Abstract

In this study, we built a novel handheld array photoacoustic probe by integrating multiple optical components with a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) transducer array. The optical components deliver laser energy and TRUS is used for photoacoustic signal detection. Compared to the previously reported probe, the new photoacoustic probe utilizes an optimized light illumination scheme to enhance the utilization-efficiency of the laser energy, thus improving the imaging sensitivity of the probe. In addition, the new probe is compact and easy to handle for clinicians. We validated the use of this photoacoustic probe for prostate cancer imaging through both phantom studies and in vivo canine model study, which mimics the prostate cancer conditions. The results showed that the probe is suitable for clinical use and can be used in the clinics for several potential clinical applications, including early diagnosis of prostate cancer, targeted image-guided biopsy, and image-guided intra-operative procedure.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2018 (1)

2017 (1)

A. Horiguchi, M. Shinchi, A. Nakamura, T. Wada, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “Pilot study of prostate cancer angiogenesis imaging using a photoacoustic imaging system,” Urology 108, 212–219 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (3)

A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Spick, K. Herrmann, and J. Czernin, “Evaluation of prostate cancer with 11C-Acetate PET/CT,” J. Nucl. Med. 57(Suppl 3), 30S–37S (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Taruttis, A. C. Timmermans, P. C. Wouters, M. Kacprowicz, G. M. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, “Optoacoustic imaging of human vasculature: feasibility by using a handheld probe,” Radiology 281(1), 256–263 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

A. Taruttis and V. Ntziachristos, “Advances in real-time multispectral optoacoustic imaging and its applications,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 219–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global Cancer Statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Salehi, P. D. Kumavor, H. Li, U. Alqasemi, T. Wang, C. Xu, and Q. Zhu, “Design of optimal light delivery system for co-registered transvaginal ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of ovarian tissue,” Photoacoustics 3(3), 114–122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

U. Alqasemi, H. Li, G. Yuan, P. Kumavor, S. Zanganeh, and Q. Zhu, “Interlaced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system with real-time coregistration for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 076020 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Lediju Bella, D. Y. Songb, and E. M. Boctora, “Coherence-based photoacoustic imaging of brachytherapy seeds implanted in a canine prostate,” Proc. SPIE 9040, 90400Q (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. M. Siddiqui, S. Rais-Bahrami, H. Truong, L. Stamatakis, S. Vourganti, J. Nix, A. N. Hoang, A. Walton-Diaz, B. Shuch, M. Weintraub, J. Kruecker, H. Amalou, B. Turkbey, M. J. Merino, P. L. Choyke, B. J. Wood, and P. A. Pinto, “Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Ultrasound-Fusion Biopsy Significantly Upgrades Prostate Cancer Versus Systematic 12-core Transrectal Ultrasound Biopsy,” Eur. Urol. 64(5), 713–719 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

L. V. Wang and S. Hell, “Photoacosutic Tomography: In Vivo Imaging from Organelles to Organs,” Science 335(6075), 1450–1462 (2012).

T. H. Van der Kwast, “The trade-off between sensitivity and specificity of clinical protocols for identification of insignificant prostate cancer,” Eur. Urol. 62(3), 469–471 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, “Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation,” Cell 144(5), 646–674 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dickinson, H. U. Ahmed, C. Allen, J. O. Barentsz, B. Carey, J. J. Futterer, S. W. Heijmink, P. J. Hoskin, A. Kirkham, A. R. Padhani, R. Persad, P. Puech, S. Punwani, A. S. Sohaib, B. Tombal, A. Villers, J. van der Meulen, and M. Emberton, “Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer: recommendations from a European consensus meeting,” Eur. Urol. 59(4), 477–494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

X. Wang, W. W. Roberts, P. L. Carson, D. P. Wood, and J. B. Fowlkes, “Photoacoustic tomography: a potential new tool for prostate cancer,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(4), 1117–1126 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Dai and D. W. Siemann, BMS-777607, “a small-molecule met kinase inhibitor, suppresses hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated prostate cancer metastatic phenotype in vitro,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 9(6), 1554–1561 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016706 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

G. C. Durkan and D. R. Greene, “Diagnostic dilemmas in detection of prostate cancer in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the prostate,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 3(1), 13–20 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. Hara, N. Kosaka, and H. Kishi, “PET imaging of prostate cancer using carbon-11-choline,” J. Nucl. Med. 39(6), 990–995 (1998).
[PubMed]

Ahmed, H. U.

