Abstract

Accurate identification of coronary plaque is very important for cardiologists when treating patients with advanced atherosclerosis. We developed fully-automated semantic segmentation of plaque in intravascular OCT images. We trained/tested a deep learning model on a folded, large, manually annotated clinical dataset. The sensitivities/specificities were 87.4%/89.5% and 85.1%/94.2% for pixel-wise classification of lipidous and calcified plaque, respectively. Automated clinical lesion metrics, potentially useful for treatment planning and research, compared favorably (<4%) with those derived from ground-truth labels. When we converted the results to A-line classification, they were significantly better (p < 0.05) than those obtained previously by using deep learning classifications of A-lines.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (3)

D. Prabhu, H. Bezerra, C. Kolluru, Y. Gharaibeh, E. Mehanna, H. Wu, and D. Wilson, “Automated A-line coronary plaque classification of intravascular optical coherence tomography images using handcrafted features and large datasets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(10), 1–15 (2019).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

2018 (5)

F. Liu, Z. Zhou, H. Jang, A. Samsonov, G. Zhao, and R. Kijowski, “Deep convolutional neural network and 3D deformable approach for tissue segmentation in musculoskeletal magnetic resonance imaging,” Magn. Reson. Med 79(4), 2379–2391 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

A. Fujino, G. S. Mintz, M. Matsumura, T. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, M. Hoshino, E. Usui, T. Yonetsu, E. S. Haag, R. A. Shlofmitz, T. Kakuta, and A. Maehara, “A new optical coherence tomography-based calcium scoring system to predict stent underexpansion,” EuroIntervention 13(18), 2182–2189 (2018).
[Crossref]

A. Abdolmanafi, L. Duong, N. Dahdah, I. R. Adib, and F. Cheriet, “Characterization of coronary artery pathological formations from OCT imaging using deep learning,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(10), 4936–4960 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Kolluru, D. Prabhu, Y. Gharaibeh, H. Bezerra, G. Guagliumi, and D. Wilson, “Deep neural networks for A-line-based plaque classification in coronary intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” J. Med. Imag. 5(04), 1 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

Y. L. Yong, L. K. Tan, R. A. McLaughlin, K. H. Chee, and Y. M. Liew, “Linear-regression convolutional neural network for fully automated coronary lumen segmentation in intravascular optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 1–9 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Abdolmanafi, L. Duong, N. Dahdah, and F. Cheriet, “Deep feature learning for automatic tissue classification of coronary artery using optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1203–1220 (2017).
[Crossref]

K. Men, X. Chen, Y. Zhang, T. Zhang, J. Dai, J. Yi, and Y. Li, “Deep Deconvolutional Neural Network for Target Segmentation of Nasopharyngeal Cancer in Planning Computed Tomography Images,” Front. Oncol. 7, 315 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Badrinarayanan, A. Kendall, and R. Cipolla, “SegNet: A Deep Convolutional Encoder-Decoder Architecture for Image Segmentation,” EEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 39(12), 2481–2495 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

J. J. Rico-Jimenez, D. U. Campos-Delgado, M. Villiger, K. Otsuka, B. E. Bouma, and J. A. Jo, “Automatic classification of atherosclerotic plaques imaged with intravascular OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(10), 4069–4085 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Prabhu, E. Mehanna, M. Gargesha, E. Brandt, D. Wen, N. S. van Ditzhuijzen, D. Chamie, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, A. Alian, J. Patel, M. Costa, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Three-dimensional registration of intravascular optical coherence tomography and cryo-image volumes for microscopic-resolution validation,” J. Med. Imag 3(2), 026004 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Maejima, K. Hibi, K. Saka, E. Akiyama, M. Konishi, M. Endo, N. Iwahashi, K. Tsukahara, M. Kosuge, T. Ebina, S. Umemura, and K. Kimura, “Relationship Between Thickness of Calcium on Optical Coherence Tomography and Crack Formation After Balloon Dilatation in Calcified Plaque Requiring Rotational Atherectomy,” Circ. J. 80(6), 1413–1419 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

