Abstract

Terahertz (THz) metamaterial-based reflection spectroscopy is proposed for label-free sensing of living cells by a self-referenced method. When sensing the living Madin-Darby canine kidney cell monolayer and phosphate buffered saline solution, self-referenced signals showed significant differences in peak intensity because of inherent discrepancy in the imaginary part of their complex refractive indices, as confirmed by 3D-FDTD simulations. The resonance peak intensity was unaffected by cell monolayer thickness variation, demonstrating feasibility for sensing various cells. Simulations and experiments showed that saponin-induced changes in cell permeability could be monitored in real-time. The self-referenced signal was linearly dependent on the adherent cell density, illustrating a label-free in situ THz metamaterial-based cell sensor.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2018 (3)

Y. Zou, Q. Liu, X. Yang, H. C. Huang, J. Li, L. H. Du, Z. R. Li, J. H. Zhao, and L. G. Zhu, “Label-free monitoring of cell death induced by oxidative stress in living human cells using terahertz ATR spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(1), 14–24 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Lee, H. Yang, H. S. Song, B. Park, E.-M. Hur, J. H. Kim, T. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Ultrasensitive terahertz molecule sensor for observation of photoinduced conformational change in rhodopsin-nanovesicles,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 273, 1371–1375 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Zeng, N. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Zhang, S. Teng, Y. Zhang, and Z. Lu, “Long noncoding RNA DANCR, working as a competitive endogenous RNA, promotes ROCK1-mediated proliferation and metastasis via decoying of miR-335-5p and miR-1972 in osteosarcoma,” Mol. Cancer 17(1), 89 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (3)

X. Zhao, M. Zhang, D. Wei, Y. Wang, S. Yan, M. Liu, X. Yang, K. Yang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Label-free sensing of the binding state of MUC1 peptide and anti-MUC1 aptamer solution in fluidic chip by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4427–4437 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ball, “Water is an active matrix of life for cell and molecular biology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(51), 13327–13335 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. X. Sun, Y. Q. Zhang, Y. J. Wang, C. L. Zhang, C. J. Min, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, “Refractive index mapping of single cells with a graphene-based optical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 242, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, D. Wei, S. Yan, Y. Liu, S. Yu, M. Zhang, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, Q. Huang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Rapid and label-free detection and assessment of bacteria by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1050–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, L. Liang, L. Ding, B. Jin, Y. Hou, C. Li, L. Jiang, W. Liu, W. Hu, Y. Lu, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Label-free measurements on cell apoptosis using a terahertz metamaterial-based biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241105 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, P. Sun, Y. He, Y. Zou, and Y. Deng, “Extracting Complex Refractive Index from Polycrystalline Glucose with Self-Referenced Method for Terahertz Time-Domain Reflection Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 70(7), 1102–1108 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Grognot and G. Gallot, “Quantitative measurement of permeabilization of living cells by terahertz attenuated total reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 103702 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 253701 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. K. Lee, J. H. Kang, J. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Lee, J. H. Son, Q. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 493–502 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, M. W. Takeda, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(2), 198–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053702 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, R. Singh, M. Walther, and M. Koch, “Novel THz Metamaterial Designs: From Near- and Far-Field Coupling to High-Q Resonances,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 772–782 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Weibull, S. Matsui, M. Sakai, H. Andersson Svahn, and T. Ohashi, “Microfluidic device for generating a stepwise concentration gradient on a microwell slide for cell analysis,” Biomicrofluidics 7(6), 064115 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Medepalli, B. W. Alphenaar, R. S. Keynton, and P. Sethu, “A new technique for reversible permeabilization of live cells for intracellular delivery of quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 24(20), 205101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Primiceri, M. S. Chiriacò, R. Rinaldi, and G. Maruccio, “Cell chips as new tools for cell biology--results, perspectives and opportunities,” Lab Chip 13(19), 3789–3802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

A. Puliafito, L. Hufnagel, P. Neveu, S. Streichan, A. Sigal, D. K. Fygenson, and B. I. Shraiman, “Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(3), 739–744 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Y. Sun, Y. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Investigating Antibody Interactions with a Polar Liquid Using Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 100(1), 225–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y. Chen, B. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

N. Yu, J. M. Atienza, J. Bernard, S. Blanc, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. A. Abassi, “Real-time monitoring of morphological changes in living cells by electronic cell sensor arrays: an approach to study G protein-coupled receptors,” Anal. Chem. 78(1), 35–43 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

G. Bao and S. Suresh, “Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 715–725 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

G. Francis, Z. Kerem, H. P. S. Makkar, and K. Becker, “The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review,” Br. J. Nutr. 88(6), 587–605 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. C. Jacob, M. Favre, and J. C. Bensa, “Membrane cell permeabilization with saponin and multiparametric analysis by flow cytometry,” Cytometry 12(6), 550–558 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

M. Wassler, I. Jonasson, R. Persson, and E. Fries, “Differential permeabilization of membranes by saponin treatment of isolated rat hepatocytes. Release of secretory proteins,” Biochem. J. 247(2), 407–415 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abassi, Y. A.