L. Dickinson, H. U. Ahmed, C. Allen, J. O. Barentsz, B. Carey, J. J. Futterer, S. W. Heijmink, P. J. Hoskin, A. Kirkham, A. R. Padhani, R. Persad, P. Puech, S. Punwani, A. S. Sohaib, B. Tombal, A. Villers, J. van der Meulen, and M. Emberton, “Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer: recommendations from a European consensus meeting,” Eur. Urol. 59(4), 477–494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, C.

L. Dickinson, H. U. Ahmed, C. Allen, J. O. Barentsz, B. Carey, J. J. Futterer, S. W. Heijmink, P. J. Hoskin, A. Kirkham, A. R. Padhani, R. Persad, P. Puech, S. Punwani, A. S. Sohaib, B. Tombal, A. Villers, J. van der Meulen, and M. Emberton, “Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer: recommendations from a European consensus meeting,” Eur. Urol. 59(4), 477–494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alqasemi, U.

H. S. Salehi, P. D. Kumavor, H. Li, U. Alqasemi, T. Wang, C. Xu, and Q. Zhu, “Design of optimal light delivery system for co-registered transvaginal ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of ovarian tissue,” Photoacoustics 3(3), 114–122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Alqasemi, H. Li, G. Yuan, P. Kumavor, S. Zanganeh, and Q. Zhu, “Interlaced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system with real-time coregistration for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 076020 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amalou, H.

M. M. Siddiqui, S. Rais-Bahrami, H. Truong, L. Stamatakis, S. Vourganti, J. Nix, A. N. Hoang, A. Walton-Diaz, B. Shuch, M. Weintraub, J. Kruecker, H. Amalou, B. Turkbey, M. J. Merino, P. L. Choyke, B. J. Wood, and P. A. Pinto, “Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Ultrasound-Fusion Biopsy Significantly Upgrades Prostate Cancer Versus Systematic 12-core Transrectal Ultrasound Biopsy,” Eur. Urol. 64(5), 713–719 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

A. Horiguchi, M. Shinchi, A. Nakamura, T. Wada, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “Pilot study of prostate cancer angiogenesis imaging using a photoacoustic imaging system,” Urology 108, 212–219 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, Y.

Barentsz, J. O.

L. Dickinson, H. U. Ahmed, C. Allen, J. O. Barentsz, B. Carey, J. J. Futterer, S. W. Heijmink, P. J. Hoskin, A. Kirkham, A. R. Padhani, R. Persad, P. Puech, S. Punwani, A. S. Sohaib, B. Tombal, A. Villers, J. van der Meulen, and M. Emberton, “Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer: recommendations from a European consensus meeting,” Eur. Urol. 59(4), 477–494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boctor, E. M.

M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boctora, E. M.

M. A. Lediju Bella, D. Y. Songb, and E. M. Boctora, “Coherence-based photoacoustic imaging of brachytherapy seeds implanted in a canine prostate,” Proc. SPIE 9040, 90400Q (2014).
[Crossref]

Bray, F.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global Cancer Statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carey, B.

L. Dickinson, H. U. Ahmed, C. Allen, J. O. Barentsz, B. Carey, J. J. Futterer, S. W. Heijmink, P. J. Hoskin, A. Kirkham, A. R. Padhani, R. Persad, P. Puech, S. Punwani, A. S. Sohaib, B. Tombal, A. Villers, J. van der Meulen, and M. Emberton, “Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer: recommendations from a European consensus meeting,” Eur. Urol. 59(4), 477–494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carson, P. L.

