. In (a) and (b) regions with low intensity are white for visualization purposes.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Radiofrequency ablation monitoring using SNR-calibrated CDV in a clinical balloon catheter, demonstrating the ability to visualize the dynamics of the thermal coagulation process in porcine esophagus ex vivo. The RFA therapy was configured with VRMS = 20 V at 500 kHz for 10 s. A region with increased CDV (purple) was observed at the center of the electrodes in the epithelium up to the lamina propria (t = 7–8 s) and eventually reaching slightly into the muscularis mucosa (t = 9–10 s). Imaging was performed until after the RF source was turned off at t = 10 s to illustrate the rapid decrease in CDV. ee, edges of electrode; e, epithelium; lp, lamina propria; mm, muscularis mucosa. The two-dimensional color bar indicates the CDV γSNR range in hue, and the image intensity I in dB in luminance. Scale bars are 1 mm in tissue. See Visualization 1 for the full video.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Radiofrequency ablation monitoring using cumulative CDV (counterpart to the experiment in Fig. 8), demonstrating the ability to more clearly visualize the evolution of thermal coagulation process in porcine esophagus ex vivo. A growing region with increased cumulative CDV (red/purple) was observed in the epithelium and eventually reaching slightly into the muscularis mucosa. ee, edges of electrode; e, epithelium; lp, lamina propria; mm, muscularis mucosa. The two-dimensional color bar indicate the cCDV κ range in hue, and the image intensity I in dB in luminance. Scale bars are 1 mm in tissue. See Visualization 2 for the full video.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Radiofrequency ablation monitoring using calibrated CDV in a clinical balloon catheter with an applied voltage of VRMS = 25 V at 500 kHz for 10 s. In contrast to Fig. 8, the region with increased CDV (purple) reached the lamina propria at t = 6–7 s and eventually reaching all the way through the muscularis mucosa at t = 8–10 s. The RF source was turned off at t = 10 s. ee, edges of electrode; e, epithelium; lp, lamina propria; mm, muscularis mucosa. The two-dimensional color bar indicates the CDV γSNR range in hue, and the image intensity I in dB in luminance. Scale bars are 1 mm in tissue. See Visualization 3 for the full video.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Radiofrequency ablation monitoring using cumulative CDV for the experiment in Fig. 10. The region with increased cumulative CDV (red-purple) eventually reached all the way through the muscularis mucosa. ee, edges of electrode; e, epithelium; lp, lamina propria; mm, muscularis mucosa. The two-dimensional color bar indicates the cCDV κ range in hue, and the image intensity I in dB in luminance. Scale bars are 1 mm in tissue. See Visualization 4 for the full video.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Histological validation of the coagulation zone delineated by cumulative CDV at the treatment endpoint for the two voltage settings [VRMS = 20 V shown in panels (a), (b), and (c) and VRMS = 25 V shown in panels (d), (e), and (f)]. NBTC-negative region (pink) is indicative of thermal damage (injury zone indicated with red line). At the lower energy setting (VRMS = 20 V: a, b, c), the coagulation zone extends beyond the lamina propria (lp) into the muscularis mucosa (mm). At the higher energy setting (VRMS = 25 V: d, e, f), the coagulation zone extends all the way through the muscularis mucosa (mm) up to the submucosa (sm). e, epithelium; lp, lamina propria; mm, muscularis mucosa; sm, submucosa. Scale bars are 1 mm in tissue.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Detailed histological analysis of the coagulation zone boundary delineated by cumulative CDV vs. NBTC staining. Cumulative CDV at treatment endpoint (c and d showing region of interest marked by the dashed cones in panels a and b) at two voltage settings (VRMS = 20 V and VRMS = 25 V for 10 s) correspond well with the NBTC-negative region (pink) indicative of thermal damage (e, f). At the lower energy setting (VRMS = 20 V: a, c, e), the coagulation zone extends beyond the lamina propria (lp) into the muscularis mucosa (mm). At the higher energy setting (VRMS = 25 V: b, d, f), the coagulation zone extends all the way through the muscularis mucosa (mm) up to the submucosa (sm). These represent magnified views of panels (a) and (d) in Fig. 12. e, epithelium; lp, lamina propria; mm, muscularis mucosa; sm, submucosa. Scale bars are 1 mm in tissue in all axes.

Equations (11)

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ρ C δ T δ t ( k T ) = ρ b C b ω b ( T b T ) + Q m + Q e ,
σ V = 0 ,
Ω ( r , t ) = ln [ C ( r , 0 ) C ( r , t ) ] = 0 t A e E a R T ( r , τ ) d τ ,
θ d = 1 e Ω ( r , t ) ,
γ ( k , l , m ; N ) = 1 ζ ¯ ( k , l , m ; N ) ,
ζ ¯ ( k , l , m ; N ) = 2 Δ = 0 N 1 | k w ( k ) ζ ( k , l , m Δ , τ = 1 ) | Δ = 0 N 1 k w ( k ) [ ζ ( k , l , m Δ 1 , τ = 0 ) + ζ ( k , l , m Δ , τ = 0 ) ] ,
ζ ( k , l , m , τ ) F ( k , l , m ) F ( k , l , m τ ) * ,
ζ ¯ ( k , l , m ) = 2 | k w ( k ) ζ ( k , l , m , τ = 1 ) | k w ( k ) [ ζ ( k , l , m 1 , τ = 0 ) + ζ ( k , l , m , τ = 0 ) ] ,
F ^ ( k , l , m , p ) = F ( k , l , m , p ) exp [ i arg ( k , p F ( k , l , m , p ) F ( k , l 1 , m , p ) * ) ] ,
γ ¯ ( k , l , m ) = p = 1 , 2 I ( k , l , m , p ) γ ( k , l , m , p ) p = 1 , 2 I ( k , l , m , p ) ,
κ ( k , l , m ) = n = 1 m γ SNR ( k , l , n ) .

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