N. Yu, J. M. Atienza, J. Bernard, S. Blanc, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. A. Abassi, “Real-time monitoring of morphological changes in living cells by electronic cell sensor arrays: an approach to study G protein-coupled receptors,” Anal. Chem. 78(1), 35–43 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahuja, A. T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Naib, I.

I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, R. Singh, M. Walther, and M. Koch, “Novel THz Metamaterial Designs: From Near- and Far-Field Coupling to High-Q Resonances,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 772–782 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alphenaar, B. W.

K. Medepalli, B. W. Alphenaar, R. S. Keynton, and P. Sethu, “A new technique for reversible permeabilization of live cells for intracellular delivery of quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 24(20), 205101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andersson Svahn, H.

E. Weibull, S. Matsui, M. Sakai, H. Andersson Svahn, and T. Ohashi, “Microfluidic device for generating a stepwise concentration gradient on a microwell slide for cell analysis,” Biomicrofluidics 7(6), 064115 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atienza, J. M.

N. Yu, J. M. Atienza, J. Bernard, S. Blanc, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. A. Abassi, “Real-time monitoring of morphological changes in living cells by electronic cell sensor arrays: an approach to study G protein-coupled receptors,” Anal. Chem. 78(1), 35–43 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayi, T. C.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ball, P.

P. Ball, “Water is an active matrix of life for cell and molecular biology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(51), 13327–13335 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, G.

G. Bao and S. Suresh, “Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 715–725 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, K.

G. Francis, Z. Kerem, H. P. S. Makkar, and K. Becker, “The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review,” Br. J. Nutr. 88(6), 587–605 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bensa, J. C.

M. C. Jacob, M. Favre, and J. C. Bensa, “Membrane cell permeabilization with saponin and multiparametric analysis by flow cytometry,” Cytometry 12(6), 550–558 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernard, J.

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K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053702 (2013).
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M. C. Jacob, M. Favre, and J. C. Bensa, “Membrane cell permeabilization with saponin and multiparametric analysis by flow cytometry,” Cytometry 12(6), 550–558 (1991).
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D. K. Lee, J. H. Kang, J. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Lee, J. H. Son, Q. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15459 (2015).
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C. Zhang, L. Liang, L. Ding, B. Jin, Y. Hou, C. Li, L. Jiang, W. Liu, W. Hu, Y. Lu, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Label-free measurements on cell apoptosis using a terahertz metamaterial-based biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241105 (2016).
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[Crossref]

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S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H. S.

D. K. Lee, J. H. Kang, J. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Lee, J. H. Son, Q. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. H.

D. K. Lee, H. Yang, H. S. Song, B. Park, E.-M. Hur, J. H. Kim, T. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Ultrasensitive terahertz molecule sensor for observation of photoinduced conformational change in rhodopsin-nanovesicles,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 273, 1371–1375 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. K. Lee, J. H. Kang, J. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Lee, J. H. Son, Q. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, R. Singh, M. Walther, and M. Koch, “Novel THz Metamaterial Designs: From Near- and Far-Field Coupling to High-Q Resonances,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 772–782 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kondo, N.

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 253701 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 493–502 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. H.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, D. K.

D. K. Lee, H. Yang, H. S. Song, B. Park, E.-M. Hur, J. H. Kim, T. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Ultrasensitive terahertz molecule sensor for observation of photoinduced conformational change in rhodopsin-nanovesicles,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 273, 1371–1375 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. K. Lee, J. H. Kang, J. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Lee, J. H. Son, Q. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. S.

D. K. Lee, J. H. Kang, J. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Lee, J. H. Son, Q. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, T.

D. K. Lee, J. H. Kang, J. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Lee, J. H. Son, Q. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, C.