Choyke, P. L.

M. M. Siddiqui, S. Rais-Bahrami, H. Truong, L. Stamatakis, S. Vourganti, J. Nix, A. N. Hoang, A. Walton-Diaz, B. Shuch, M. Weintraub, J. Kruecker, H. Amalou, B. Turkbey, M. J. Merino, P. L. Choyke, B. J. Wood, and P. A. Pinto, “Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Ultrasound-Fusion Biopsy Significantly Upgrades Prostate Cancer Versus Systematic 12-core Transrectal Ultrasound Biopsy,” Eur. Urol. 64(5), 713–719 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Czernin, J.

C. Spick, K. Herrmann, and J. Czernin, “Evaluation of prostate cancer with 11C-Acetate PET/CT,” J. Nucl. Med. 57(Suppl 3), 30S–37S (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, Y.

Y. Dai and D. W. Siemann, BMS-777607, “a small-molecule met kinase inhibitor, suppresses hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated prostate cancer metastatic phenotype in vitro,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 9(6), 1554–1561 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dickinson, L.

L. Dickinson, H. U. Ahmed, C. Allen, J. O. Barentsz, B. Carey, J. J. Futterer, S. W. Heijmink, P. J. Hoskin, A. Kirkham, A. R. Padhani, R. Persad, P. Puech, S. Punwani, A. S. Sohaib, B. Tombal, A. Villers, J. van der Meulen, and M. Emberton, “Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer: recommendations from a European consensus meeting,” Eur. Urol. 59(4), 477–494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Du, X.

Durkan, G. C.

G. C. Durkan and D. R. Greene, “Diagnostic dilemmas in detection of prostate cancer in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the prostate,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 3(1), 13–20 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Emberton, M.

L. Dickinson, H. U. Ahmed, C. Allen, J. O. Barentsz, B. Carey, J. J. Futterer, S. W. Heijmink, P. J. Hoskin, A. Kirkham, A. R. Padhani, R. Persad, P. Puech, S. Punwani, A. S. Sohaib, B. Tombal, A. Villers, J. van der Meulen, and M. Emberton, “Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer: recommendations from a European consensus meeting,” Eur. Urol. 59(4), 477–494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fang, C.

Ferlay, J.

L. A. Torre, F. Bray, R. L. Siegel, J. Ferlay, J. Lortet-Tieulent, and A. Jemal, “Global Cancer Statistics, 2012,” CA Cancer J. Clin. 65(2), 87–108 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fowlkes, J. B.

Futterer, J. J.

L. Dickinson, H. U. Ahmed, C. Allen, J. O. Barentsz, B. Carey, J. J. Futterer, S. W. Heijmink, P. J. Hoskin, A. Kirkham, A. R. Padhani, R. Persad, P. Puech, S. Punwani, A. S. Sohaib, B. Tombal, A. Villers, J. van der Meulen, and M. Emberton, “Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer: recommendations from a European consensus meeting,” Eur. Urol. 59(4), 477–494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, X.

Greene, D. R.

G. C. Durkan and D. R. Greene, “Diagnostic dilemmas in detection of prostate cancer in patients undergoing transrectal ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the prostate,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 3(1), 13–20 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanahan, D.

D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, “Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation,” Cell 144(5), 646–674 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hara, T.

T. Hara, N. Kosaka, and H. Kishi, “PET imaging of prostate cancer using carbon-11-choline,” J. Nucl. Med. 39(6), 990–995 (1998).
[PubMed]

Heijmink, S. W.

L. Dickinson, H. U. Ahmed, C. Allen, J. O. Barentsz, B. Carey, J. J. Futterer, S. W. Heijmink, P. J. Hoskin, A. Kirkham, A. R. Padhani, R. Persad, P. Puech, S. Punwani, A. S. Sohaib, B. Tombal, A. Villers, J. van der Meulen, and M. Emberton, “Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer: recommendations from a European consensus meeting,” Eur. Urol. 59(4), 477–494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hell, S.

