Abstract

Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used in colorectal cancer surgery for tissue classification. The main challenge in the classification task is to separate healthy colorectal wall from tumor tissue. In this study, four normalization techniques, four feature extraction methods and five classifiers are applied to nine datasets, to obtain the optimal method to separate spectra measured on healthy colorectal wall from spectra measured on tumor tissue. All results are compared to the use of the entire non-normalized spectra. It is found that the most optimal classification approach is to apply a feature extraction method on non-normalized spectra combined with support vector machine or neural network classifier.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2019 (3)

E. J. M. Baltussen, E. N. D. Kok, S. G. B. de Koning, J. Sanders, A. G. J. Aalbers, N. F. M. Kok, G. L. Beets, C. C. Flohil, S. C. Bruin, K. F. D. Kuhlmann, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for tissue classification, a way toward smart laparoscopic colorectal surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(01), 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Kho, B. Dashtbozorg, L. L. de Boer, K. K. V. de Vijver, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Broadband hyperspectral imaging for breast tumor detection using spectral and spatial information,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(9), 4496–4515 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Kho, L. L. de Boer, K. Van de Vijver, F. van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for resection margin assessment during cancer surgery,” Clin. Cancer Res. 25(12), 3572–3580 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (3)

L. L. De Boer, T. M. Bydlon, F. Van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters, C. E. Loo, G. A. O. Winter-Warnars, J. Sanders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Towards the use of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for real-time in vivo detection of breast cancer during surgery,” J. Transl. Med. 16(1), 367 (2018).
[Crossref]

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” CA: A Cancer J. for Clin. 68, 394–424 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. G. B. de Koning, E. J. M. Baltussen, M. B. Karakullukcu, B. Dashtbozorg, L. A. Smit, R. Dirven, B. H. W. Hendriks, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Toward complete oral cavity cancer resection using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectroscopy probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(12), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(08), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. Baltussen, P. Snæbjörnsson, S. G. B. De Koning, H. J. Sterenborg, A. G. Aalbers, N. Kok, G. L. Beets, B. H. Hendriks, K. F. Kuhlmann, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for real-time tissue assessment during colorectal cancer surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Lu, J. V. Little, X. Wang, H. Zhang, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Deiry, A. Y. Chen, and B. Fei, “Detection of Head and Neck Cancer in Surgical Specimens Using Quantitative Hyperspectral Imaging,” Clin. Cancer Res. 23(18), 5426–5436 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Boughorbel, F. Jarray, and M. El-Anbari, “Optimal classifier for imbalanced data using Matthews Correlation Coefficient metric,” PLoS One 12(6), e0177678 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

J. W. Spliethoff, W. Prevoo, M. A. J. Meier, J. de Jong, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, T. J. M. Ruers, H. M. Klomp, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study,” Clin. Cancer Res. 22(2), 357–365 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 097004 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. Tanis, J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, G. C. Langhout, P. Snaebjornsson, W. Prevoo, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Real-time in vivo assessment of radiofrequency ablation of human colorectal liver metastases using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (EJSO) 42(2), 251–259 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. L. de Boer, B. H. W. Hendriks, F. Van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters-Baas, K. Van de Vijver, C. E. Loo, K. Jóźwiak, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Using DRS during breast conserving surgery: identifying robust optical parameters and influence of inter-patient variation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5188–5200 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. D. Miller, R. L. Siegel, C. C. Lin, A. B. Mariotto, J. L. Kramer, J. H. Rowland, K. D. Stein, R. Alteri, and A. Jemal, “Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2016,” CA: A Cancer J. for Clin. 66, 271–289 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, A. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. Sun, M. D. Wang, and T. Xie, “In vivo use of hyperspectral imaging to develop a noncontact endoscopic diagnosis support system for malignant colorectal tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 016001 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Kumashiro, K. Konishi, T. Chiba, T. Akahoshi, S. Nakamura, M. Murata, M. Tomikawa, T. Matsumoto, Y. Maehara, and M. Hashizume, “Integrated Endoscopic System Based on Optical Imaging and Hyperspectral Data Analysis for Colorectal Cancer Detection,” Anticancer Res. 36, 3925–3932 (2016).

2015 (6)

G. C. Langhout, J. W. Spliethoff, S. J. Schmitz, A. G. J. Aalbers, M. L. F. van Velthuysen, B. H. W. Hendriks, T. J. M. Ruers, and K. F. D. Kuhlmann, “Differentiation of healthy and malignant tissue in colon cancer patients using optical spectroscopy: A tool for image-guided surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 47(7), 559–565 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. L. Boer, B. G. Molenkamp, T. M. Bydlon, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Fat/water ratios measured with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to detect breast tumor boundaries,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 152(3), 509–518 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Nachabé, B. H. W. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. M. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions: feasibility study in woodchucks,” Investig. radiology 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. M. Bydlon, R. Nachabé, N. Ramanujam, H. J. Sterenborg, and B. H. Hendriks, “Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption,” J. Biophotonics 8(1-2), 9–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, Z. Lin, L. Mo, T. Wu, and C. Tan, “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues,” BioMed Res. Int. 2015, 1–7 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. H. W. Hendriks, A. J. R. Balthasar, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, M. Mueller, V. V. Pully, T. M. Bydlon, C. Reich, A. T. M. H. van Keersop, J. Kortsmit, G. C. Langhout, and G.-J. van Geffen, “Nerve detection with optical spectroscopy for regional anesthesia procedures,” J. Transl. Med. 13(1), 380 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

R. M. Schols, M. ter Laan, L. P. S. Stassen, N. D. Bouvy, A. Amelink, F. P. Wieringa, and L. Alic, “Differentiation between nerve and adipose tissue using wide-band (350-1,830 nm) in vivo diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(7), 538–545 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Lu and B. Fei, “Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref]

E. Claridge and D. Hidović-Rowe, “Model Based Inversion for Deriving Maps of Histological Parameters Characteristic of Cancer From Ex-Vivo Multispectral Images of the Colon,” IEEE Transactions on Med. Imaging 33(4), 822–835 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

S. Rathore, M. Hussain, A. Ali, and A. Khan, “A Recent Survey on Colon Cancer Detection Techniques,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Comput. Biol. Bioinforma. 10(3), 545–563 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. M. Schols, P. Dunias, F. P. Wieringa, and L. P. S. Stassen, “Multispectral characterization of tissues encountered during laparoscopic colorectal surgery,” Med. Eng. Phys. 35(7), 1044–1050 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. S. Soares, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, Z. Volynskaya, W. Liu, N. Klein, D. Plecha, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Diagnostic power of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for targeted detection of breast lesions with microcalcifications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110(2), 471–476 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabe, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. Van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, M. L. F. Van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (EJSO) 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