C. Zhang, L. Liang, L. Ding, B. Jin, Y. Hou, C. Li, L. Jiang, W. Liu, W. Hu, Y. Lu, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Label-free measurements on cell apoptosis using a terahertz metamaterial-based biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

Li, Z. R.

Liang, L.

C. Zhang, L. Liang, L. Ding, B. Jin, Y. Hou, C. Li, L. Jiang, W. Liu, W. Hu, Y. Lu, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Label-free measurements on cell apoptosis using a terahertz metamaterial-based biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liedberg, B.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H. B.

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y. Chen, B. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

Liu, P. Y.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
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Liu, Q.

Liu, W.

C. Zhang, L. Liang, L. Ding, B. Jin, Y. Hou, C. Li, L. Jiang, W. Liu, W. Hu, Y. Lu, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Label-free measurements on cell apoptosis using a terahertz metamaterial-based biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, D. Wei, S. Yan, Y. Liu, S. Yu, M. Zhang, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, Q. Huang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Rapid and label-free detection and assessment of bacteria by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1050–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, X.

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

C. Zhang, L. Liang, L. Ding, B. Jin, Y. Hou, C. Li, L. Jiang, W. Liu, W. Hu, Y. Lu, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Label-free measurements on cell apoptosis using a terahertz metamaterial-based biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241105 (2016).
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Lu, Z.

Y. Wang, X. Zeng, N. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Zhang, S. Teng, Y. Zhang, and Z. Lu, “Long noncoding RNA DANCR, working as a competitive endogenous RNA, promotes ROCK1-mediated proliferation and metastasis via decoying of miR-335-5p and miR-1972 in osteosarcoma,” Mol. Cancer 17(1), 89 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, Y. G.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Makkar, H. P. S.

G. Francis, Z. Kerem, H. P. S. Makkar, and K. Becker, “The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review,” Br. J. Nutr. 88(6), 587–605 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maruccio, G.

E. Primiceri, M. S. Chiriacò, R. Rinaldi, and G. Maruccio, “Cell chips as new tools for cell biology--results, perspectives and opportunities,” Lab Chip 13(19), 3789–3802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Matsui, S.

E. Weibull, S. Matsui, M. Sakai, H. Andersson Svahn, and T. Ohashi, “Microfluidic device for generating a stepwise concentration gradient on a microwell slide for cell analysis,” Biomicrofluidics 7(6), 064115 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Medepalli, K.

K. Medepalli, B. W. Alphenaar, R. S. Keynton, and P. Sethu, “A new technique for reversible permeabilization of live cells for intracellular delivery of quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 24(20), 205101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Min, C. J.

L. X. Sun, Y. Q. Zhang, Y. J. Wang, C. L. Zhang, C. J. Min, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, “Refractive index mapping of single cells with a graphene-based optical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 242, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

Miyamaru, F.

F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, M. W. Takeda, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(2), 198–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Neveu, P.

A. Puliafito, L. Hufnagel, P. Neveu, S. Streichan, A. Sigal, D. K. Fygenson, and B. I. Shraiman, “Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(3), 739–744 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishida, T.

F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, M. W. Takeda, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(2), 198–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ogawa, Y.

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 253701 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 493–502 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, M. W. Takeda, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(2), 198–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ohashi, T.

E. Weibull, S. Matsui, M. Sakai, H. Andersson Svahn, and T. Ohashi, “Microfluidic device for generating a stepwise concentration gradient on a microwell slide for cell analysis,” Biomicrofluidics 7(6), 064115 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, X.

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, B.

D. K. Lee, H. Yang, H. S. Song, B. Park, E.-M. Hur, J. H. Kim, T. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Ultrasensitive terahertz molecule sensor for observation of photoinduced conformational change in rhodopsin-nanovesicles,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 273, 1371–1375 (2018).
[Crossref]

Park, J. Y.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
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Park, Q. H.

D. K. Lee, J. H. Kang, J. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Lee, J. H. Son, Q. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S. J.

S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
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S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, T. H.

D. K. Lee, H. Yang, H. S. Song, B. Park, E.-M. Hur, J. H. Kim, T. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Ultrasensitive terahertz molecule sensor for observation of photoinduced conformational change in rhodopsin-nanovesicles,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 273, 1371–1375 (2018).
[Crossref]

Park, W. K.

S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Persson, R.

M. Wassler, I. Jonasson, R. Persson, and E. Fries, “Differential permeabilization of membranes by saponin treatment of isolated rat hepatocytes. Release of secretory proteins,” Biochem. J. 247(2), 407–415 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pickwell-Macpherson, E.