L. V. Wang and S. Hell, “Photoacosutic Tomography: In Vivo Imaging from Organelles to Organs,” Science 335(6075), 1450–1462 (2012).

Herrmann, K.

C. Spick, K. Herrmann, and J. Czernin, “Evaluation of prostate cancer with 11C-Acetate PET/CT,” J. Nucl. Med. 57(Suppl 3), 30S–37S (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirota, K.

A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoang, A. N.

M. M. Siddiqui, S. Rais-Bahrami, H. Truong, L. Stamatakis, S. Vourganti, J. Nix, A. N. Hoang, A. Walton-Diaz, B. Shuch, M. Weintraub, J. Kruecker, H. Amalou, B. Turkbey, M. J. Merino, P. L. Choyke, B. J. Wood, and P. A. Pinto, “Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Ultrasound-Fusion Biopsy Significantly Upgrades Prostate Cancer Versus Systematic 12-core Transrectal Ultrasound Biopsy,” Eur. Urol. 64(5), 713–719 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horiguchi, A.

A. Horiguchi, M. Shinchi, A. Nakamura, T. Wada, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “Pilot study of prostate cancer angiogenesis imaging using a photoacoustic imaging system,” Urology 108, 212–219 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoskin, P. J.

L. Dickinson, H. U. Ahmed, C. Allen, J. O. Barentsz, B. Carey, J. J. Futterer, S. W. Heijmink, P. J. Hoskin, A. Kirkham, A. R. Padhani, R. Persad, P. Puech, S. Punwani, A. S. Sohaib, B. Tombal, A. Villers, J. van der Meulen, and M. Emberton, “Magnetic resonance imaging for the detection, localisation, and characterisation of prostate cancer: recommendations from a European consensus meeting,” Eur. Urol. 59(4), 477–494 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Irisawa, K.

A. Horiguchi, K. Tsujita, K. Irisawa, T. Kasamatsu, K. Hirota, M. Kawaguchi, M. Shinchi, K. Ito, T. Asano, H. Shinmoto, H. Tsuda, and M. Ishihara, “A pilot study of photoacoustic imaging system for improved real-time visualization of neurovascular bundle during radical prostatectomy,” Prostate 76(3), 307–315 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ishihara, M.

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M. A. Lediju Bell, N. P. Kuo, D. Y. Song, J. U. Kang, and E. M. Boctor, “In vivo visualization of prostate brachytherapy seeds with photoacoustic imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(12), 126011 (2014).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, B. J.

M. M. Siddiqui, S. Rais-Bahrami, H. Truong, L. Stamatakis, S. Vourganti, J. Nix, A. N. Hoang, A. Walton-Diaz, B. Shuch, M. Weintraub, J. Kruecker, H. Amalou, B. Turkbey, M. J. Merino, P. L. Choyke, B. J. Wood, and P. A. Pinto, “Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Ultrasound-Fusion Biopsy Significantly Upgrades Prostate Cancer Versus Systematic 12-core Transrectal Ultrasound Biopsy,” Eur. Urol. 64(5), 713–719 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wood, D. P.

Wouters, P. C.

A. Taruttis, A. C. Timmermans, P. C. Wouters, M. Kacprowicz, G. M. van Dam, and V. Ntziachristos, “Optoacoustic imaging of human vasculature: feasibility by using a handheld probe,” Radiology 281(1), 256–263 (2016).
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Xing, M.

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H. S. Salehi, P. D. Kumavor, H. Li, U. Alqasemi, T. Wang, C. Xu, and Q. Zhu, “Design of optimal light delivery system for co-registered transvaginal ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of ovarian tissue,” Photoacoustics 3(3), 114–122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016706 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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U. Alqasemi, H. Li, G. Yuan, P. Kumavor, S. Zanganeh, and Q. Zhu, “Interlaced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system with real-time coregistration for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 076020 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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U. Alqasemi, H. Li, G. Yuan, P. Kumavor, S. Zanganeh, and Q. Zhu, “Interlaced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system with real-time coregistration for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 076020 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, J.

