Abstract

Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is emerging as a method to image the mechanical properties of tissue on the microscale. However, the spatial resolution, a main advantage of OCE, has not been investigated and is not trivial to evaluate. To address this, we present a framework to analyze resolution in phase-sensitive compression OCE that incorporates the three main determinants of resolution: mechanical deformation of the sample, detection of this deformation using optical coherence tomography (OCT), and signal processing to estimate local axial strain. We demonstrate for the first time, through close correspondence between experiment and simulation of structured phantoms, that resolution in compression OCE is both spatially varying and sample dependent, which we link to the discrepancies between the model of elasticity and the mechanical deformation of the sample. We demonstrate that resolution is dependent on factors such as feature size and mechanical contrast. We believe that the analysis of image formation provided by our framework can expedite the development of compression OCE.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  52. C. Li, G. Guan, S. Li, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Evaluating elastic properties of heterogeneous soft tissue by surface acoustic waves detected by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057002 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2018 (5)

2017 (7)

Q. Fang, A. Curatolo, P. Wijesinghe, Y. L. Yeow, J. Hamzah, P. B. Noble, K. Karnowski, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography through a micro-endoscope: towards in vivo imaging of cellular-scale mechanics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5127–5138 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wijesinghe, N. J. Johansen, A. Curatolo, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography images cellular-scale stiffness of mouse aorta,” Biophys. J. 113(11), 2540–2551 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Computational optical palpation: a finite-element approach to micro-scale tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14(128), 20160878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, P. Wijesinghe, and D. D. Sampson, “The emergence of optical elastography in biomedicine,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 215–221 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. V. Larin and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence elastography - OCT at work in tissue biomechanics [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1172–1202 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

J. A. Mulligan, G. R. Untracht, S. N. Chandrasekaran, C. N. Brown, and S. G. Adie, “Emerging approaches for high-resolution imaging of tissue biomechanics with optical coherence elastography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 246–265 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ł. Ambroziński, S. Song, S. J. Yoon, I. Pelivanov, D. Li, L. Gao, T. T. Shen, R. K. Wang, and M. O’Donnell, “Acoustic micro-tapping for non-contact 4D imaging of tissue elasticity,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38967 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, P. Wijesinghe, J. T. Dantuono, D. D. Sampson, P. R. T. Munro, B. F. Kennedy, and A. A. Oberai, “Quantitative compression optical coherence elastography as an inverse elasticity problem,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 277–287 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Curatolo, M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, P. Wijesinghe, A. Fritz, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 21–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

C. Li, G. Guan, Y. Ling, Y.-T. Hsu, S. Song, J. T.-J. Huang, S. Lang, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Detection and characterisation of biopsy tissue using quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) in men with suspected prostate cancer,” Cancer Lett. 357(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shao, J. Sang, and J. Fu, “On human pluripotent stem cell control: The rise of 3D bioengineering and mechanobiology,” Biomaterials 52, 26–43 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021107 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121508 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

C. Li, G. Guan, S. Li, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Evaluating elastic properties of heterogeneous soft tissue by surface acoustic waves detected by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ilg, S. J. Rupitsch, A. Sutor, and R. Lerch, “Determination of dynamic material properties of silicone rubber using one-point measurements and finite element simulations,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(11), 3031–3038 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

K. J. Parker, M. M. Doyley, and D. J. Rubens, “Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(1), R1–R29 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Oldenburg, G. Wu, D. Spivak, F. Tsui, A. S. Wolberg, and T. H. Fischer, “Imaging and elastometry of blood clots using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography and labeled platelets,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Publ. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. 18(3), 1100–1109 (2011).

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2006 (1)

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

R. Righetti, S. Srinivasan, and J. Ophir, “Lateral resolution in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(5), 695–704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Righetti, J. Ophir, and P. Ktonas, “Axial resolution in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(1), 101–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: Non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H 213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

E. Konofagou and J. Ophir, “A new elastographic method for estimation and imaging of lateral displacements, lateral strains, corrected axial strains and Poisson’s ratios in tissues,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24(8), 1183–1199 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “Restoration of optical coherence images of living tissue using the CLEAN algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 66–75 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

H. H. Madden, “Comments on the Savitzky-Golay convolution method for least-squares-fit smoothing and differentiation of digital data,” Anal. Chem. 50(9), 1383–1386 (1978).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36(8), 1627–1639 (1964).
[Crossref]

Adie, S. G.

N. Leartprapun, R. R. Iyer, G. R. Untracht, J. A. Mulligan, and S. G. Adie, “Photonic force optical coherence elastography for three-dimensional mechanical microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2079 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Mulligan, G. R. Untracht, S. N. Chandrasekaran, C. N. Brown, and S. G. Adie, “Emerging approaches for high-resolution imaging of tissue biomechanics with optical coherence elastography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 246–265 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aglyamov, S.

Aglyamov, S. R.

Agrawal, A.

Ahmad, A.

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alam, S. K.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H 213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Allen, W. M.

Ambrozinski, L.