Y. Sun, Y. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Investigating Antibody Interactions with a Polar Liquid Using Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 100(1), 225–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plopper, G.

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y. Chen, B. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Primiceri, E.

E. Primiceri, M. S. Chiriacò, R. Rinaldi, and G. Maruccio, “Cell chips as new tools for cell biology--results, perspectives and opportunities,” Lab Chip 13(19), 3789–3802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Probst, T.

A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
[Crossref]

Puliafito, A.

A. Puliafito, L. Hufnagel, P. Neveu, S. Streichan, A. Sigal, D. K. Fygenson, and B. I. Shraiman, “Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(3), 739–744 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quan, B.

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rinaldi, R.

E. Primiceri, M. S. Chiriacò, R. Rinaldi, and G. Maruccio, “Cell chips as new tools for cell biology--results, perspectives and opportunities,” Lab Chip 13(19), 3789–3802 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakai, M.

E. Weibull, S. Matsui, M. Sakai, H. Andersson Svahn, and T. Ohashi, “Microfluidic device for generating a stepwise concentration gradient on a microwell slide for cell analysis,” Biomicrofluidics 7(6), 064115 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwerdtfeger, M.

A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seo, M.

D. K. Lee, H. Yang, H. S. Song, B. Park, E.-M. Hur, J. H. Kim, T. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Ultrasensitive terahertz molecule sensor for observation of photoinduced conformational change in rhodopsin-nanovesicles,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 273, 1371–1375 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. K. Lee, J. H. Kang, J. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Lee, J. H. Son, Q. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ser, W.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sethu, P.

K. Medepalli, B. W. Alphenaar, R. S. Keynton, and P. Sethu, “A new technique for reversible permeabilization of live cells for intracellular delivery of quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 24(20), 205101 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiraga, K.

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 253701 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 493–502 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, M. W. Takeda, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(2), 198–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shraiman, B. I.

A. Puliafito, L. Hufnagel, P. Neveu, S. Streichan, A. Sigal, D. K. Fygenson, and B. I. Shraiman, “Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(3), 739–744 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sigal, A.

A. Puliafito, L. Hufnagel, P. Neveu, S. Streichan, A. Sigal, D. K. Fygenson, and B. I. Shraiman, “Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(3), 739–744 (2012).
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Singh, R.

I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, R. Singh, M. Walther, and M. Koch, “Novel THz Metamaterial Designs: From Near- and Far-Field Coupling to High-Q Resonances,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 772–782 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soltani, A.

A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
[Crossref]

Son, J. H.

D. K. Lee, J. H. Kang, J. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, C. Kim, J. H. Kim, T. Lee, J. H. Son, Q. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 15459 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, H. S.

D. K. Lee, H. Yang, H. S. Song, B. Park, E.-M. Hur, J. H. Kim, T. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Ultrasensitive terahertz molecule sensor for observation of photoinduced conformational change in rhodopsin-nanovesicles,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 273, 1371–1375 (2018).
[Crossref]

Streichan, S.

A. Puliafito, L. Hufnagel, P. Neveu, S. Streichan, A. Sigal, D. K. Fygenson, and B. I. Shraiman, “Collective and single cell behavior in epithelial contact inhibition,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(3), 739–744 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suga, S.

F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, M. W. Takeda, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(2), 198–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sun, L. X.

L. X. Sun, Y. Q. Zhang, Y. J. Wang, C. L. Zhang, C. J. Min, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, “Refractive index mapping of single cells with a graphene-based optical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 242, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sun, P.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, Y. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Investigating Antibody Interactions with a Polar Liquid Using Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 100(1), 225–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sung, K. B.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
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G. Bao and S. Suresh, “Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 715–725 (2003).
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Suzuki, T.

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 253701 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 493–502 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053702 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sy, S.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Takeda, M. W.

F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, M. W. Takeda, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(2), 198–207 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, K.

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 253701 (2015).
[Crossref]

Teng, S.

Y. Wang, X. Zeng, N. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Zhang, S. Teng, Y. Zhang, and Z. Lu, “Long noncoding RNA DANCR, working as a competitive endogenous RNA, promotes ROCK1-mediated proliferation and metastasis via decoying of miR-335-5p and miR-1972 in osteosarcoma,” Mol. Cancer 17(1), 89 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, R. Singh, M. Walther, and M. Koch, “Novel THz Metamaterial Designs: From Near- and Far-Field Coupling to High-Q Resonances,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 772–782 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wang, K.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, N.