Z. Liu, H. Wang, and Q. Li, “Tongue Tumor Detection in Medical Hyperspectral Images,” Sensors 12(1), 162–174 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Nachabé, B. H. W. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, D. J. Evers, E. J. Rutgers, M.-J. V. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

R. Nachabé, B. H. W. Hendriks, A. E. Desjardins, M. van der Voort, M. B. van der Mark, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Estimation of lipid and water concentrations in scattering media with diffuse optical spectroscopy from 900 to 1,600 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037015 (2010).
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R. Nachabé, B. H. W. Hendriks, M. van der Voort, A. E. Desjardins, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Estimation of biological chromophores using diffuse optical spectroscopy: benefit of extending the UV-VIS wavelength range to include 1000 to 1600 nm,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(5), 1432–1442 (2010).
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R. Nachabe, B. H. W. Hendriks, A. E. Desjardins, M. van der Voort, M. B. van der Mark, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Estimation of lipid and water concentrations in scattering media with diffuse optical spectroscopy from 900 to 1600 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037015 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic Microvascular Blood Detection From the Endoscopically Normal Colonic Mucosa: Biomarker for Neoplasia Risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
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K. Masood, N. Rajpoot, and M. Nasir, “Spatial analysis for colon biopsy classification from hyperspectral imagery,” Ann. BMVA 4, 1–16 (2008).

2006 (1)

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endoscopy 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, M. den Bakker, S. A. Burgers, J. P. van Meerbeeck, R. P. W. Duin, J. G. J. V. Aerts, H. C. Hoogsteden, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Improving the specificity of fluorescence bronchoscopy for the analysis of neoplastic lesions of the bronchial tree by combination with optical spectroscopy: preliminary communication,” Lung Cancer 47(1), 41–47 (2005).
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E. Suh, E. R. Dougherty, J. Lowey, J. Hua, and Z. Xiong, “Optimal number of features as a function of sample size for various classification rules,” Bioinformatics 21, 1509–1515 (2005).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

D. H. Wolpert and W. G. Macready, “No free lunch theorems for optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Computat. 1(1), 67–82 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. D. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, A. Bohorfoush, and M. H. Mellow, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: Preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 192–199 (1996).
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1992 (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
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1989 (1)

Aalbers, A. G.

E. J. Baltussen, P. Snæbjörnsson, S. G. B. De Koning, H. J. Sterenborg, A. G. Aalbers, N. Kok, G. L. Beets, B. H. Hendriks, K. F. Kuhlmann, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for real-time tissue assessment during colorectal cancer surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1 (2017).
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Aalbers, A. G. J.

E. J. M. Baltussen, E. N. D. Kok, S. G. B. de Koning, J. Sanders, A. G. J. Aalbers, N. F. M. Kok, G. L. Beets, C. C. Flohil, S. C. Bruin, K. F. D. Kuhlmann, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for tissue classification, a way toward smart laparoscopic colorectal surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(01), 1–9 (2019).
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G. C. Langhout, J. W. Spliethoff, S. J. Schmitz, A. G. J. Aalbers, M. L. F. van Velthuysen, B. H. W. Hendriks, T. J. M. Ruers, and K. F. D. Kuhlmann, “Differentiation of healthy and malignant tissue in colon cancer patients using optical spectroscopy: A tool for image-guided surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 47(7), 559–565 (2015).
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Akahoshi, T.

R. Kumashiro, K. Konishi, T. Chiba, T. Akahoshi, S. Nakamura, M. Murata, M. Tomikawa, T. Matsumoto, Y. Maehara, and M. Hashizume, “Integrated Endoscopic System Based on Optical Imaging and Hyperspectral Data Analysis for Colorectal Cancer Detection,” Anticancer Res. 36, 3925–3932 (2016).

Ali, A.

S. Rathore, M. Hussain, A. Ali, and A. Khan, “A Recent Survey on Colon Cancer Detection Techniques,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Comput. Biol. Bioinforma. 10(3), 545–563 (2013).
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Alic, L.

R. M. Schols, M. ter Laan, L. P. S. Stassen, N. D. Bouvy, A. Amelink, F. P. Wieringa, and L. Alic, “Differentiation between nerve and adipose tissue using wide-band (350-1,830 nm) in vivo diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(7), 538–545 (2014).
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Alteri, R.

K. D. Miller, R. L. Siegel, C. C. Lin, A. B. Mariotto, J. L. Kramer, J. H. Rowland, K. D. Stein, R. Alteri, and A. Jemal, “Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2016,” CA: A Cancer J. for Clin. 66, 271–289 (2016).
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Amelink, A.

R. M. Schols, M. ter Laan, L. P. S. Stassen, N. D. Bouvy, A. Amelink, F. P. Wieringa, and L. Alic, “Differentiation between nerve and adipose tissue using wide-band (350-1,830 nm) in vivo diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(7), 538–545 (2014).
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M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, M. den Bakker, S. A. Burgers, J. P. van Meerbeeck, R. P. W. Duin, J. G. J. V. Aerts, H. C. Hoogsteden, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Improving the specificity of fluorescence bronchoscopy for the analysis of neoplastic lesions of the bronchial tree by combination with optical spectroscopy: preliminary communication,” Lung Cancer 47(1), 41–47 (2005).
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Babic, D.

R. Nachabé, B. H. W. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. M. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions: feasibility study in woodchucks,” Investig. radiology 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
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Backman, V.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic Microvascular Blood Detection From the Endoscopically Normal Colonic Mucosa: Biomarker for Neoplasia Risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
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G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
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Balthasar, A. J. R.

B. H. W. Hendriks, A. J. R. Balthasar, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, M. Mueller, V. V. Pully, T. M. Bydlon, C. Reich, A. T. M. H. van Keersop, J. Kortsmit, G. C. Langhout, and G.-J. van Geffen, “Nerve detection with optical spectroscopy for regional anesthesia procedures,” J. Transl. Med. 13(1), 380 (2015).
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Baltussen, E. J.

E. J. Baltussen, P. Snæbjörnsson, S. G. B. De Koning, H. J. Sterenborg, A. G. Aalbers, N. Kok, G. L. Beets, B. H. Hendriks, K. F. Kuhlmann, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for real-time tissue assessment during colorectal cancer surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1 (2017).
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Baltussen, E. J. M.