Ł. Ambroziński, S. Song, S. J. Yoon, I. Pelivanov, D. Li, L. Gao, T. T. Shen, R. K. Wang, and M. O’Donnell, “Acoustic micro-tapping for non-contact 4D imaging of tissue elasticity,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38967 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amromin, E.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: Non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnal, B.

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bieback, K.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bisaillon, C.-E.

Boppart, S. A.

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, C. N.

J. A. Mulligan, G. R. Untracht, S. N. Chandrasekaran, C. N. Brown, and S. G. Adie, “Emerging approaches for high-resolution imaging of tissue biomechanics with optical coherence elastography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 246–265 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bush, M. B.

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121508 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, G.

Chandrasekaran, S. N.

J. A. Mulligan, G. R. Untracht, S. N. Chandrasekaran, C. N. Brown, and S. G. Adie, “Emerging approaches for high-resolution imaging of tissue biomechanics with optical coherence elastography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 246–265 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, R.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, L.

W. M. Allen, K. M. Kennedy, Q. Fang, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, L. Watts, R. Zilkens, S. L. Chin, B. F. Dessauvagie, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field quantitative micro-elastography of human breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 1082–1096 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chin, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, B. J. Doyle, P. R. T. Munro, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of image formation in optical coherence elastography using a multiphysics approach,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2913–2930 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

Choi, Y. S.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, L.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crecea, V.

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Curatolo, A.

W. M. Allen, K. M. Kennedy, Q. Fang, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, L. Watts, R. Zilkens, S. L. Chin, B. F. Dessauvagie, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field quantitative micro-elastography of human breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 1082–1096 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, A. Curatolo, P. Wijesinghe, Y. L. Yeow, J. Hamzah, P. B. Noble, K. Karnowski, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography through a micro-endoscope: towards in vivo imaging of cellular-scale mechanics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5127–5138 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wijesinghe, N. J. Johansen, A. Curatolo, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography images cellular-scale stiffness of mouse aorta,” Biophys. J. 113(11), 2540–2551 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Curatolo, M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, P. Wijesinghe, A. Fritz, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 21–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chin, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, B. J. Doyle, P. R. T. Munro, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of image formation in optical coherence elastography using a multiphysics approach,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2913–2930 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dantuono, J. T.

L. Dong, P. Wijesinghe, J. T. Dantuono, D. D. Sampson, P. R. T. Munro, B. F. Kennedy, and A. A. Oberai, “Quantitative compression optical coherence elastography as an inverse elasticity problem,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 277–287 (2016).
[Crossref]

Das, S.

Dessauvagie, B. F.

Dong, L.

L. Dong, P. Wijesinghe, J. T. Dantuono, D. D. Sampson, P. R. T. Munro, B. F. Kennedy, and A. A. Oberai, “Quantitative compression optical coherence elastography as an inverse elasticity problem,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 277–287 (2016).
[Crossref]

Doyle, B. J.

Doyley, M. M.

K. J. Parker, M. M. Doyley, and D. J. Rubens, “Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(1), R1–R29 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dresner, M. A.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: Non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drezek, R.

Ehman, R. L.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: Non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Engler, A. J.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Es’haghian, S.

Fang, Q.

Felmlee, J. P.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: Non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fischer, T. H.

A. L. Oldenburg, G. Wu, D. Spivak, F. Tsui, A. S. Wolberg, and T. H. Fischer, “Imaging and elastometry of blood clots using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography and labeled platelets,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Publ. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. 18(3), 1100–1109 (2011).

Ford, C.

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121508 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fritz, A.

Fu, J.

Y. Shao, J. Sang, and J. Fu, “On human pluripotent stem cell control: The rise of 3D bioengineering and mechanobiology,” Biomaterials 52, 26–43 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganss, R.

Gao, L.

Ł. Ambroziński, S. Song, S. J. Yoon, I. Pelivanov, D. Li, L. Gao, T. T. Shen, R. K. Wang, and M. O’Donnell, “Acoustic micro-tapping for non-contact 4D imaging of tissue elasticity,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38967 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Garra, B.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H 213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, G. V.

A. L. Matveyev, L. A. Matveev, A. A. Sovetsky, G. V. Gelikonov, A. A. Moiseev, and V. Y. Zaitsev, “Vector method for strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(6), 065603 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021107 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gelikonov, V. M.

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021107 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gerstmann, D. K.

Gilani, N.

Golay, M. J. E.

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36(8), 1627–1639 (1964).
[Crossref]

Gong, P.

Greenleaf, J. F.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: Non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guan, G.

C. Li, G. Guan, Y. Ling, Y.-T. Hsu, S. Song, J. T.-J. Huang, S. Lang, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Detection and characterisation of biopsy tissue using quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) in men with suspected prostate cancer,” Cancer Lett. 357(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, S. Li, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Evaluating elastic properties of heterogeneous soft tissue by surface acoustic waves detected by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hadden, W. J.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hamzah, J.

Han, Z.

Holle, A. W.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hsu, Y.-T.

C. Li, G. Guan, Y. Ling, Y.-T. Hsu, S. Song, J. T.-J. Huang, S. Lang, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Detection and characterisation of biopsy tissue using quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) in men with suspected prostate cancer,” Cancer Lett. 357(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J. T.-J.