Y. Wang, X. Zeng, N. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Zhang, S. Teng, Y. Zhang, and Z. Lu, “Long noncoding RNA DANCR, working as a competitive endogenous RNA, promotes ROCK1-mediated proliferation and metastasis via decoying of miR-335-5p and miR-1972 in osteosarcoma,” Mol. Cancer 17(1), 89 (2018).
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N. Yu, J. M. Atienza, J. Bernard, S. Blanc, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. A. Abassi, “Real-time monitoring of morphological changes in living cells by electronic cell sensor arrays: an approach to study G protein-coupled receptors,” Anal. Chem. 78(1), 35–43 (2006).
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Y. Wang, X. Zeng, N. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Zhang, S. Teng, Y. Zhang, and Z. Lu, “Long noncoding RNA DANCR, working as a competitive endogenous RNA, promotes ROCK1-mediated proliferation and metastasis via decoying of miR-335-5p and miR-1972 in osteosarcoma,” Mol. Cancer 17(1), 89 (2018).
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X. Zhao, M. Zhang, D. Wei, Y. Wang, S. Yan, M. Liu, X. Yang, K. Yang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Label-free sensing of the binding state of MUC1 peptide and anti-MUC1 aptamer solution in fluidic chip by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4427–4437 (2017).
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Wang, Y. J.

L. X. Sun, Y. Q. Zhang, Y. J. Wang, C. L. Zhang, C. J. Min, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, “Refractive index mapping of single cells with a graphene-based optical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 242, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. X. J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wassler, M.

M. Wassler, I. Jonasson, R. Persson, and E. Fries, “Differential permeabilization of membranes by saponin treatment of isolated rat hepatocytes. Release of secretory proteins,” Biochem. J. 247(2), 407–415 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, D.

X. Zhao, M. Zhang, D. Wei, Y. Wang, S. Yan, M. Liu, X. Yang, K. Yang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Label-free sensing of the binding state of MUC1 peptide and anti-MUC1 aptamer solution in fluidic chip by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4427–4437 (2017).
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X. Yang, D. Wei, S. Yan, Y. Liu, S. Yu, M. Zhang, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, Q. Huang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Rapid and label-free detection and assessment of bacteria by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1050–1058 (2016).
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Weibull, E.

E. Weibull, S. Matsui, M. Sakai, H. Andersson Svahn, and T. Ohashi, “Microfluidic device for generating a stepwise concentration gradient on a microwell slide for cell analysis,” Biomicrofluidics 7(6), 064115 (2013).
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Wu, P.

C. Zhang, L. Liang, L. Ding, B. Jin, Y. Hou, C. Li, L. Jiang, W. Liu, W. Hu, Y. Lu, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Label-free measurements on cell apoptosis using a terahertz metamaterial-based biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, L. J.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

C. Zhang, L. Liang, L. Ding, B. Jin, Y. Hou, C. Li, L. Jiang, W. Liu, W. Hu, Y. Lu, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Label-free measurements on cell apoptosis using a terahertz metamaterial-based biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241105 (2016).
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Xu, W. D.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, X.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

N. Yu, J. M. Atienza, J. Bernard, S. Blanc, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. A. Abassi, “Real-time monitoring of morphological changes in living cells by electronic cell sensor arrays: an approach to study G protein-coupled receptors,” Anal. Chem. 78(1), 35–43 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, S.

X. Zhao, M. Zhang, D. Wei, Y. Wang, S. Yan, M. Liu, X. Yang, K. Yang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Label-free sensing of the binding state of MUC1 peptide and anti-MUC1 aptamer solution in fluidic chip by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4427–4437 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, D. Wei, S. Yan, Y. Liu, S. Yu, M. Zhang, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, Q. Huang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Rapid and label-free detection and assessment of bacteria by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1050–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

D. K. Lee, H. Yang, H. S. Song, B. Park, E.-M. Hur, J. H. Kim, T. H. Park, and M. Seo, “Ultrasensitive terahertz molecule sensor for observation of photoinduced conformational change in rhodopsin-nanovesicles,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 273, 1371–1375 (2018).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

Yang, X.