E. J. M. Baltussen, E. N. D. Kok, S. G. B. de Koning, J. Sanders, A. G. J. Aalbers, N. F. M. Kok, G. L. Beets, C. C. Flohil, S. C. Bruin, K. F. D. Kuhlmann, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for tissue classification, a way toward smart laparoscopic colorectal surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(01), 1–9 (2019).
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S. G. B. de Koning, E. J. M. Baltussen, M. B. Karakullukcu, B. Dashtbozorg, L. A. Smit, R. Dirven, B. H. W. Hendriks, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Toward complete oral cavity cancer resection using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectroscopy probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(12), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bard, M. P. L.

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, M. den Bakker, S. A. Burgers, J. P. van Meerbeeck, R. P. W. Duin, J. G. J. V. Aerts, H. C. Hoogsteden, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Improving the specificity of fluorescence bronchoscopy for the analysis of neoplastic lesions of the bronchial tree by combination with optical spectroscopy: preliminary communication,” Lung Cancer 47(1), 41–47 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barman, I.

J. S. Soares, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, Z. Volynskaya, W. Liu, N. Klein, D. Plecha, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Diagnostic power of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for targeted detection of breast lesions with microcalcifications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110(2), 471–476 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barnes, R. J.

Beets, G. L.

E. J. M. Baltussen, E. N. D. Kok, S. G. B. de Koning, J. Sanders, A. G. J. Aalbers, N. F. M. Kok, G. L. Beets, C. C. Flohil, S. C. Bruin, K. F. D. Kuhlmann, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for tissue classification, a way toward smart laparoscopic colorectal surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(01), 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. J. Baltussen, P. Snæbjörnsson, S. G. B. De Koning, H. J. Sterenborg, A. G. Aalbers, N. Kok, G. L. Beets, B. H. Hendriks, K. F. Kuhlmann, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for real-time tissue assessment during colorectal cancer surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bigio, I. J.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endoscopy 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. D. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, A. Bohorfoush, and M. H. Mellow, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: Preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 192–199 (1996).
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Bishop, C. M.

C. M. Bishop, Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning (Springer, 2006).

Bloom, S. L.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endoscopy 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boer, L. L.

L. L. Boer, B. G. Molenkamp, T. M. Bydlon, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Fat/water ratios measured with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to detect breast tumor boundaries,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 152(3), 509–518 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bohorfoush, A.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. D. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, A. Bohorfoush, and M. H. Mellow, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: Preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 192–199 (1996).
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Boughorbel, S.

S. Boughorbel, F. Jarray, and M. El-Anbari, “Optimal classifier for imbalanced data using Matthews Correlation Coefficient metric,” PLoS One 12(6), e0177678 (2017).
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Bouvy, N. D.

R. M. Schols, M. ter Laan, L. P. S. Stassen, N. D. Bouvy, A. Amelink, F. P. Wieringa, and L. Alic, “Differentiation between nerve and adipose tissue using wide-band (350-1,830 nm) in vivo diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(7), 538–545 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bown, S. G.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endoscopy 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boyer, J. D.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. D. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, A. Bohorfoush, and M. H. Mellow, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: Preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 192–199 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brand, R. E.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic Microvascular Blood Detection From the Endoscopically Normal Colonic Mucosa: Biomarker for Neoplasia Risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
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Bray, F.

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” CA: A Cancer J. for Clin. 68, 394–424 (2018).
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Bruin, S. C.

E. J. M. Baltussen, E. N. D. Kok, S. G. B. de Koning, J. Sanders, A. G. J. Aalbers, N. F. M. Kok, G. L. Beets, C. C. Flohil, S. C. Bruin, K. F. D. Kuhlmann, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for tissue classification, a way toward smart laparoscopic colorectal surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(01), 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

Burgers, S. A.

M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, M. den Bakker, S. A. Burgers, J. P. van Meerbeeck, R. P. W. Duin, J. G. J. V. Aerts, H. C. Hoogsteden, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Improving the specificity of fluorescence bronchoscopy for the analysis of neoplastic lesions of the bronchial tree by combination with optical spectroscopy: preliminary communication,” Lung Cancer 47(1), 41–47 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bydlon, T. M.

L. L. De Boer, T. M. Bydlon, F. Van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters, C. E. Loo, G. A. O. Winter-Warnars, J. Sanders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Towards the use of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for real-time in vivo detection of breast cancer during surgery,” J. Transl. Med. 16(1), 367 (2018).
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J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 097004 (2016).
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B. H. W. Hendriks, A. J. R. Balthasar, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, M. Mueller, V. V. Pully, T. M. Bydlon, C. Reich, A. T. M. H. van Keersop, J. Kortsmit, G. C. Langhout, and G.-J. van Geffen, “Nerve detection with optical spectroscopy for regional anesthesia procedures,” J. Transl. Med. 13(1), 380 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. L. Boer, B. G. Molenkamp, T. M. Bydlon, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Fat/water ratios measured with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to detect breast tumor boundaries,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 152(3), 509–518 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. M. Bydlon, R. Nachabé, N. Ramanujam, H. J. Sterenborg, and B. H. Hendriks, “Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption,” J. Biophotonics 8(1-2), 9–24 (2015).
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Chen, A. Y.

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(08), 1 (2017).
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G. Lu, J. V. Little, X. Wang, H. Zhang, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Deiry, A. Y. Chen, and B. Fei, “Detection of Head and Neck Cancer in Surgical Specimens Using Quantitative Hyperspectral Imaging,” Clin. Cancer Res. 23(18), 5426–5436 (2017).
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Chen, H.

H. Chen, Z. Lin, L. Mo, T. Wu, and C. Tan, “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues,” BioMed Res. Int. 2015, 1–7 (2015).
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Chiba, T.

R. Kumashiro, K. Konishi, T. Chiba, T. Akahoshi, S. Nakamura, M. Murata, M. Tomikawa, T. Matsumoto, Y. Maehara, and M. Hashizume, “Integrated Endoscopic System Based on Optical Imaging and Hyperspectral Data Analysis for Colorectal Cancer Detection,” Anticancer Res. 36, 3925–3932 (2016).

Claridge, E.

E. Claridge and D. Hidović-Rowe, “Model Based Inversion for Deriving Maps of Histological Parameters Characteristic of Cancer From Ex-Vivo Multispectral Images of the Colon,” IEEE Transactions on Med. Imaging 33(4), 822–835 (2014).
[Crossref]

Coifman, R. R.