C. Li, G. Guan, Y. Ling, Y.-T. Hsu, S. Song, J. T.-J. Huang, S. Lang, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Detection and characterisation of biopsy tissue using quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) in men with suspected prostate cancer,” Cancer Lett. 357(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

C. Li, G. Guan, Y. Ling, Y.-T. Hsu, S. Song, J. T.-J. Huang, S. Lang, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Detection and characterisation of biopsy tissue using quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) in men with suspected prostate cancer,” Cancer Lett. 357(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, S. Li, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Evaluating elastic properties of heterogeneous soft tissue by surface acoustic waves detected by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilg, J.

J. Ilg, S. J. Rupitsch, A. Sutor, and R. Lerch, “Determination of dynamic material properties of silicone rubber using one-point measurements and finite element simulations,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(11), 3031–3038 (2012).
[Crossref]

Iyer, R. R.

N. Leartprapun, R. R. Iyer, G. R. Untracht, J. A. Mulligan, and S. G. Adie, “Photonic force optical coherence elastography for three-dimensional mechanical microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2079 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johansen, N. J.

P. Wijesinghe, N. J. Johansen, A. Curatolo, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography images cellular-scale stiffness of mouse aorta,” Biophys. J. 113(11), 2540–2551 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kallel, F.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H 213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karnowski, K.

Kennedy, B. F.

W. M. Allen, K. M. Kennedy, Q. Fang, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, L. Watts, R. Zilkens, S. L. Chin, B. F. Dessauvagie, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field quantitative micro-elastography of human breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 1082–1096 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, A. Curatolo, P. Wijesinghe, Y. L. Yeow, J. Hamzah, P. B. Noble, K. Karnowski, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography through a micro-endoscope: towards in vivo imaging of cellular-scale mechanics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5127–5138 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wijesinghe, N. J. Johansen, A. Curatolo, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography images cellular-scale stiffness of mouse aorta,” Biophys. J. 113(11), 2540–2551 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Computational optical palpation: a finite-element approach to micro-scale tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14(128), 20160878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, P. Wijesinghe, and D. D. Sampson, “The emergence of optical elastography in biomedicine,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 215–221 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, P. Wijesinghe, J. T. Dantuono, D. D. Sampson, P. R. T. Munro, B. F. Kennedy, and A. A. Oberai, “Quantitative compression optical coherence elastography as an inverse elasticity problem,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 277–287 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Curatolo, M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, P. Wijesinghe, A. Fritz, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 21–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272–288 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Chin, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, B. J. Doyle, P. R. T. Munro, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of image formation in optical coherence elastography using a multiphysics approach,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2913–2930 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121508 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kennedy, K. M.

W. M. Allen, K. M. Kennedy, Q. Fang, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, L. Watts, R. Zilkens, S. L. Chin, B. F. Dessauvagie, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field quantitative micro-elastography of human breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 1082–1096 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272–288 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121508 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. K.

Kirk, R. W.

Kirkpatrick, S. J.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Koh, S. H.

Konofagou, E.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H 213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Konofagou and J. Ophir, “A new elastographic method for estimation and imaging of lateral displacements, lateral strains, corrected axial strains and Poisson’s ratios in tissues,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24(8), 1183–1199 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krouskop, T.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H 213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kruse, S. A.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: Non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ktonas, P.

R. Righetti, J. Ophir, and P. Ktonas, “Axial resolution in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(1), 101–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamouche, G.

Lang, S.

C. Li, G. Guan, Y. Ling, Y.-T. Hsu, S. Song, J. T.-J. Huang, S. Lang, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Detection and characterisation of biopsy tissue using quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) in men with suspected prostate cancer,” Cancer Lett. 357(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Larin, K. V.

Larina, I. V.

Latham, B.

W. M. Allen, K. M. Kennedy, Q. Fang, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, L. Watts, R. Zilkens, S. L. Chin, B. F. Dessauvagie, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field quantitative micro-elastography of human breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 1082–1096 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leach, J.

Leartprapun, N.

N. Leartprapun, R. R. Iyer, G. R. Untracht, J. A. Mulligan, and S. G. Adie, “Photonic force optical coherence elastography for three-dimensional mechanical microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2079 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, A. R.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, W. M.

Lerch, R.

J. Ilg, S. J. Rupitsch, A. Sutor, and R. Lerch, “Determination of dynamic material properties of silicone rubber using one-point measurements and finite element simulations,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(11), 3031–3038 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

C. Li, G. Guan, Y. Ling, Y.-T. Hsu, S. Song, J. T.-J. Huang, S. Lang, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Detection and characterisation of biopsy tissue using quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) in men with suspected prostate cancer,” Cancer Lett. 357(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, S. Li, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Evaluating elastic properties of heterogeneous soft tissue by surface acoustic waves detected by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, D.

Ł. Ambroziński, S. Song, S. J. Yoon, I. Pelivanov, D. Li, L. Gao, T. T. Shen, R. K. Wang, and M. O’Donnell, “Acoustic micro-tapping for non-contact 4D imaging of tissue elasticity,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38967 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

Li, S.