Y. Zou, Q. Liu, X. Yang, H. C. Huang, J. Li, L. H. Du, Z. R. Li, J. H. Zhao, and L. G. Zhu, “Label-free monitoring of cell death induced by oxidative stress in living human cells using terahertz ATR spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(1), 14–24 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhao, M. Zhang, D. Wei, Y. Wang, S. Yan, M. Liu, X. Yang, K. Yang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Label-free sensing of the binding state of MUC1 peptide and anti-MUC1 aptamer solution in fluidic chip by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4427–4437 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical Applications of Terahertz Spectroscopy and Imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, D. Wei, S. Yan, Y. Liu, S. Yu, M. Zhang, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, Q. Huang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Rapid and label-free detection and assessment of bacteria by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1050–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

L. X. Sun, Y. Q. Zhang, Y. J. Wang, C. L. Zhang, C. J. Min, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, “Refractive index mapping of single cells with a graphene-based optical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 242, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z.

X. Yang, D. Wei, S. Yan, Y. Liu, S. Yu, M. Zhang, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, Q. Huang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Rapid and label-free detection and assessment of bacteria by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1050–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yap, P. H.

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, Z. Z.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ying, Y. B.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yoon, S. A. N.

S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, J. M. Atienza, J. Bernard, S. Blanc, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. A. Abassi, “Real-time monitoring of morphological changes in living cells by electronic cell sensor arrays: an approach to study G protein-coupled receptors,” Anal. Chem. 78(1), 35–43 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

X. Yang, D. Wei, S. Yan, Y. Liu, S. Yu, M. Zhang, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, Q. Huang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Rapid and label-free detection and assessment of bacteria by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1050–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, X. C.

L. X. Sun, Y. Q. Zhang, Y. J. Wang, C. L. Zhang, C. J. Min, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, “Refractive index mapping of single cells with a graphene-based optical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 242, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

Y. Wang, X. Zeng, N. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Zhang, S. Teng, Y. Zhang, and Z. Lu, “Long noncoding RNA DANCR, working as a competitive endogenous RNA, promotes ROCK1-mediated proliferation and metastasis via decoying of miR-335-5p and miR-1972 in osteosarcoma,” Mol. Cancer 17(1), 89 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, L. Liang, L. Ding, B. Jin, Y. Hou, C. Li, L. Jiang, W. Liu, W. Hu, Y. Lu, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Label-free measurements on cell apoptosis using a terahertz metamaterial-based biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241105 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C. L.

L. X. Sun, Y. Q. Zhang, Y. J. Wang, C. L. Zhang, C. J. Min, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, “Refractive index mapping of single cells with a graphene-based optical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 242, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, M.

X. Zhao, M. Zhang, D. Wei, Y. Wang, S. Yan, M. Liu, X. Yang, K. Yang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Label-free sensing of the binding state of MUC1 peptide and anti-MUC1 aptamer solution in fluidic chip by terahertz spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(10), 4427–4437 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, D. Wei, S. Yan, Y. Liu, S. Yu, M. Zhang, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, Q. Huang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Rapid and label-free detection and assessment of bacteria by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1050–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Y. Wang, X. Zeng, N. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Zhang, S. Teng, Y. Zhang, and Z. Lu, “Long noncoding RNA DANCR, working as a competitive endogenous RNA, promotes ROCK1-mediated proliferation and metastasis via decoying of miR-335-5p and miR-1972 in osteosarcoma,” Mol. Cancer 17(1), 89 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. C.

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y. Chen, B. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Zeng, N. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Zhang, S. Teng, Y. Zhang, and Z. Lu, “Long noncoding RNA DANCR, working as a competitive endogenous RNA, promotes ROCK1-mediated proliferation and metastasis via decoying of miR-335-5p and miR-1972 in osteosarcoma,” Mol. Cancer 17(1), 89 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, L. Zhang, P. Sun, Y. He, Y. Zou, and Y. Deng, “Extracting Complex Refractive Index from Polycrystalline Glucose with Self-Referenced Method for Terahertz Time-Domain Reflection Spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 70(7), 1102–1108 (2016).
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Y. Sun, Y. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Investigating Antibody Interactions with a Polar Liquid Using Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 100(1), 225–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. Q.

L. X. Sun, Y. Q. Zhang, Y. J. Wang, C. L. Zhang, C. J. Min, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, “Refractive index mapping of single cells with a graphene-based optical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 242, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. T.

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, J. H.

Zhao, W.

Y. Wang, X. Zeng, N. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Zhang, S. Teng, Y. Zhang, and Z. Lu, “Long noncoding RNA DANCR, working as a competitive endogenous RNA, promotes ROCK1-mediated proliferation and metastasis via decoying of miR-335-5p and miR-1972 in osteosarcoma,” Mol. Cancer 17(1), 89 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, X.