M. Maggioni, G. L. Davis, F. J. Warner, F. B. Geshwind, A. C. Coppi, R. A. DeVerse, and R. R. Coifman, “Hyperspectral microscopic analysis of normal, benign and carcinoma microarray tissue sections,” in Optical Biopsy VI, vol. 6091 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 200660910I

Coppi, A. C.

M. Maggioni, G. L. Davis, F. J. Warner, F. B. Geshwind, A. C. Coppi, R. A. DeVerse, and R. R. Coifman, “Hyperspectral microscopic analysis of normal, benign and carcinoma microarray tissue sections,” in Optical Biopsy VI, vol. 6091 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 200660910I

Dasari, R. R.

J. S. Soares, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, Z. Volynskaya, W. Liu, N. Klein, D. Plecha, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Diagnostic power of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for targeted detection of breast lesions with microcalcifications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110(2), 471–476 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dashtbozorg, B.

E. Kho, B. Dashtbozorg, L. L. de Boer, K. K. V. de Vijver, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Broadband hyperspectral imaging for breast tumor detection using spectral and spatial information,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(9), 4496–4515 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. G. B. de Koning, E. J. M. Baltussen, M. B. Karakullukcu, B. Dashtbozorg, L. A. Smit, R. Dirven, B. H. W. Hendriks, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Toward complete oral cavity cancer resection using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectroscopy probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(12), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

Davis, G. L.

M. Maggioni, G. L. Davis, F. J. Warner, F. B. Geshwind, A. C. Coppi, R. A. DeVerse, and R. R. Coifman, “Hyperspectral microscopic analysis of normal, benign and carcinoma microarray tissue sections,” in Optical Biopsy VI, vol. 6091 (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 200660910I

de Boer, L. L.

E. Kho, B. Dashtbozorg, L. L. de Boer, K. K. V. de Vijver, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Broadband hyperspectral imaging for breast tumor detection using spectral and spatial information,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(9), 4496–4515 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Kho, L. L. de Boer, K. Van de Vijver, F. van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for resection margin assessment during cancer surgery,” Clin. Cancer Res. 25(12), 3572–3580 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. L. De Boer, T. M. Bydlon, F. Van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters, C. E. Loo, G. A. O. Winter-Warnars, J. Sanders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Towards the use of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for real-time in vivo detection of breast cancer during surgery,” J. Transl. Med. 16(1), 367 (2018).
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R. Nachabe, B. H. W. Hendriks, A. E. Desjardins, M. van der Voort, M. B. van der Mark, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Estimation of lipid and water concentrations in scattering media with diffuse optical spectroscopy from 900 to 1600 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037015 (2010).
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D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. Van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, M. L. F. Van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (EJSO) 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
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H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic Microvascular Blood Detection From the Endoscopically Normal Colonic Mucosa: Biomarker for Neoplasia Risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
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A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endoscopy 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
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J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. D. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, A. Bohorfoush, and M. H. Mellow, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: Preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 192–199 (1996).
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Karakullukcu, M. B.

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S. Rathore, M. Hussain, A. Ali, and A. Khan, “A Recent Survey on Colon Cancer Detection Techniques,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Comput. Biol. Bioinforma. 10(3), 545–563 (2013).
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E. Kho, B. Dashtbozorg, L. L. de Boer, K. K. V. de Vijver, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Broadband hyperspectral imaging for breast tumor detection using spectral and spatial information,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(9), 4496–4515 (2019).
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E. Kho, L. L. de Boer, K. Van de Vijver, F. van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for resection margin assessment during cancer surgery,” Clin. Cancer Res. 25(12), 3572–3580 (2019).
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J. S. Soares, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, Z. Volynskaya, W. Liu, N. Klein, D. Plecha, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Diagnostic power of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for targeted detection of breast lesions with microcalcifications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110(2), 471–476 (2013).
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D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
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Kok, N.

E. J. Baltussen, P. Snæbjörnsson, S. G. B. De Koning, H. J. Sterenborg, A. G. Aalbers, N. Kok, G. L. Beets, B. H. Hendriks, K. F. Kuhlmann, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for real-time tissue assessment during colorectal cancer surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1 (2017).
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Kok, N. F. M.

E. J. M. Baltussen, E. N. D. Kok, S. G. B. de Koning, J. Sanders, A. G. J. Aalbers, N. F. M. Kok, G. L. Beets, C. C. Flohil, S. C. Bruin, K. F. D. Kuhlmann, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for tissue classification, a way toward smart laparoscopic colorectal surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(01), 1–9 (2019).
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R. Kumashiro, K. Konishi, T. Chiba, T. Akahoshi, S. Nakamura, M. Murata, M. Tomikawa, T. Matsumoto, Y. Maehara, and M. Hashizume, “Integrated Endoscopic System Based on Optical Imaging and Hyperspectral Data Analysis for Colorectal Cancer Detection,” Anticancer Res. 36, 3925–3932 (2016).

Kortsmit, J.

B. H. W. Hendriks, A. J. R. Balthasar, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, M. Mueller, V. V. Pully, T. M. Bydlon, C. Reich, A. T. M. H. van Keersop, J. Kortsmit, G. C. Langhout, and G.-J. van Geffen, “Nerve detection with optical spectroscopy for regional anesthesia procedures,” J. Transl. Med. 13(1), 380 (2015).
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K. D. Miller, R. L. Siegel, C. C. Lin, A. B. Mariotto, J. L. Kramer, J. H. Rowland, K. D. Stein, R. Alteri, and A. Jemal, “Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2016,” CA: A Cancer J. for Clin. 66, 271–289 (2016).
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H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic Microvascular Blood Detection From the Endoscopically Normal Colonic Mucosa: Biomarker for Neoplasia Risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
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J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 097004 (2016).
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Kuhlmann, K. F.

E. J. Baltussen, P. Snæbjörnsson, S. G. B. De Koning, H. J. Sterenborg, A. G. Aalbers, N. Kok, G. L. Beets, B. H. Hendriks, K. F. Kuhlmann, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for real-time tissue assessment during colorectal cancer surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1 (2017).
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Kuhlmann, K. F. D.