C. Li, G. Guan, S. Li, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Evaluating elastic properties of heterogeneous soft tissue by surface acoustic waves detected by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Ling, Y.

C. Li, G. Guan, Y. Ling, Y.-T. Hsu, S. Song, J. T.-J. Huang, S. Lang, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Detection and characterisation of biopsy tissue using quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) in men with suspected prostate cancer,” Cancer Lett. 357(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, C.-H.

Liu, G.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorenser, D.

Ma, Z.

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Madden, H. H.

H. H. Madden, “Comments on the Savitzky-Golay convolution method for least-squares-fit smoothing and differentiation of digital data,” Anal. Chem. 50(9), 1383–1386 (1978).
[Crossref]

Mahowald, J. L.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: Non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manduca, A.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: Non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, J. F.

Matveev, L. A.

A. L. Matveyev, L. A. Matveev, A. A. Sovetsky, G. V. Gelikonov, A. A. Moiseev, and V. Y. Zaitsev, “Vector method for strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(6), 065603 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021107 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matveyev, A. L.

A. L. Matveyev, L. A. Matveev, A. A. Sovetsky, G. V. Gelikonov, A. A. Moiseev, and V. Y. Zaitsev, “Vector method for strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(6), 065603 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021107 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McFetridge, M. L.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McLaughlin, R. A.

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chin, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, B. J. Doyle, P. R. T. Munro, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of image formation in optical coherence elastography using a multiphysics approach,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2913–2930 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moiseev, A. A.

A. L. Matveyev, L. A. Matveev, A. A. Sovetsky, G. V. Gelikonov, A. A. Moiseev, and V. Y. Zaitsev, “Vector method for strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(6), 065603 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mulligan, J. A.

N. Leartprapun, R. R. Iyer, G. R. Untracht, J. A. Mulligan, and S. G. Adie, “Photonic force optical coherence elastography for three-dimensional mechanical microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2079 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Mulligan, G. R. Untracht, S. N. Chandrasekaran, C. N. Brown, and S. G. Adie, “Emerging approaches for high-resolution imaging of tissue biomechanics with optical coherence elastography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 246–265 (2016).
[Crossref]

Munro, P. R. T.

Nabi, G.

C. Li, G. Guan, Y. Ling, Y.-T. Hsu, S. Song, J. T.-J. Huang, S. Lang, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Detection and characterisation of biopsy tissue using quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) in men with suspected prostate cancer,” Cancer Lett. 357(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nair, A.

Nevozhay, D.

Nguyen, T.-M.

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Noble, P. B.

O’Donnell, M.

Ł. Ambroziński, S. Song, S. J. Yoon, I. Pelivanov, D. Li, L. Gao, T. T. Shen, R. K. Wang, and M. O’Donnell, “Acoustic micro-tapping for non-contact 4D imaging of tissue elasticity,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38967 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oberai, A. A.

L. Dong, P. Wijesinghe, J. T. Dantuono, D. D. Sampson, P. R. T. Munro, B. F. Kennedy, and A. A. Oberai, “Quantitative compression optical coherence elastography as an inverse elasticity problem,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 277–287 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. L. Oldenburg, G. Wu, D. Spivak, F. Tsui, A. S. Wolberg, and T. H. Fischer, “Imaging and elastometry of blood clots using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography and labeled platelets,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Publ. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. 18(3), 1100–1109 (2011).

Oliphant, T. E.

A. Manduca, T. E. Oliphant, M. A. Dresner, J. L. Mahowald, S. A. Kruse, E. Amromin, J. P. Felmlee, J. F. Greenleaf, and R. L. Ehman, “Magnetic resonance elastography: Non-invasive mapping of tissue elasticity,” Med. Image Anal. 5(4), 237–254 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophir, J.

R. Righetti, S. Srinivasan, and J. Ophir, “Lateral resolution in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(5), 695–704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Righetti, J. Ophir, and P. Ktonas, “Axial resolution in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(1), 101–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H 213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Konofagou and J. Ophir, “A new elastographic method for estimation and imaging of lateral displacements, lateral strains, corrected axial strains and Poisson’s ratios in tissues,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 24(8), 1183–1199 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parker, K. J.

K. J. Parker, M. M. Doyley, and D. J. Rubens, “Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(1), R1–R29 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pazos, V.

Pelivanov, I.

Ł. Ambroziński, S. Song, S. J. Yoon, I. Pelivanov, D. Li, L. Gao, T. T. Shen, R. K. Wang, and M. O’Donnell, “Acoustic micro-tapping for non-contact 4D imaging of tissue elasticity,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38967 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

Qi, W.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quirk, B. C.

Righetti, R.

R. Righetti, S. Srinivasan, and J. Ophir, “Lateral resolution in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(5), 695–704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Righetti, J. Ophir, and P. Ktonas, “Axial resolution in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(1), 101–113 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ronald, M.

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubens, D. J.

K. J. Parker, M. M. Doyley, and D. J. Rubens, “Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56(1), R1–R29 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rupitsch, S. J.

J. Ilg, S. J. Rupitsch, A. Sutor, and R. Lerch, “Determination of dynamic material properties of silicone rubber using one-point measurements and finite element simulations,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(11), 3031–3038 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sampson, D. D.