O. Russakovsky, J. Deng, H. Su, J. Krause, S. Satheesh, S. Ma, Z. Huang, A. Karpathy, A. Khosla, M. Bernstein, A. C. Berg, and L. Fei-Fei, “ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge,” Int J Comput Vis 115(3), 211–252 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Gargesha, R. Shalev, D. Prabhu, K. Tanaka, A. M. Rollins, M. Costa, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Parameter estimation of atherosclerotic tissue optical properties from three-dimensional intravascular optical coherence tomography,” J. Med. Imag 2(1), 016001 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

D. L. Hoyert and J. Xu, “Deaths: preliminary data for 2011,” Natl. Vital. Stat. Rep. 61(6), 1–51 (2012).

H. Lu, M. Gargesha, Z. Wang, D. Chamie, G. F. Attizzani, T. Kanaya, S. Ray, M. A. Costa, A. M. Rollins, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Automatic stent detection in intravascular OCT images using bagged decision trees,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2809–2824 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061711 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

E. Galkina and K. Ley, “Immune and Inflammatory Mechanisms of Atherosclerosis,” Annu. Rev. Immunol. 27(1), 165–197 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. G. Bezerra, M. A. Costa, G. Guagliumi, A. M. Rollins, and D. I. Simon, “Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: a comprehensive review clinical and research applications,” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions 2(11), 1035–1046 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Shotton, J. Winn, C. Rother, and A. Criminisi, “TextonBoost for Image Understanding: Multi-Class Object Recognition and Segmentation by Jointly Modeling Texture, Layout, and Context,” Int J Comput Vis 81(1), 2–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034003 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P.-T. de Boer, D. P. Kroese, S. Mannor, and R. Y. Rubinstein, “A Tutorial on the Cross-Entropy Method,” Ann Oper Res 134(1), 19–67 (2005).
[Crossref]

1945 (1)

L. R. Dice, “Measures of the Amount of Ecologic Association Between Species,” Ecology 26(3), 297–302 (1945).
[Crossref]

1912 (1)

P. Jaccard, “The Distribution of the Flora in the Alpine Zone.1,” New Phytol. 11(2), 37–50 (1912).
[Crossref]

Abdolmanafi, A.

Adam, H.

L.-C. Chen, Y. Zhu, G. Papandreou, F. Schroff, and H. Adam, “Encoder-Decoder with Atrous Separable Convolution for Semantic Image Segmentation,” in Computer Vision – ECCV 2018, V. Ferrari, M. Hebert, C. Sminchisescu, and Y. Weiss, eds., Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer International Publishing, 2018), pp. 833–851.

Adib, I. R.

Adriaenssens, T.

G. J. Ughi, T. Adriaenssens, P. Sinnaeve, W. Desmet, and J. D’hooge, “Automated tissue characterization of in vivo atherosclerotic plaques by intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(7), 1014–1030 (2013).
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G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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H. Lu, M. Gargesha, Z. Wang, D. Chamie, G. F. Attizzani, T. Kanaya, S. Ray, M. A. Costa, A. M. Rollins, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Automatic stent detection in intravascular OCT images using bagged decision trees,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2809–2824 (2012).
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R. Shalev, H. G. Bezerra, S. Ray, D. Prabhu, and D. L. Wilson, “Classification of calcium in intravascular OCT images for the purpose of intervention planning,” in Medical Imaging 2016: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), 9786, p. 978605.

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G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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Rieber, J.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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Riga, M.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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Rollins, A.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, D. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. Rollins, “Automatic segmentation of intravascular optical coherence tomography images for facilitating quantitative diagnosis of atherosclerosis,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2011).

Rollins, A. M.