E. J. M. Baltussen, E. N. D. Kok, S. G. B. de Koning, J. Sanders, A. G. J. Aalbers, N. F. M. Kok, G. L. Beets, C. C. Flohil, S. C. Bruin, K. F. D. Kuhlmann, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for tissue classification, a way toward smart laparoscopic colorectal surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(01), 1–9 (2019).
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G. C. Langhout, J. W. Spliethoff, S. J. Schmitz, A. G. J. Aalbers, M. L. F. van Velthuysen, B. H. W. Hendriks, T. J. M. Ruers, and K. F. D. Kuhlmann, “Differentiation of healthy and malignant tissue in colon cancer patients using optical spectroscopy: A tool for image-guided surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 47(7), 559–565 (2015).
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Kumashiro, R.

R. Kumashiro, K. Konishi, T. Chiba, T. Akahoshi, S. Nakamura, M. Murata, M. Tomikawa, T. Matsumoto, Y. Maehara, and M. Hashizume, “Integrated Endoscopic System Based on Optical Imaging and Hyperspectral Data Analysis for Colorectal Cancer Detection,” Anticancer Res. 36, 3925–3932 (2016).

Lacey, J.

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. D. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, A. Bohorfoush, and M. H. Mellow, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: Preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 192–199 (1996).
[Crossref]

Langhout, G. C.

E. Tanis, J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, G. C. Langhout, P. Snaebjornsson, W. Prevoo, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Real-time in vivo assessment of radiofrequency ablation of human colorectal liver metastases using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (EJSO) 42(2), 251–259 (2016).
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B. H. W. Hendriks, A. J. R. Balthasar, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, M. Mueller, V. V. Pully, T. M. Bydlon, C. Reich, A. T. M. H. van Keersop, J. Kortsmit, G. C. Langhout, and G.-J. van Geffen, “Nerve detection with optical spectroscopy for regional anesthesia procedures,” J. Transl. Med. 13(1), 380 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. C. Langhout, J. W. Spliethoff, S. J. Schmitz, A. G. J. Aalbers, M. L. F. van Velthuysen, B. H. W. Hendriks, T. J. M. Ruers, and K. F. D. Kuhlmann, “Differentiation of healthy and malignant tissue in colon cancer patients using optical spectroscopy: A tool for image-guided surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 47(7), 559–565 (2015).
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Li, Q.

Z. Liu, H. Wang, and Q. Li, “Tongue Tumor Detection in Medical Hyperspectral Images,” Sensors 12(1), 162–174 (2011).
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Lin, C. C.

K. D. Miller, R. L. Siegel, C. C. Lin, A. B. Mariotto, J. L. Kramer, J. H. Rowland, K. D. Stein, R. Alteri, and A. Jemal, “Cancer treatment and survivorship statistics, 2016,” CA: A Cancer J. for Clin. 66, 271–289 (2016).
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Lin, C.-H.

Lin, J.-K.

Lin, Z.

H. Chen, Z. Lin, L. Mo, T. Wu, and C. Tan, “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues,” BioMed Res. Int. 2015, 1–7 (2015).
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Little, J. V.

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B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(08), 1 (2017).
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Liu, W.

J. S. Soares, I. Barman, N. C. Dingari, Z. Volynskaya, W. Liu, N. Klein, D. Plecha, R. R. Dasari, and M. Fitzmaurice, “Diagnostic power of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for targeted detection of breast lesions with microcalcifications,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 110(2), 471–476 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, H. Wang, and Q. Li, “Tongue Tumor Detection in Medical Hyperspectral Images,” Sensors 12(1), 162–174 (2011).
[Crossref]

Loo, C. E.

L. L. De Boer, T. M. Bydlon, F. Van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters, C. E. Loo, G. A. O. Winter-Warnars, J. Sanders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Towards the use of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for real-time in vivo detection of breast cancer during surgery,” J. Transl. Med. 16(1), 367 (2018).
[Crossref]

L. L. de Boer, B. H. W. Hendriks, F. Van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters-Baas, K. Van de Vijver, C. E. Loo, K. Jóźwiak, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Using DRS during breast conserving surgery: identifying robust optical parameters and influence of inter-patient variation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5188–5200 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lovat, L. B.

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endoscopy 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lowey, J.

E. Suh, E. R. Dougherty, J. Lowey, J. Hua, and Z. Xiong, “Optimal number of features as a function of sample size for various classification rules,” Bioinformatics 21, 1509–1515 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lu, G.

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(08), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Lu, J. V. Little, X. Wang, H. Zhang, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Deiry, A. Y. Chen, and B. Fei, “Detection of Head and Neck Cancer in Surgical Specimens Using Quantitative Hyperspectral Imaging,” Clin. Cancer Res. 23(18), 5426–5436 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Lu and B. Fei, “Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lucassen, G. W.

J. W. Spliethoff, W. Prevoo, M. A. J. Meier, J. de Jong, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, T. J. M. Ruers, H. M. Klomp, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study,” Clin. Cancer Res. 22(2), 357–365 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. W. Spliethoff, W. Prevoo, M. A. J. Meier, J. de Jong, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, T. J. M. Ruers, H. M. Klomp, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study,” Clin. Cancer Res. 22(2), 357–365 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. H. W. Hendriks, A. J. R. Balthasar, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, M. Mueller, V. V. Pully, T. M. Bydlon, C. Reich, A. T. M. H. van Keersop, J. Kortsmit, G. C. Langhout, and G.-J. van Geffen, “Nerve detection with optical spectroscopy for regional anesthesia procedures,” J. Transl. Med. 13(1), 380 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. Van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, M. L. F. Van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (EJSO) 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabe, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Nachabé, B. H. W. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, D. J. Evers, E. J. Rutgers, M.-J. V. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Sterenborg, H. J. C.

E. J. M. Baltussen, E. N. D. Kok, S. G. B. de Koning, J. Sanders, A. G. J. Aalbers, N. F. M. Kok, G. L. Beets, C. C. Flohil, S. C. Bruin, K. F. D. Kuhlmann, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for tissue classification, a way toward smart laparoscopic colorectal surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(01), 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Kho, L. L. de Boer, K. Van de Vijver, F. van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for resection margin assessment during cancer surgery,” Clin. Cancer Res. 25(12), 3572–3580 (2019).
[Crossref]

E. Kho, B. Dashtbozorg, L. L. de Boer, K. K. V. de Vijver, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Broadband hyperspectral imaging for breast tumor detection using spectral and spatial information,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(9), 4496–4515 (2019).
[Crossref]