P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Computational optical palpation: a finite-element approach to micro-scale tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14(128), 20160878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wijesinghe, N. J. Johansen, A. Curatolo, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography images cellular-scale stiffness of mouse aorta,” Biophys. J. 113(11), 2540–2551 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, P. Wijesinghe, and D. D. Sampson, “The emergence of optical elastography in biomedicine,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 215–221 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. V. Larin and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence elastography - OCT at work in tissue biomechanics [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1172–1202 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, A. Curatolo, P. Wijesinghe, Y. L. Yeow, J. Hamzah, P. B. Noble, K. Karnowski, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography through a micro-endoscope: towards in vivo imaging of cellular-scale mechanics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5127–5138 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Curatolo, M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, P. Wijesinghe, A. Fritz, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 21–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, P. Wijesinghe, J. T. Dantuono, D. D. Sampson, P. R. T. Munro, B. F. Kennedy, and A. A. Oberai, “Quantitative compression optical coherence elastography as an inverse elasticity problem,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 277–287 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272–288 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Chin, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, B. J. Doyle, P. R. T. Munro, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of image formation in optical coherence elastography using a multiphysics approach,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2913–2930 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121508 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, X. Liang, S. G. Adie, D. K. Gerstmann, B. C. Quirk, S. A. Boppart, and D. D. Sampson, “In vivo three-dimensional optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Express 19(7), 6623–6634 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sang, J.

Y. Shao, J. Sang, and J. Fu, “On human pluripotent stem cell control: The rise of 3D bioengineering and mechanobiology,” Biomaterials 52, 26–43 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saunders, C. M.

W. M. Allen, K. M. Kennedy, Q. Fang, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, L. Watts, R. Zilkens, S. L. Chin, B. F. Dessauvagie, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field quantitative micro-elastography of human breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 1082–1096 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, R. A. McLaughlin, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Quantitative micro-elastography: imaging of tissue elasticity using compression optical coherence elastography,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15538 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savitzky, A.

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36(8), 1627–1639 (1964).
[Crossref]

Schill, A.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, “Restoration of optical coherence images of living tissue using the CLEAN algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 66–75 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shao, Y.

Y. Shao, J. Sang, and J. Fu, “On human pluripotent stem cell control: The rise of 3D bioengineering and mechanobiology,” Biomaterials 52, 26–43 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, T. T.

Ł. Ambroziński, S. Song, S. J. Yoon, I. Pelivanov, D. Li, L. Gao, T. T. Shen, R. K. Wang, and M. O’Donnell, “Acoustic micro-tapping for non-contact 4D imaging of tissue elasticity,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38967 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, M.

Sokolov, K. V.

Song, S.

Ł. Ambroziński, S. Song, S. J. Yoon, I. Pelivanov, D. Li, L. Gao, T. T. Shen, R. K. Wang, and M. O’Donnell, “Acoustic micro-tapping for non-contact 4D imaging of tissue elasticity,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38967 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, Y. Ling, Y.-T. Hsu, S. Song, J. T.-J. Huang, S. Lang, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Detection and characterisation of biopsy tissue using quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) in men with suspected prostate cancer,” Cancer Lett. 357(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sovetsky, A. A.

A. L. Matveyev, L. A. Matveev, A. A. Sovetsky, G. V. Gelikonov, A. A. Moiseev, and V. Y. Zaitsev, “Vector method for strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(6), 065603 (2018).
[Crossref]

Spatz, J. P.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spivak, D.

A. L. Oldenburg, G. Wu, D. Spivak, F. Tsui, A. S. Wolberg, and T. H. Fischer, “Imaging and elastometry of blood clots using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography and labeled platelets,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Publ. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. 18(3), 1100–1109 (2011).

Srinivasan, S.

R. Righetti, S. Srinivasan, and J. Ophir, “Lateral resolution in elastography,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 29(5), 695–704 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutor, A.

J. Ilg, S. J. Rupitsch, A. Sutor, and R. Lerch, “Determination of dynamic material properties of silicone rubber using one-point measurements and finite element simulations,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(11), 3031–3038 (2012).
[Crossref]

Taylor-Weiner, H.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tien, A.

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, T. T.

Tsui, F.

A. L. Oldenburg, G. Wu, D. Spivak, F. Tsui, A. S. Wolberg, and T. H. Fischer, “Imaging and elastometry of blood clots using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography and labeled platelets,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Publ. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. 18(3), 1100–1109 (2011).

Untracht, G. R.

N. Leartprapun, R. R. Iyer, G. R. Untracht, J. A. Mulligan, and S. G. Adie, “Photonic force optical coherence elastography for three-dimensional mechanical microscopy,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 2079 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Mulligan, G. R. Untracht, S. N. Chandrasekaran, C. N. Brown, and S. G. Adie, “Emerging approaches for high-resolution imaging of tissue biomechanics with optical coherence elastography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 246–265 (2016).
[Crossref]

Varghese, T.

J. Ophir, S. K. Alam, B. Garra, F. Kallel, E. Konofagou, T. Krouskop, and T. Varghese, “Elastography: ultrasonic estimation and imaging of the elastic properties of tissues,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. H 213(3), 203–233 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villiger, M.