M. Gargesha, R. Shalev, D. Prabhu, K. Tanaka, A. M. Rollins, M. Costa, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Parameter estimation of atherosclerotic tissue optical properties from three-dimensional intravascular optical coherence tomography,” J. Med. Imag 2(1), 016001 (2015).
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H. Lu, M. Gargesha, Z. Wang, D. Chamie, G. F. Attizzani, T. Kanaya, S. Ray, M. A. Costa, A. M. Rollins, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Automatic stent detection in intravascular OCT images using bagged decision trees,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2809–2824 (2012).
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Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061711 (2010).
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H. G. Bezerra, M. A. Costa, G. Guagliumi, A. M. Rollins, and D. I. Simon, “Intracoronary optical coherence tomography: a comprehensive review clinical and research applications,” JACC: Cardiovascular Interventions 2(11), 1035–1046 (2009).
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G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061711 (2010).
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C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, S. G. Carlier, and R. Virmani, “Characterization of atherosclerosis plaques by measuring both backscattering and attenuation coefficients in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(3), 034003 (2008).
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Serruys, P. W.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011105 (2010).
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Serruys, P. W. J. C.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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M. Gargesha, R. Shalev, D. Prabhu, K. Tanaka, A. M. Rollins, M. Costa, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Parameter estimation of atherosclerotic tissue optical properties from three-dimensional intravascular optical coherence tomography,” J. Med. Imag 2(1), 016001 (2015).
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R. Shalev, H. G. Bezerra, S. Ray, D. Prabhu, and D. L. Wilson, “Classification of calcium in intravascular OCT images for the purpose of intervention planning,” in Medical Imaging 2016: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), 9786, p. 978605.

Shimada, K.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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Shinke, T.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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A. Fujino, G. S. Mintz, M. Matsumura, T. Lee, S.-Y. Kim, M. Hoshino, E. Usui, T. Yonetsu, E. S. Haag, R. A. Shlofmitz, T. Kakuta, and A. Maehara, “A new optical coherence tomography-based calcium scoring system to predict stent underexpansion,” EuroIntervention 13(18), 2182–2189 (2018).
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van Beusekom, H. M. M.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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van der Steen, A. F. W.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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van Ditzhuijzen, N. S.

D. Prabhu, E. Mehanna, M. Gargesha, E. Brandt, D. Wen, N. S. van Ditzhuijzen, D. Chamie, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, A. Alian, J. Patel, M. Costa, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Three-dimensional registration of intravascular optical coherence tomography and cryo-image volumes for microscopic-resolution validation,” J. Med. Imag 3(2), 026004 (2016).
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van Es, G.-A.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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van Leenders, G. L. J. H.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011105 (2010).
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van Noorden, S.

G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011105 (2010).
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van Soest, G.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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G. van Soest, T. Goderie, E. Regar, S. Koljenović, G. L. J. H. van Leenders, N. Gonzalo, S. van Noorden, T. Okamura, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. W. Oosterhuis, P. W. Serruys, and A. F. W. van der Steen, “Atherosclerotic tissue characterization in vivo by optical coherence tomography attenuation imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 011105 (2010).
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Villiger, M.

Virmani, R.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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Wang, H.

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061711 (2010).
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Wang, S.

K. Xia, H. Yin, P. Qian, Y. Jiang, and S. Wang, “Liver Semantic Segmentation Algorithm Based on Improved Deep Adversarial Networks in Combination of Weighted Loss Function on Abdominal CT Images,” IEEE Access 7, 96349–96358 (2019).
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Wang, Z.

H. Lu, M. Gargesha, Z. Wang, D. Chamie, G. F. Attizzani, T. Kanaya, S. Ray, M. A. Costa, A. M. Rollins, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Automatic stent detection in intravascular OCT images using bagged decision trees,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2809–2824 (2012).
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Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061711 (2010).
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Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, D. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. Rollins, “Automatic segmentation of intravascular optical coherence tomography images for facilitating quantitative diagnosis of atherosclerosis,” Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering (2011).

Waxman, S.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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Weissman, N. J.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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Weisz, G.