L. L. De Boer, T. M. Bydlon, F. Van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters, C. E. Loo, G. A. O. Winter-Warnars, J. Sanders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Towards the use of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for real-time in vivo detection of breast cancer during surgery,” J. Transl. Med. 16(1), 367 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. G. B. de Koning, E. J. M. Baltussen, M. B. Karakullukcu, B. Dashtbozorg, L. A. Smit, R. Dirven, B. H. W. Hendriks, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Toward complete oral cavity cancer resection using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectroscopy probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(12), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. W. Spliethoff, W. Prevoo, M. A. J. Meier, J. de Jong, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, T. J. M. Ruers, H. M. Klomp, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study,” Clin. Cancer Res. 22(2), 357–365 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. W. Spliethoff, W. Prevoo, M. A. J. Meier, J. de Jong, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, T. J. M. Ruers, H. M. Klomp, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study,” Clin. Cancer Res. 22(2), 357–365 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 097004 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. L. de Boer, B. H. W. Hendriks, F. Van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters-Baas, K. Van de Vijver, C. E. Loo, K. Jóźwiak, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Using DRS during breast conserving surgery: identifying robust optical parameters and influence of inter-patient variation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5188–5200 (2016).
[Crossref]

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T. M. Bydlon, R. Nachabé, N. Ramanujam, H. J. Sterenborg, and B. H. Hendriks, “Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption,” J. Biophotonics 8(1-2), 9–24 (2015).
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E. J. Baltussen, P. Snæbjörnsson, S. G. B. De Koning, H. J. Sterenborg, A. G. Aalbers, N. Kok, G. L. Beets, B. H. Hendriks, K. F. Kuhlmann, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for real-time tissue assessment during colorectal cancer surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1 (2017).
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R. Nachabé, B. H. W. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, D. J. Evers, E. J. Rutgers, M.-J. V. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
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E. Kho, B. Dashtbozorg, L. L. de Boer, K. K. V. de Vijver, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Broadband hyperspectral imaging for breast tumor detection using spectral and spatial information,” Biomed. Opt. Express 10(9), 4496–4515 (2019).
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S. G. B. de Koning, E. J. M. Baltussen, M. B. Karakullukcu, B. Dashtbozorg, L. A. Smit, R. Dirven, B. H. W. Hendriks, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Toward complete oral cavity cancer resection using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectroscopy probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(12), 1–9 (2018).
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J. W. Spliethoff, W. Prevoo, M. A. J. Meier, J. de Jong, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, T. J. M. Ruers, H. M. Klomp, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study,” Clin. Cancer Res. 22(2), 357–365 (2016).
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E. Tanis, J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, G. C. Langhout, P. Snaebjornsson, W. Prevoo, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Real-time in vivo assessment of radiofrequency ablation of human colorectal liver metastases using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (EJSO) 42(2), 251–259 (2016).
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L. L. de Boer, B. H. W. Hendriks, F. Van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters-Baas, K. Van de Vijver, C. E. Loo, K. Jóźwiak, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Using DRS during breast conserving surgery: identifying robust optical parameters and influence of inter-patient variation,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 5188–5200 (2016).
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R. Nachabé, B. H. W. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. M. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions: feasibility study in woodchucks,” Investig. radiology 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
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L. L. Boer, B. G. Molenkamp, T. M. Bydlon, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Fat/water ratios measured with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to detect breast tumor boundaries,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 152(3), 509–518 (2015).
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D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wieringa, F. P.

R. M. Schols, M. ter Laan, L. P. S. Stassen, N. D. Bouvy, A. Amelink, F. P. Wieringa, and L. Alic, “Differentiation between nerve and adipose tissue using wide-band (350-1,830 nm) in vivo diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(7), 538–545 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. M. Schols, P. Dunias, F. P. Wieringa, and L. P. S. Stassen, “Multispectral characterization of tissues encountered during laparoscopic colorectal surgery,” Med. Eng. Phys. 35(7), 1044–1050 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wilson, B.

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[Crossref]

Winter-Warnars, G. A. O.

L. L. De Boer, T. M. Bydlon, F. Van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters, C. E. Loo, G. A. O. Winter-Warnars, J. Sanders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Towards the use of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for real-time in vivo detection of breast cancer during surgery,” J. Transl. Med. 16(1), 367 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wolpert, D. H.

D. H. Wolpert and W. G. Macready, “No free lunch theorems for optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Computat. 1(1), 67–82 (1997).
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Wouters, M. W.

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabe, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
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Wu, T.

H. Chen, Z. Lin, L. Mo, T. Wu, and C. Tan, “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues,” BioMed Res. Int. 2015, 1–7 (2015).
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Xie, T.

Z. Han, A. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. Sun, M. D. Wang, and T. Xie, “In vivo use of hyperspectral imaging to develop a noncontact endoscopic diagnosis support system for malignant colorectal tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 016001 (2016).
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E. Suh, E. R. Dougherty, J. Lowey, J. Hua, and Z. Xiong, “Optimal number of features as a function of sample size for various classification rules,” Bioinformatics 21, 1509–1515 (2005).
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H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic Microvascular Blood Detection From the Endoscopically Normal Colonic Mucosa: Biomarker for Neoplasia Risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
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Yu, J.-S.

Zhang, A.

Z. Han, A. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. Sun, M. D. Wang, and T. Xie, “In vivo use of hyperspectral imaging to develop a noncontact endoscopic diagnosis support system for malignant colorectal tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 016001 (2016).
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Zhang, H.

G. Lu, J. V. Little, X. Wang, H. Zhang, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Deiry, A. Y. Chen, and B. Fei, “Detection of Head and Neck Cancer in Surgical Specimens Using Quantitative Hyperspectral Imaging,” Clin. Cancer Res. 23(18), 5426–5436 (2017).
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B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(08), 1 (2017).
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Zonios, G.

Ann. BMVA (1)

K. Masood, N. Rajpoot, and M. Nasir, “Spatial analysis for colon biopsy classification from hyperspectral imagery,” Ann. BMVA 4, 1–16 (2008).