Vo, B.-N.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Ł. Ambroziński, S. Song, S. J. Yoon, I. Pelivanov, D. Li, L. Gao, T. T. Shen, R. K. Wang, and M. O’Donnell, “Acoustic micro-tapping for non-contact 4D imaging of tissue elasticity,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38967 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, Y. Ling, Y.-T. Hsu, S. Song, J. T.-J. Huang, S. Lang, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Detection and characterisation of biopsy tissue using quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) in men with suspected prostate cancer,” Cancer Lett. 357(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, S. Li, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Evaluating elastic properties of heterogeneous soft tissue by surface acoustic waves detected by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

Watts, L.

Wen, J. H.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wijesinghe, P.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, and B. F. Kennedy, “Computational optical palpation: a finite-element approach to micro-scale tactile imaging using a compliant sensor,” J. R. Soc. Interface 14(128), 20160878 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Wijesinghe, N. J. Johansen, A. Curatolo, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography images cellular-scale stiffness of mouse aorta,” Biophys. J. 113(11), 2540–2551 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. F. Kennedy, P. Wijesinghe, and D. D. Sampson, “The emergence of optical elastography in biomedicine,” Nat. Photonics 11(4), 215–221 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, A. Curatolo, P. Wijesinghe, Y. L. Yeow, J. Hamzah, P. B. Noble, K. Karnowski, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography through a micro-endoscope: towards in vivo imaging of cellular-scale mechanics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5127–5138 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Curatolo, M. Villiger, D. Lorenser, P. Wijesinghe, A. Fritz, B. F. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography,” Opt. Lett. 41(1), 21–24 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Dong, P. Wijesinghe, J. T. Dantuono, D. D. Sampson, P. R. T. Munro, B. F. Kennedy, and A. A. Oberai, “Quantitative compression optical coherence elastography as an inverse elasticity problem,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 277–287 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolberg, A. S.

A. L. Oldenburg, G. Wu, D. Spivak, F. Tsui, A. S. Wolberg, and T. H. Fischer, “Imaging and elastometry of blood clots using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography and labeled platelets,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Publ. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. 18(3), 1100–1109 (2011).

Wong, E. Y.

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, G.

A. L. Oldenburg, G. Wu, D. Spivak, F. Tsui, A. S. Wolberg, and T. H. Fischer, “Imaging and elastometry of blood clots using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography and labeled platelets,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Publ. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. 18(3), 1100–1109 (2011).

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeow, Y. L.

Yoon, S. J.

Ł. Ambroziński, S. Song, S. J. Yoon, I. Pelivanov, D. Li, L. Gao, T. T. Shen, R. K. Wang, and M. O’Donnell, “Acoustic micro-tapping for non-contact 4D imaging of tissue elasticity,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 38967 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, J. L.

W. J. Hadden, J. L. Young, A. W. Holle, M. L. McFetridge, D. Y. Kim, P. Wijesinghe, H. Taylor-Weiner, J. H. Wen, A. R. Lee, K. Bieback, B.-N. Vo, D. D. Sampson, B. F. Kennedy, J. P. Spatz, A. J. Engler, and Y. S. Choi, “Stem cell migration and mechanotransduction on linear stiffness gradient hydrogels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(22), 5647–5652 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaitsev, V. Y.

A. L. Matveyev, L. A. Matveev, A. A. Sovetsky, G. V. Gelikonov, A. A. Moiseev, and V. Y. Zaitsev, “Vector method for strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Laser Phys. Lett. 15(6), 065603 (2018).
[Crossref]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021107 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Q.

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zilkens, R.

Anal. Chem. (2)

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and differentiation of data by simplified least squares procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36(8), 1627–1639 (1964).
[Crossref]

H. H. Madden, “Comments on the Savitzky-Golay convolution method for least-squares-fit smoothing and differentiation of digital data,” Anal. Chem. 50(9), 1383–1386 (1978).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. K. Wang, Z. Ma, and S. J. Kirkpatrick, “Tissue Doppler optical coherence elastography for real time strain rate and strain mapping of soft tissue,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 144103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Biomaterials (1)

Y. Shao, J. Sang, and J. Fu, “On human pluripotent stem cell control: The rise of 3D bioengineering and mechanobiology,” Biomaterials 52, 26–43 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (9)