Zhu, J.

N. Yu, J. M. Atienza, J. Bernard, S. Blanc, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. A. Abassi, “Real-time monitoring of morphological changes in living cells by electronic cell sensor arrays: an approach to study G protein-coupled receptors,” Anal. Chem. 78(1), 35–43 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J. F.

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, L. G.

Zhu, S. W.

L. X. Sun, Y. Q. Zhang, Y. J. Wang, C. L. Zhang, C. J. Min, Y. Yang, S. W. Zhu, and X. C. Yuan, “Refractive index mapping of single cells with a graphene-based optical sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 242, 41–46 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

X. Yang, D. Wei, S. Yan, Y. Liu, S. Yu, M. Zhang, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, Q. Huang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Rapid and label-free detection and assessment of bacteria by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1050–1058 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zou, Y.

ACS Photonics (1)

W. D. Xu, L. J. Xie, J. F. Zhu, X. Xu, Z. Z. Ye, C. Wang, Y. G. Ma, and Y. B. Ying, “Gold nanoparticle-based terahertz metamaterial sensors: mechanisms and applications,” ACS Photonics 3(12), 2308–2314 (2016).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

N. Yu, J. M. Atienza, J. Bernard, S. Blanc, J. Zhu, X. Wang, X. Xu, and Y. A. Abassi, “Real-time monitoring of morphological changes in living cells by electronic cell sensor arrays: an approach to study G protein-coupled receptors,” Anal. Chem. 78(1), 35–43 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(25), 253701 (2015).
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M. Grognot and G. Gallot, “Quantitative measurement of permeabilization of living cells by terahertz attenuated total reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(10), 103702 (2015).
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K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(5), 053702 (2013).
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C. Zhang, L. Liang, L. Ding, B. Jin, Y. Hou, C. Li, L. Jiang, W. Liu, W. Hu, Y. Lu, L. Kang, W. Xu, J. Chen, and P. Wu, “Label-free measurements on cell apoptosis using a terahertz metamaterial-based biosensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(24), 241105 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Wu, X. Pan, B. Quan, X. Xu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Self-referenced sensing based on terahertz metamaterial for aqueous solutions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 151109 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Biomicrofluidics (1)

E. Weibull, S. Matsui, M. Sakai, H. Andersson Svahn, and T. Ohashi, “Microfluidic device for generating a stepwise concentration gradient on a microwell slide for cell analysis,” Biomicrofluidics 7(6), 064115 (2013).
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Biophys. J. (1)

Y. Sun, Y. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “Investigating Antibody Interactions with a Polar Liquid Using Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy,” Biophys. J. 100(1), 225–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y. Chen, B. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wu, B. Quan, X. Pan, X. Xu, X. Lu, C. Gu, and L. Wang, “Alkanethiol-functionalized terahertz metamaterial as label-free, highly-sensitive and specific biosensor,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 42, 626–631 (2013).
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Br. J. Nutr. (1)

G. Francis, Z. Kerem, H. P. S. Makkar, and K. Becker, “The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review,” Br. J. Nutr. 88(6), 587–605 (2002).
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IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. (1)

I. Al-Naib, C. Jansen, R. Singh, M. Walther, and M. Koch, “Novel THz Metamaterial Designs: From Near- and Far-Field Coupling to High-Q Resonances,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 3(6), 772–782 (2013).
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J. Biophotonics (1)

X. Yang, D. Wei, S. Yan, Y. Liu, S. Yu, M. Zhang, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, Q. Huang, H. L. Cui, and W. Fu, “Rapid and label-free detection and assessment of bacteria by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1050–1058 (2016).
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J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves (3)

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 493–502 (2014).
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A. Soltani, T. Probst, S. F. Busch, M. Schwerdtfeger, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “Error from delay drift in terahertz attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(5), 468–477 (2014).
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F. Miyamaru, K. Hattori, K. Shiraga, S. Kawashima, S. Suga, T. Nishida, M. W. Takeda, and Y. Ogawa, “Highly sensitive terahertz sensing of glycerol-water mixtures with metamaterials,” J. Infrared Millim. Terahertz Waves 35(2), 198–207 (2014).
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Lab Chip (2)