Anticancer Res. (1)

R. Kumashiro, K. Konishi, T. Chiba, T. Akahoshi, S. Nakamura, M. Murata, M. Tomikawa, T. Matsumoto, Y. Maehara, and M. Hashizume, “Integrated Endoscopic System Based on Optical Imaging and Hyperspectral Data Analysis for Colorectal Cancer Detection,” Anticancer Res. 36, 3925–3932 (2016).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Bioinformatics (1)

E. Suh, E. R. Dougherty, J. Lowey, J. Hua, and Z. Xiong, “Optimal number of features as a function of sample size for various classification rules,” Bioinformatics 21, 1509–1515 (2005).
[Crossref]

BioMed Res. Int. (1)

H. Chen, Z. Lin, L. Mo, T. Wu, and C. Tan, “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues,” BioMed Res. Int. 2015, 1–7 (2015).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (3)

Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

L. L. Boer, B. G. Molenkamp, T. M. Bydlon, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Fat/water ratios measured with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to detect breast tumor boundaries,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 152(3), 509–518 (2015).
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CA: A Cancer J. for Clin. (2)

F. Bray, J. Ferlay, I. Soerjomataram, R. L. Siegel, L. A. Torre, and A. Jemal, “Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries,” CA: A Cancer J. for Clin. 68, 394–424 (2018).
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Clin. Cancer Res. (3)

J. W. Spliethoff, W. Prevoo, M. A. J. Meier, J. de Jong, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, T. J. M. Ruers, H. M. Klomp, D. J. Evers, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Real-time in vivo tissue characterization with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy during transthoracic lung biopsy: a clinical feasibility study,” Clin. Cancer Res. 22(2), 357–365 (2016).
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E. Kho, L. L. de Boer, K. Van de Vijver, F. van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for resection margin assessment during cancer surgery,” Clin. Cancer Res. 25(12), 3572–3580 (2019).
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G. Lu, J. V. Little, X. Wang, H. Zhang, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Deiry, A. Y. Chen, and B. Fei, “Detection of Head and Neck Cancer in Surgical Specimens Using Quantitative Hyperspectral Imaging,” Clin. Cancer Res. 23(18), 5426–5436 (2017).
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Clin. Lung Cancer (1)

D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: a new guidance tool for improvement of biopsy procedures in lung malignancies,” Clin. Lung Cancer 13(6), 424–431 (2012).
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Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (EJSO) (2)

E. Tanis, J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, G. C. Langhout, P. Snaebjornsson, W. Prevoo, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Real-time in vivo assessment of radiofrequency ablation of human colorectal liver metastases using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (EJSO) 42(2), 251–259 (2016).
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D. J. Evers, R. Nachabé, D. Hompes, F. Van Coevorden, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, M. L. F. Van Velthuysen, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Optical sensing for tumor detection in the liver,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (EJSO) 39(1), 68–75 (2013).
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Gastroenterology (1)

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic Microvascular Blood Detection From the Endoscopically Normal Colonic Mucosa: Biomarker for Neoplasia Risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
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Gastrointest. Endoscopy (1)

A. Dhar, K. S. Johnson, M. R. Novelli, S. G. Bown, I. J. Bigio, L. B. Lovat, and S. L. Bloom, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy for the diagnosis of colonic lesions: initial results of a novel optical biopsy technique,” Gastrointest. Endoscopy 63(2), 257–261 (2006).
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IEEE Trans. Evol. Computat. (1)

D. H. Wolpert and W. G. Macready, “No free lunch theorems for optimization,” IEEE Trans. Evol. Computat. 1(1), 67–82 (1997).
[Crossref]

IEEE Transactions on Med. Imaging (1)

E. Claridge and D. Hidović-Rowe, “Model Based Inversion for Deriving Maps of Histological Parameters Characteristic of Cancer From Ex-Vivo Multispectral Images of the Colon,” IEEE Transactions on Med. Imaging 33(4), 822–835 (2014).
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IEEE/ACM Transactions on Comput. Biol. Bioinforma. (1)

S. Rathore, M. Hussain, A. Ali, and A. Khan, “A Recent Survey on Colon Cancer Detection Techniques,” IEEE/ACM Transactions on Comput. Biol. Bioinforma. 10(3), 545–563 (2013).
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Investig. radiology (1)

R. Nachabé, B. H. W. Hendriks, R. Schierling, J. Hales, J. M. Racadio, S. Rottenberg, T. J. M. Ruers, D. Babic, and J. M. Racadio, “Real-time in vivo characterization of primary liver tumors with diffuse optical spectroscopy during percutaneous needle interventions: feasibility study in woodchucks,” Investig. radiology 50(7), 443–448 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Opt. (11)

R. Nachabé, B. H. W. Hendriks, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, D. J. Evers, E. J. Rutgers, M.-J. V. Peeters, J. A. Van der Hage, H. S. Oldenburg, and T. J. Ruers, “Diagnosis of breast cancer using diffuse optical spectroscopy from 500 to 1600 nm: comparison of classification methods,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(8), 087010 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. W. Spliethoff, L. L. de Boer, M. A. J. Meier, W. Prevoo, J. de Jong, K. Kuhlmann, T. M. Bydlon, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “In vivo characterization of colorectal metastases in human liver using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: toward guidance in oncological procedures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 097004 (2016).
[Crossref]

R. Nachabé, B. H. W. Hendriks, A. E. Desjardins, M. van der Voort, M. B. van der Mark, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Estimation of lipid and water concentrations in scattering media with diffuse optical spectroscopy from 900 to 1,600 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037015 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. R. Mourant, I. J. Bigio, J. D. Boyer, T. M. Johnson, J. Lacey, A. Bohorfoush, and M. H. Mellow, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for differentiating pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract: Preliminary testing,” J. Biomed. Opt. 1(2), 192–199 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. J. Baltussen, P. Snæbjörnsson, S. G. B. De Koning, H. J. Sterenborg, A. G. Aalbers, N. Kok, G. L. Beets, B. H. Hendriks, K. F. Kuhlmann, and T. J. Ruers, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for real-time tissue assessment during colorectal cancer surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. J. M. Baltussen, E. N. D. Kok, S. G. B. de Koning, J. Sanders, A. G. J. Aalbers, N. F. M. Kok, G. L. Beets, C. C. Flohil, S. C. Bruin, K. F. D. Kuhlmann, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Hyperspectral imaging for tissue classification, a way toward smart laparoscopic colorectal surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 24(01), 1–9 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Han, A. Zhang, X. Wang, Z. Sun, M. D. Wang, and T. Xie, “In vivo use of hyperspectral imaging to develop a noncontact endoscopic diagnosis support system for malignant colorectal tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(1), 016001 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. G. B. de Koning, E. J. M. Baltussen, M. B. Karakullukcu, B. Dashtbozorg, L. A. Smit, R. Dirven, B. H. W. Hendriks, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Toward complete oral cavity cancer resection using a handheld diffuse reflectance spectroscopy probe,” J. Biomed. Opt. 23(12), 1–9 (2018).
[Crossref]

B. Fei, G. Lu, X. Wang, H. Zhang, J. V. Little, M. R. Patel, C. C. Griffith, M. W. El-Diery, and A. Y. Chen, “Label-free reflectance hyperspectral imaging for tumor margin assessment: a pilot study on surgical specimens of cancer patients,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(08), 1 (2017).
[Crossref]