G. J. Tearney, E. Regar, T. Akasaka, T. Adriaenssens, P. Barlis, H. G. Bezerra, B. Bouma, N. Bruining, J. Cho, S. Chowdhary, M. A. Costa, R. de Silva, J. Dijkstra, C. Di Mario, D. Dudek, D. Dudeck, E. Falk, E. Falk, M. D. Feldman, P. Fitzgerald, H. M. Garcia-Garcia, H. Garcia, N. Gonzalo, J. F. Granada, G. Guagliumi, N. R. Holm, Y. Honda, F. Ikeno, M. Kawasaki, J. Kochman, L. Koltowski, T. Kubo, T. Kume, H. Kyono, C. C. S. Lam, G. Lamouche, D. P. Lee, M. B. Leon, A. Maehara, O. Manfrini, G. S. Mintz, K. Mizuno, M. Morel, S. Nadkarni, H. Okura, H. Otake, A. Pietrasik, F. Prati, L. Räber, M. D. Radu, J. Rieber, M. Riga, A. Rollins, M. Rosenberg, V. Sirbu, P. W. J. C. Serruys, K. Shimada, T. Shinke, J. Shite, E. Siegel, S. Sonoda, S. Sonada, M. Suter, S. Takarada, A. Tanaka, M. Terashima, T. Thim, T. Troels, S. Uemura, G. J. Ughi, H. M. M. van Beusekom, A. F. W. van der Steen, G.-A. van Es, G.-A. van Es, G. van Soest, R. Virmani, S. Waxman, N. J. Weissman, and G. Weisz, “and International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography (IWG-IVOCT), “Consensus standards for acquisition, measurement, and reporting of intravascular optical coherence tomography studies: a report from the International Working Group for Intravascular Optical Coherence Tomography Standardization and Validation,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 59(12), 1058–1072 (2012).
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Wen, D.

D. Prabhu, E. Mehanna, M. Gargesha, E. Brandt, D. Wen, N. S. van Ditzhuijzen, D. Chamie, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, A. Alian, J. Patel, M. Costa, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Three-dimensional registration of intravascular optical coherence tomography and cryo-image volumes for microscopic-resolution validation,” J. Med. Imag 3(2), 026004 (2016).
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Wilson, D.

D. Prabhu, H. Bezerra, C. Kolluru, Y. Gharaibeh, E. Mehanna, H. Wu, and D. Wilson, “Automated A-line coronary plaque classification of intravascular optical coherence tomography images using handcrafted features and large datasets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(10), 1–15 (2019).
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C. Kolluru, D. Prabhu, Y. Gharaibeh, H. Bezerra, G. Guagliumi, and D. Wilson, “Deep neural networks for A-line-based plaque classification in coronary intravascular optical coherence tomography images,” J. Med. Imag. 5(04), 1 (2018).
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Wilson, D. L.

D. Prabhu, E. Mehanna, M. Gargesha, E. Brandt, D. Wen, N. S. van Ditzhuijzen, D. Chamie, H. Yamamoto, Y. Fujino, A. Alian, J. Patel, M. Costa, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Three-dimensional registration of intravascular optical coherence tomography and cryo-image volumes for microscopic-resolution validation,” J. Med. Imag 3(2), 026004 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Gargesha, R. Shalev, D. Prabhu, K. Tanaka, A. M. Rollins, M. Costa, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Parameter estimation of atherosclerotic tissue optical properties from three-dimensional intravascular optical coherence tomography,” J. Med. Imag 2(1), 016001 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Lu, M. Gargesha, Z. Wang, D. Chamie, G. F. Attizzani, T. Kanaya, S. Ray, M. A. Costa, A. M. Rollins, H. G. Bezerra, and D. L. Wilson, “Automatic stent detection in intravascular OCT images using bagged decision trees,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2809–2824 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061711 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Shalev, H. G. Bezerra, S. Ray, D. Prabhu, and D. L. Wilson, “Classification of calcium in intravascular OCT images for the purpose of intervention planning,” in Medical Imaging 2016: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2016), 9786, p. 978605.