Zheng, R.

Zhou, H.

Zhu, Q.

H. S. Salehi, P. D. Kumavor, H. Li, U. Alqasemi, T. Wang, C. Xu, and Q. Zhu, “Design of optimal light delivery system for co-registered transvaginal ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of ovarian tissue,” Photoacoustics 3(3), 114–122 (2015).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, W.

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M. M. Siddiqui, S. Rais-Bahrami, H. Truong, L. Stamatakis, S. Vourganti, J. Nix, A. N. Hoang, A. Walton-Diaz, B. Shuch, M. Weintraub, J. Kruecker, H. Amalou, B. Turkbey, M. J. Merino, P. L. Choyke, B. J. Wood, and P. A. Pinto, “Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Ultrasound-Fusion Biopsy Significantly Upgrades Prostate Cancer Versus Systematic 12-core Transrectal Ultrasound Biopsy,” Eur. Urol. 64(5), 713–719 (2013).
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U. Alqasemi, H. Li, G. Yuan, P. Kumavor, S. Zanganeh, and Q. Zhu, “Interlaced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system with real-time coregistration for ovarian tissue characterization,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 076020 (2014).
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Y. Dai and D. W. Siemann, BMS-777607, “a small-molecule met kinase inhibitor, suppresses hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated prostate cancer metastatic phenotype in vitro,” Mol. Cancer Ther. 9(6), 1554–1561 (2010).
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A. Taruttis and V. Ntziachristos, “Advances in real-time multispectral optoacoustic imaging and its applications,” Nat. Photonics 9(4), 219–227 (2015).
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Photoacoustics (1)

H. S. Salehi, P. D. Kumavor, H. Li, U. Alqasemi, T. Wang, C. Xu, and Q. Zhu, “Design of optimal light delivery system for co-registered transvaginal ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of ovarian tissue,” Photoacoustics 3(3), 114–122 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Universal back-projection algorithm for photoacoustic computed tomography,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 71(1), 016706 (2005).
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M. A. Lediju Bella, D. Y. Songb, and E. M. Boctora, “Coherence-based photoacoustic imaging of brachytherapy seeds implanted in a canine prostate,” Proc. SPIE 9040, 90400Q (2014).
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[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the transrectal photoacoustic probe design (a) and a real photo of the probe (b). The same color is used in (a) to indicate the link between the labeling characters and the components. SH: shell holder; FB: fiber bundle; STB: signal transmission belts; CDMM: custom designed mechanical module; GM: glass mirrors; TT: transducer tip; PC: probe cap.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The light illumination schematics and the beam patterns at the sample surface for the conventional design (a) and our probe design (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematic of the custom-built photoacoustic imaging system. PA: photoacoustic; US: ultrasound; ND: neutral density; PCI-e Cable: peripheral component interconnect express cable; OPO: optical parametric oscillator; Synch: synchronization.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The Monte Carlo simulation result of laser fluence in the imaging sample mimicking biological tissues for our probe design and the conventional design. (a) Laser fluence distribution at different imaging depths, i.e. at different lateral cross-sections perpendicular to the probe axis. The white rectangle in each image indicates the detection area of the ultrasound transducer at the corresponding depth. (b) Quantitative comparison of the averaged laser fluence within the ultrasound detection region at various depths between our probe design and the conventional design. (c) Zoomed-in view of the purple rectangle in (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The results of black strings custom-designed phantom experiments. (a) The cross-sectional B-scan image of the black strings. The quantified lateral (b) and axial (c) resolutions of the central black string (white box) in (a).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The imaging results for egg-shaped agar phantom simulating the contrast agent labeled prostate cancer. The real photo (a), an ultrasound image (b), photoacoustic image (c) and their merged image (d) of the phantom.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The imaging results for a healthy dog implanted with a suture into the prostate to simulate tumor angiogenesis. The real photo of the prostate before (a) and after (b) suture implantation. The ultrasound image (c), photoacoustic image (d) and their merged image (e) of the canine prostate region.