B. F. Kennedy, S. H. Koh, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, P. R. T. Munro, and D. D. Sampson, “Strain estimation in phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1865–1879 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lamouche, B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, C.-E. Bisaillon, A. Curatolo, G. Campbell, V. Pazos, and D. D. Sampson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms with controllable optical, mechanical and structural properties for use in optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1381–1398 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Chin, A. Curatolo, B. F. Kennedy, B. J. Doyle, P. R. T. Munro, R. A. McLaughlin, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of image formation in optical coherence elastography using a multiphysics approach,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(9), 2913–2930 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Fang, A. Curatolo, P. Wijesinghe, Y. L. Yeow, J. Hamzah, P. B. Noble, K. Karnowski, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography through a micro-endoscope: towards in vivo imaging of cellular-scale mechanics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5127–5138 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Allen, K. M. Kennedy, Q. Fang, L. Chin, A. Curatolo, L. Watts, R. Zilkens, S. L. Chin, B. F. Dessauvagie, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field quantitative micro-elastography of human breast tissue,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(3), 1082–1096 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, M. Singh, T. T. Tran, J. Leach, S. R. Aglyamov, I. V. Larina, J. F. Martin, and K. V. Larin, “Biomechanical assessment of myocardial infarction using optical coherence elastography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(2), 728–742 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Es’haghian, K. M. Kennedy, P. Gong, Q. Li, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, D. D. Sampson, R. A. McLaughlin, and B. F. Kennedy, “In vivo volumetric quantitative micro-elastography of human skin,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2458–2471 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. V. Larin and D. D. Sampson, “Optical coherence elastography - OCT at work in tissue biomechanics [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1172–1202 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. M. Allen, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, R. W. Kirk, B. Latham, D. D. Sampson, C. M. Saunders, and B. F. Kennedy, “Wide-field optical coherence micro-elastography for intraoperative assessment of human breast cancer margins,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4139–4153 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

P. Wijesinghe, N. J. Johansen, A. Curatolo, D. D. Sampson, R. Ganss, and B. F. Kennedy, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence elastography images cellular-scale stiffness of mouse aorta,” Biophys. J. 113(11), 2540–2551 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Lett. (1)

C. Li, G. Guan, Y. Ling, Y.-T. Hsu, S. Song, J. T.-J. Huang, S. Lang, R. K. Wang, Z. Huang, and G. Nabi, “Detection and characterisation of biopsy tissue using quantitative optical coherence elastography (OCE) in men with suspected prostate cancer,” Cancer Lett. 357(1), 121–128 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cancer Res. (1)

B. F. Kennedy, R. A. McLaughlin, K. M. Kennedy, L. Chin, P. Wijesinghe, A. Curatolo, A. Tien, M. Ronald, B. Latham, C. M. Saunders, and D. D. Sampson, “Investigation of optical coherence microelastography as a method to visualize cancers in human breast tissue,” Cancer Res. 75(16), 3236–3245 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

B. F. Kennedy, K. M. Kennedy, and D. D. Sampson, “A review of optical coherence elastography: fundamentals, techniques and prospects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 20(2), 272–288 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. A. Mulligan, G. R. Untracht, S. N. Chandrasekaran, C. N. Brown, and S. G. Adie, “Emerging approaches for high-resolution imaging of tissue biomechanics with optical coherence elastography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 246–265 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, P. Wijesinghe, J. T. Dantuono, D. D. Sampson, P. R. T. Munro, B. F. Kennedy, and A. A. Oberai, “Quantitative compression optical coherence elastography as an inverse elasticity problem,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(3), 277–287 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Publ. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. (1)

A. L. Oldenburg, G. Wu, D. Spivak, F. Tsui, A. S. Wolberg, and T. H. Fischer, “Imaging and elastometry of blood clots using magnetomotive optical coherence tomography and labeled platelets,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. Publ. IEEE Lasers Electro-Opt. Soc. 18(3), 1100–1109 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

J. Ilg, S. J. Rupitsch, A. Sutor, and R. Lerch, “Determination of dynamic material properties of silicone rubber using one-point measurements and finite element simulations,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 61(11), 3031–3038 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (8)