C. Kolluru, D. Prabhu, Y. Gharaibeh, H. Wu, and D. L. Wilson, “Voxel-based plaque classification in coronary intravascular optical coherence tomography images using decision trees,” Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng10575 (2018).
[Crossref]

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J. Shotton, J. Winn, C. Rother, and A. Criminisi, “TextonBoost for Image Understanding: Multi-Class Object Recognition and Segmentation by Jointly Modeling Texture, Layout, and Context,” Int J Comput Vis 81(1), 2–23 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

D. Prabhu, H. Bezerra, C. Kolluru, Y. Gharaibeh, E. Mehanna, H. Wu, and D. Wilson, “Automated A-line coronary plaque classification of intravascular optical coherence tomography images using handcrafted features and large datasets,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(10), 1–15 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Kolluru, D. Prabhu, Y. Gharaibeh, H. Wu, and D. L. Wilson, “Voxel-based plaque classification in coronary intravascular optical coherence tomography images using decision trees,” Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng10575 (2018).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Xu, C.

Z. Wang, H. Kyono, H. G. Bezerra, H. Wang, M. Gargesha, C. Alraies, C. Xu, J. M. Schmitt, D. L. Wilson, M. A. Costa, and A. M. Rollins, “Semiautomatic segmentation and quantification of calcified plaques in intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(6), 061711 (2010).
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S. He, J. Zheng, A. Maehara, G. Mintz, D. Tang, M. Anastasio, and H. Li, “Convolutional neural network based automatic plaque characterization from intracoronary optical coherence tomography images,” Medical Imaging 2018: Image Processing107 (2018).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. SegNet architecture. The SegNet classifier comprises five encoding and five decoding steps. Each encoder includes 3 × 3 convolution, batch normalization, and rectified linear unit (ReLU) structures, followed by max-pooling, whereas max-unpooling is applied followed by convolution in the decoding step. The left and right figures indicate the original IVOCT image and predicted label, respectively. The input and output images sizes are exactly the same. Actual processing is done in the (r, θ) view, but the (x, y) view is shown here.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Example annotations for IVOCT images in (x, y) (a) and (r, θ) (b) views. The left and right columns show IVOCT images and expert annotations, respectively, with labels (M: lumen, L: lipid, C: calcium, and O: other). Because lipids are highly absorbing, we do not know their actual depth and assigned this class a consistent thickness of 350 μm. Here and in other figures, IVOCT images are shown following log transformation for improved visualization.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Clinical plaque attributes include (a) angle and (b) depth. Panel (a) is in (x, y) whereas panel (b) is in (r, θ). Yellow, green, and black indicate lumen, lipidous plaque, and other, respectively. For better visualization, only the lipidous plaque is shown, and images were cropped from their original size.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Pre-processing results for a representative IVOCT image frame. Panels are: (a) original (r, θ) image showing lumen segmentation in red as obtained by dynamic programming, (b) removal of A-lines corresponding to the guidewire and its shadow, (c) pixel-shifted data, and (d) speckle noise reduction.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Comparison of classification results between Deeplab v3+ and SegNet mapped to (x,y) view for three images. Panels show: (a) ground truth, (b) results obtained using Deeplab v3+, and (c) results obtained using SegNet. Colors are green (lipid), red (calcium), and white (guidewire).
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Classification results (SegNet) before and after CRF noise cleaning mapped to (x,y) view. Panels show: (a) ground truth, (b) results prior to CRF noise cleaning, and (c) results after CRF noise cleaning. Colors are green (lipid), red (calcium), and white (guidewire).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Effects of pre-processing steps on classification segmentation. Panels are: (a) ground truth, (b) no pre-processing, (c) noise reduction but no pixel shifting, (d) pixel shifting but no noise reduction, and (e) pixel shifting and noise reduction. Colors are green (lipid), red (calcium), and white (guidewire). In general, pixel shifting had a very significant effect on results.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. A-line classification results obtained by processing pixel-wise results (Methods). Note that an A-line is labeled according to its predominant tissues, starting from the lumen (e.g., fibrocalcific indicates an A-line with fibrous tissue followed by calcification). Panels show: (a) results obtained using Deeplab v3+ and (b) results obtained using SegNet. For each figure, the inner ring is the ground-truth label, and the outer ring is the predicted result. Red, green, and blue indicate fibrocalcific, fibrolipidic, and other classes, respectively. White is the guidewire.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. A-line classification results in en face (θ,z) view. Panels in columns are (left) ground truth, (center) results obtained using Deeplab v3+, and (right) results obtained using SegNet. Red, green, and blue indicate fibrocalcific, fibrolipidic, and other A-line classes, respectively. White is the guidewire. Results are from one test fold data, including five VOIs (479 image frames). Cardiologists scored lesion results by performing a clinical score assessment (CSA), with the following rating scale: 1: strongly disagree, 2: disagree, 3: unsure, 4: agree, and 5: strongly agree. All three cardiologists agreed that the automated results will not change clinical decision making.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. En face (θ,z) view of A-line classification results on a held-out test sample including 600 IVOCT images with nine VOIs without any identified calcification or lipidous region. Panels show: (left) ground truth, (center) result obtained using Deeplab v3+, and (right) result obtained using SegNet. See Fig. 8 for details.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Mean performance metrics over folds, including sensitivity, specificity, Dice, and Jaccard coefficients, between Deeplab v3+ and SegNet. With SegNet, the sensitivities of fibrolipidic and fibrocalcific plaques were significantly improved (*p < 0.05). For statistical analysis, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Mean performance metrics (SegNet) over folds, including sensitivity, specificity, Dice, and Jaccard coefficients, before and after CRF noise cleaning. With CRF noise cleaning, the overall metrics were slightly increased but statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). For statistical analysis, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed.