G. Lu and B. Fei, “Medical hyperspectral imaging: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Nachabe, B. H. W. Hendriks, A. E. Desjardins, M. van der Voort, M. B. van der Mark, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Estimation of lipid and water concentrations in scattering media with diffuse optical spectroscopy from 900 to 1600 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037015 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Biophotonics (1)

T. M. Bydlon, R. Nachabé, N. Ramanujam, H. J. Sterenborg, and B. H. Hendriks, “Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption,” J. Biophotonics 8(1-2), 9–24 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Transl. Med. (2)

B. H. W. Hendriks, A. J. R. Balthasar, G. W. Lucassen, M. van der Voort, M. Mueller, V. V. Pully, T. M. Bydlon, C. Reich, A. T. M. H. van Keersop, J. Kortsmit, G. C. Langhout, and G.-J. van Geffen, “Nerve detection with optical spectroscopy for regional anesthesia procedures,” J. Transl. Med. 13(1), 380 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. L. De Boer, T. M. Bydlon, F. Van Duijnhoven, M.-J. T. F. D. V. Peeters, C. E. Loo, G. A. O. Winter-Warnars, J. Sanders, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, B. H. W. Hendriks, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Towards the use of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for real-time in vivo detection of breast cancer during surgery,” J. Transl. Med. 16(1), 367 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lasers Surg. Med. (2)

R. M. Schols, M. ter Laan, L. P. S. Stassen, N. D. Bouvy, A. Amelink, F. P. Wieringa, and L. Alic, “Differentiation between nerve and adipose tissue using wide-band (350-1,830 nm) in vivo diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 46(7), 538–545 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. C. Langhout, J. W. Spliethoff, S. J. Schmitz, A. G. J. Aalbers, M. L. F. van Velthuysen, B. H. W. Hendriks, T. J. M. Ruers, and K. F. D. Kuhlmann, “Differentiation of healthy and malignant tissue in colon cancer patients using optical spectroscopy: A tool for image-guided surgery,” Lasers Surg. Med. 47(7), 559–565 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lung Cancer (2)

J. W. Spliethoff, D. J. Evers, H. M. Klomp, J. W. van Sandick, M. W. Wouters, R. Nachabe, G. W. Lucassen, B. H. W. Hendriks, J. Wesseling, and T. J. M. Ruers, “Improved identification of peripheral lung tumors by using diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy,” Lung Cancer 80(2), 165–171 (2013).
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M. P. L. Bard, A. Amelink, M. Skurichina, M. den Bakker, S. A. Burgers, J. P. van Meerbeeck, R. P. W. Duin, J. G. J. V. Aerts, H. C. Hoogsteden, and H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “Improving the specificity of fluorescence bronchoscopy for the analysis of neoplastic lesions of the bronchial tree by combination with optical spectroscopy: preliminary communication,” Lung Cancer 47(1), 41–47 (2005).
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Med. Eng. Phys. (1)

R. M. Schols, P. Dunias, F. P. Wieringa, and L. P. S. Stassen, “Multispectral characterization of tissues encountered during laparoscopic colorectal surgery,” Med. Eng. Phys. 35(7), 1044–1050 (2013).
[Crossref]

Med. Phys. (1)

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19(4), 879–888 (1992).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

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S. Boughorbel, F. Jarray, and M. El-Anbari, “Optimal classifier for imbalanced data using Matthews Correlation Coefficient metric,” PLoS One 12(6), e0177678 (2017).
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Sensors (1)

Z. Liu, H. Wang, and Q. Li, “Tongue Tumor Detection in Medical Hyperspectral Images,” Sensors 12(1), 162–174 (2011).
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TrAC, Trends Anal. Chem. (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Overview of all datasets used in this study, the first column shows the different sample sets, the second column what type of fiberoptic probe was used (reusable or disposable), the third column the difference in acquisition time (ex vivo/in vivo) and method (DRS/HSI) and the fourth shows different fiber distances and all datasets with assigned numbers. The light and dark gray areas indicate datasets obtained on the same sample set and datasets obtained with the same DRS probe type respectively.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Overview of normalization, feature extraction and classification methods per dataset.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Four different feature extraction methods shown for a spectrum obtained on fat tissue. (a) Wavelengths, intensities and gradients of seven most prominent peaks. (b) Wavelengths, intensities, prominences, widths and gradients describing the shape of the entire spectrum. (c) Spectral bands, the red bars indicate the mean intensity value per band. (d) Fitted parameters using the analytical reflectance model.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Histogram of the difference in accuracy between training and test and the number of times this difference is obtained. All classifiers are visualized separately. (a) Data is shown for all datasets, using no normalization and no feature extraction. (b) Data is shown for all datasets, using all normalizations and no feature extraction. (c) Data is shown for all datasets, using no normalization and all feature extractions.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Bland-Altman plots of only the datasets of which fit-data could be obtained. From left to right the combination of shape-based feature extraction and normalization at 800 nm, spectral bands and normalization at 800 nm, and tissue optical features are shown. The center line indicated the average difference between the combination of feature extraction and normalization with using no normalization and no feature extraction. The average value is shown on top of the center line. The dotted lines indicate the confidence intervals.

Tables (9)

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Table 1. Overview of number of patients and number of spectra per dataset and per tissue type.

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Table 2. Mean increase in MCC and accuracy for all normalization techniques compared to no normalization for SVM and NN classifiers.

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Table 3. Mean change per dataset in MCC value and accuracy, when normalization technique is compared to no normalization. Values of the standard deviation are not shown in the table, but none of the change values differed significantly from zero.

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Table 4. Mean increase in MCC and accuracy for all feature extraction methods compared to the use of the entire spectrum. Only not normalized data is used and only SVM and NN classifiers.

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Table 5. Mean increase in MCC and accuracy per dataset, for all feature extraction methods compared to the use of the entire spectrum. Only non-t normalized data is used and only SVM and NN classifiers.

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Table 6. Mean increase in MCC and accuracy over all datasets for each combination of feature extraction and normalization method compared to no normalization and no feature extraction. All classifiers are included

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Table 7. Overview of best preforming combinations of normalization, feature extraction and classifier per dataset.

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Table 8. Results of using the global optimum combination of normalization, feature extraction and classifier (SNV+Spectral Band+SVM) compared to best-performing combinations per dataset (based on Table 7).

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Table 9. Comparison between the performance of cross-validation and holdout validation.