J. M. Schmitt, “Restoration of optical coherence images of living tissue using the CLEAN algorithm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 66–75 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Song, Z. Huang, T.-M. Nguyen, E. Y. Wong, B. Arnal, M. O’Donnell, and R. K. Wang, “Shear modulus imaging by direct visualization of propagating shear waves with phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121509 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Crecea, A. Ahmad, and S. A. Boppart, “Magnetomotive optical coherence elastography for microrheology of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121504 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Y. Zaitsev, L. A. Matveev, A. L. Matveyev, G. V. Gelikonov, and V. M. Gelikonov, “Elastographic mapping in optical coherence tomography using an unconventional approach based on correlation stability,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 021107 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Qi, R. Chen, L. Chou, G. Liu, J. Zhang, Q. Zhou, and Z. Chen, “Phase-resolved acoustic radiation force optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(11), 110505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Li, G. Guan, S. Li, Z. Huang, and R. K. Wang, “Evaluating elastic properties of heterogeneous soft tissue by surface acoustic waves detected by phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 057002 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. M. Kennedy, C. Ford, B. F. Kennedy, M. B. Bush, and D. D. Sampson, “Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(12), 121508 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of mechanical deformation in compression OCE. (a) 2D FEA model of a stiff square feature embedded in a softer bulk material (CP: compression plate, F: feature, B: bulk, RP: rigid plate). (b) Corresponding FEA axial strain map after a 15% bulk strain is applied. Close-ups of the regions corresponding to the green rectangle in (a) and blue rectangle in (b) are shown in (c) and (d), respectively. (e) Normalized plots of elasticity (green) overlaid on axial strain (blue) across the axial boundary of the feature marked by the vertical dotted green line in (c) and blue line in (d). Similarly, (f) shows normalized plots of elasticity overlaid on axial strain across the lateral boundary of the feature marked by the horizontal dotted green line in (c) and blue line in (d). Scale bars represent 500 µm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Illustration of the compression OCE simulation used to study resolution. (a) A heterogeneous sample represented by a phantom with a soft bulk material (with stiffness E1) featuring a stiff square feature (with stiffness E2, where E2 > E1). A compressive bulk strain of 15% applied to (a) is simulated in FEA, and the output is an axial strain elastogram (εzz, FEA) shown in (b). The elastogram in (b) is convolved with PSFOCT(x,z) to obtain (c). The elastogram in (c) is convolved with the PSFLSR(z) to obtain (d). Scale bars represent 500 µm.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Illustration of 2D compression OCE on an inclusion phantom. (a) Sample arm of the imaging system. OL: objective lens, IW: imaging window, RA: ring actuator (the RA surrounds the IW and is shown cut-though in 2D), P: phantom (subjected to a bulk compressive strain of 15%), RP: rigid plate. (b) Axial displacement measured using phase-sensitive OCT from scans taken between different levels of microscale actuation. Least-squares regression is performed on (b) to obtain the strain elastogram of the phantom in (c). Images (b) and (c) correspond to the region denoted by the dotted black lines in (a). Scale bars represent 500 µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Illustration of the method used to measure feature resolution in phase-sensitive compression OCE. Strain elastograms of Phantom 4 in (a) simulation, and (b) experiment. In (c) and (e), the axial strain, and corresponding error function approximations, across the feature boundary at the locations denoted by the vertical dotted blue lines in (a) and (b) are presented. In (d) and (f), the axial derivatives of the error function fits, and corresponding FWHM are presented. Similarly, (g) and (i), respectively, show the axial strain and corresponding error function approximations across the lateral feature boundary denoted by the horizontal dotted blue line in (a) and (b) where (h) and (j), for simulation and experiment, respectively, show the lateral derivatives of the error function fits and corresponding FWHM. Scale bars represent 500 μm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Intrasample resolution in compression OCE. Strain elastograms of Phantom 5, with a feature cross section of 1000 μm ×1000 μm, acquired in (a) simulation and (b) experiment. The colored bars correspond to the feature resolution across the orthogonal feature boundary. (c) The measured values of axial feature resolution measured along the axial feature boundary in (a) and (b). (d) The measured values of lateral feature resolution measured along the lateral feature boundary in (a) and (b). Scale bars represent 500 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The impact of feature size on axial and lateral resolution. Strain elastograms of phantoms with feature cross-sections of 250 μm×250 μm, 500 μm×500 μm and 1000 μm × 1000 μm are presented for (a)–(c) simulation and (d)–(f) experiment. In (g) and (h), the axial and lateral feature resolution (mean ± standard deviation) measured through the center of each feature, denoted by the vertical and horizontal dotted blue lines, respectively, is overlaid on curves obtained from simulation. Scale bars represent 500 μm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The impact of mechanical contrast on axial and lateral feature resolution. Strain elastograms of phantoms with feature-to-background mechanical contrast ratios of 1.5, 10 and 30 are presented for (a)–(c) simulation and (d)–(f) experiment. In (g) and (h), the axial and lateral feature resolution (mean ± standard deviation) measured through the center of each feature, denoted by the vertical and horizontal dotted blue lines, respectively, is overlaid on curves obtained from simulation. Scale bars represent 500 μm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Resulting axial feature resolution with varying axial system resolution for (a) 250 μm × 250 μm, (b) 500 μm×500 μm and (c) 1000 μm ×1000 μm feature cross-sections. In (a), the axial system resolution was varied from 5 μm to 142 μm in simulation, and measurements were taken in experiment with system resolutions of 36 μm, 71 μm, 107 μm and 142 μm. In (b) and (c), the axial system resolution was varied from 5 μm to 178 μm in simulation, and measurements were taken in experiment with system resolutions of 36 μm, 71 μm, 107 μm, 142 μm and 178 μm. The solid black curve in each figure is obtained from simulation, and experimental measurements (mean ± standard deviation) are overlaid for each of system resolution used in experiment. The dashed lines show the respective values of axial feature resolution measured from FEA alone.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Characterization of the silicone phantoms.

Equations (11)

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σ=0,
ε ij = 1 2 ( u i j + u j i ), for i,j{ x,y,z }.
σ ij = k l C ijkl ε kl , for i,j,k,l{ x,y,z } .
σ ij =λ k ε k δ ij +2μ ε ij , for i,j,k{ x,y,z },
E= μ(3λ+2μ) λ+μ = σ zz ε zz .
PS F OCT (x,z)= |I(x,z)|= I 0 exp( 2 x 2 w x 2 )exp( 2 z 2 w z 2 ),
SG(z)={ βz h 2 , fornhznh 0, otherwise
PS F LSR (z)=SG(z)a(z)={ β h ( n 2 z 2 h 2 ), fornhznh 0, otherwise
FWH M PS F LSR = Δz 2
u z = Δϕ(z) λ 0 4πn ,
erf( u a )= 2 π 0 u/a exp( t 2 ) dt,