Tables Icon

Table 3. Mean performance metrics measured on a held-out test sample without any identified calcification or lipidous regions, including sensitivity, Dice, and Jaccard coefficients between Deeplab v3+ and SegNet. A held-out data set was composed of 600 IVOCT images from nine VOIs. Results shows that both methods are highly suitable for discriminating non-plaques. CRF noise cleaning did not significantly improve results (p > 0.05). For statistical analysis, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed.

Tables Icon

Table 4. Metrics assessed over folds with and without pre-processing (pixel shifting and noise reduction). We found that pixel shifting helped significantly improve classification performance. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) compared with no pre-processing are indicated by an asterisk (*). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed. To improve comparisons, all folds were exactly the same for all instances. All metrics were obtained after CRF noise cleaning.

Tables Icon

Table 5. Mean performance metrics over folds, including sensitivity, specificity, Dice, and Jaccard coefficients measured from A-line-based classification between Deeplab v3+ and SegNet. With SegNet, the sensitivity of fibrolipidic class increased by nearly 16% (from 74.2% to 90.1%) relative to that for the Deeplab v3+, whereas fibrocalcific tissue yielded an improvement of approximately 12%. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) compared with each class of Deeplab v3+ are indicated by an asterisk (*).

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Table 6. Mean clinical plaque attributes over folds, including arc angle and depth. Both networks gave values close to those derived manually; i.e., the difference values (mean arc angle, depth) of Deeplab v3+ were (13.5°, 0.03 mm) and (11.3°, 0.004 mm) for lipidic and calcific lesions, respectively, while SegNet showed the values of (8.6°, 0.03 mm) and (9.4°, 0.005 mm), likely within the range of clinical relevance. Metrics were obtained after CRF noise cleaning. Despite differences being small relative to clinical impact, a Student’s t-test rejected the null hypothesis of no difference (*p < 0.05 and **p < 0.001).

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Table 7. Comparison of the proposed method (SegNet) to the previously reported A-line CNN-based approach [18]. In almost all cases, the new method outperformed, with particularly large improvements in sensitivity, Dice, and Jaccard. Using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, we determined statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between the two methods in many instances, as indicated by an asterisk (*).

Equations (6)

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E ( L ) = i δ i ( L i ) + i < j δ i ( L i , L j )
δ i ( L i , L j ) = γ ( L i , L j ) b = 1 B W ( b ) G ( b ) ( V i , V j )
G ( V i , V j ) = [ W 1 e ( | P i P j | 2 2 σ α 2 | C i C j | 2 2 σ β 2 ) ] + [ W 2 e ( | P i P j | 2 2 σ ρ 2 ) ]
φ ( v ) j = e v j k = 1 K e v k for j = 1 , , K
DC ( A , B ) = 2 | A B | | A | + | B |
JC ( A , B ) = | A B | | A B | = | A B | | A | + | B | | A B |