P. Y. Liu, L. K. Chin, W. Ser, H. F. Chen, C. M. Hsieh, C. H. Lee, K. B. Sung, T. C. Ayi, P. H. Yap, B. Liedberg, K. Wang, T. Bourouina, and Y. Leprince-Wang, “Cell refractive index for cell biology and disease diagnosis: past, present and future,” Lab Chip 16(4), 634–644 (2016).
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E. Primiceri, M. S. Chiriacò, R. Rinaldi, and G. Maruccio, “Cell chips as new tools for cell biology--results, perspectives and opportunities,” Lab Chip 13(19), 3789–3802 (2013).
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Mol. Cancer (1)

Y. Wang, X. Zeng, N. Wang, W. Zhao, X. Zhang, S. Teng, Y. Zhang, and Z. Lu, “Long noncoding RNA DANCR, working as a competitive endogenous RNA, promotes ROCK1-mediated proliferation and metastasis via decoying of miR-335-5p and miR-1972 in osteosarcoma,” Mol. Cancer 17(1), 89 (2018).
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Nanotechnology (1)

K. Medepalli, B. W. Alphenaar, R. S. Keynton, and P. Sethu, “A new technique for reversible permeabilization of live cells for intracellular delivery of quantum dots,” Nanotechnology 24(20), 205101 (2013).
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G. Bao and S. Suresh, “Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 715–725 (2003).
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Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. Sy, S. Huang, Y. X. J. Wang, J. Yu, A. T. Ahuja, Y. T. Zhang, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Terahertz spectroscopy of liver cirrhosis: investigating the origin of contrast,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(24), 7587–7596 (2010).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2)

P. Ball, “Water is an active matrix of life for cell and molecular biology,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114(51), 13327–13335 (2017).
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S. J. Park, S. A. N. Yoon, and Y. H. Ahn, “Dielectric constant measurements of thin films and liquids using terahertz metamaterials,” RSC Advances 6(73), 69381–69386 (2016).
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S. J. Park, J. T. Hong, S. J. Choi, H. S. Kim, W. K. Park, S. T. Han, J. Y. Park, S. Lee, D. S. Kim, and Y. H. Ahn, “Detection of microorganisms using terahertz metamaterials,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4988 (2015).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Optical micrograph of THz metamaterial sensor without (left) and with (right) MDCK cell monolayer; (b) schematic diagram of the self-referenced analysis of the living cell monolayer; (c) schematic diagram of the metamaterial-based reflection spectroscopy setup.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Reflective THz time-domain waveforms and (b) normalized simulated (dashed line) and experimental (solid line) reflection spectra for self-referenced sensing of PBS solution (~1000 µm in simulation) and living MDCK cell in PBS solution (~11-µm-thick cell monolayer and 1000-µm-thick PBS solution in simulation) on the metamaterial (black for cell and red for PBS solution) and on the Si wafer (blue for cell and olive for PBS solution).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Normalized reflection spectra of thickness-dependent cell monolayer for self-referenced sensing of living MDCK cell. (a) Simulated results with the thickness of cell monolayer ranging from 0 µm to 20.5 µm. (b) Peak intensity variation as a function of the change of cell monolayer thickness, and electric field profiles along z-axis at the positions indicated by red dotted lines in the inset. The solid lines are the exponential fitting. Inset in Fig. 3(b) shows the simulated electric field maps at the resonant frequency for the gap area (corresponds to the range of −2 µm to 2 µm on the x-axis) of the used THz metamaterial with no adherent dielectric material but air.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Simulated THz self-referenced reflection spectra for thickness-dependent cell monolayer (5.5 µm, 7.5 µm, 11.0 µm, 12.5 µm, and 15.5 µm) with the water content ranging from 0% to 100% and a fixed upper PBS solution layer (1000 µm) and (b) relative signal variation versus time for monitoring living MDCK cell monolayer after exposure to PBS solution and 0.05% and 0.075% saponin.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a-d) Normalized self-referenced reflection spectra for various seeding concentrations of cell suspension (2.5 × 105, 5 × 105, 7.5 × 105, and 1 × 106 cells/mL) on metamaterial surface. Insets are optical micrographs of the metamaterial with different cell densities corresponding to various seeding concentrations. (e) The plot of peak intensity variation as a function of changes in average cell number adhered to a single resonator (Navg). The red line is a linear fit for the Navg and peak intensity variation.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ= Ιpeak(T=0)Ιpeak(T=t) Ιpeak(T=0)Ιpeak(PBS)
ΔV= Ιpeak(cell)Ιpeak(PBS) Ιpeak(PBS)