Abstract

Angiographic imaging of the human eye with optical coherence tomography (OCT) is becoming an increasingly important tool in the scientific investigation and clinical management of several blinding diseases, including age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. We have observed that OCT angiography (OCTA) of the human choriocapillaris and choroid with a 1.64 MHz A-scan rate swept-source laser yields higher contrast images as compared to a slower rate system operating at 100 kHz. This result is unexpected because signal sensitivity is reduced when acquisition rates are increased, and the incident illumination power is kept constant. The contrast of angiography images generated by acquiring multiple sequential frames and calculating the variation caused by blood flow, however, appears to be improved significantly when lower-contrast images are taken more rapidly. To demonstrate that the acquisition rate plays a role in the quality improvement, we have imaged five healthy subjects with a narrow field of view (1.2 mm) OCTA imaging system using two separate swept-source lasers of different A-line rates and compared the results quantitatively using the radially-averaged power spectrum. The average improvement in the contrast is 23.0% (+/−7.6%). Although the underlying cause of this enhancement is not explicitly determined here, we speculate that the higher-speed system suppresses the noise contribution from eye motion in subjects and operates with an inter-scan time that better discriminates the flow velocities present in the choroid and choriocapillaris. Our result informs OCT system developers on the merits of ultrahigh-speed acquisition in functional imaging applications.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (5)

R. Poddar, J. V. Migacz, D. M. Schwartz, J. S. Werner, and I. Gorczynska, “Challenges and advantages in wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the human retinal and choroidal vasculature at 1.7-MHz A-scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1–14 (2017).
[PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. Jonnal, R. J. Zawadzki, R. Poddar, and J. S. Werner, “Imaging of the human choroid with a 1.7 MHz A-scan rate FDML swept source OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 10045. Ophthalmic Technologies XXVII, 1004510 (2017).

C. L. Chen and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography based angiography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1056–1082 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kurokawa, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography angiography for morphometric analysis of choriocapillaris [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1803–1822 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, R. Leitgeb, and M. Wojtkowski, “Twenty-five years of optical coherence tomography: the paradigm shift in sensitivity and speed provided by Fourier domain OCT [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(7), 3248–3280 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (6)

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fujimoto and E. Swanson, “The development, commercialization, and impact of optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT1–OCT13 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. J. Zawadzki, A. G. Capps, and J. S. Werner, “Comparison of amplitude-decorrelation, speckle-ariance and phase-variance OCT angiography methods for imaging the human retina and choroid,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 911–942 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, W. Qin, C. L. Chen, J. Wang, Q. Zhang, X. Yang, B. Z. Gao, and R. K. Wang, “Characterizing relationship between optical microangiography signals and capillary flow using microfluidic channels,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2709–2728 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2161–2162 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, T. Zhang, S. Kubach, L. An, M. Laron, U. Sharma, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field imaging of retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography provided by motion tracking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 066008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(1), 51–65 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tokayer, Y. Jia, A. H. Dhalla, and D. Huang, “Blood flow velocity quantification using split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1909–1924 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cooper, C. S. Langlo, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Automatic detection of modal spacing (Yellott’s ring) in adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33(4), 540–549 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Angiography of the retina and the choroid with phase-resolved OCT using interval-optimized backstitched B-scans,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20516–20534 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. V. Vienola, B. Braaf, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “Real-time eye motion compensation for OCT imaging with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2950–2963 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Bhutto and G. Lutty, “Understanding age-related macular degeneration (AMD): relationships between the photoreceptor/retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch’s membrane/choriocapillaris complex,” Mol. Aspects Med. 33(4), 295–317 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

2003 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (3)

1996 (1)

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adhi, M.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, L.

Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, T. Zhang, S. Kubach, L. An, M. Laron, U. Sharma, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field imaging of retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography provided by motion tracking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 066008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Andre, R.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arathorn, D. W.

Bailey, S. T.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barton, J. K.

Bhutto, I.

I. Bhutto and G. Lutty, “Understanding age-related macular degeneration (AMD): relationships between the photoreceptor/retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch’s membrane/choriocapillaris complex,” Mol. Aspects Med. 33(4), 295–317 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biedermann, B. R.

Blatter, C.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braaf, B.

Cable, A. E.

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capps, A. G.

Carroll, J.

R. F. Cooper, C. S. Langlo, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Automatic detection of modal spacing (Yellott’s ring) in adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33(4), 540–549 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandwani, R.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C. L.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

Chiu, S. J.

Choi, W.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, W. J.

Cole, E. D.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cooper, R. F.

R. F. Cooper, C. S. Langlo, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Automatic detection of modal spacing (Yellott’s ring) in adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33(4), 540–549 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dave, D.

de Boer, J. F.

J. F. de Boer, R. Leitgeb, and M. Wojtkowski, “Twenty-five years of optical coherence tomography: the paradigm shift in sensitivity and speed provided by Fourier domain OCT [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(7), 3248–3280 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Angiography of the retina and the choroid with phase-resolved OCT using interval-optimized backstitched B-scans,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20516–20534 (2012).
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de Carlo, T. E.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
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Dhalla, A. H.

Dubra, A.

R. F. Cooper, C. S. Langlo, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Automatic detection of modal spacing (Yellott’s ring) in adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33(4), 540–549 (2013).
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Duker, J. S.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
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W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
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W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81499 (2013).
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Eigenwillig, C. M.

Farsiu, S.

Fercher, A.

Fingler, J.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Fraser, S. E.

Fujimoto, J.

J. Fujimoto and E. Swanson, “The development, commercialization, and impact of optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT1–OCT13 (2016).
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Fujimoto, J. G.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
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W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, B. Z.

Gao, S. S.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

R. Poddar, J. V. Migacz, D. M. Schwartz, J. S. Werner, and I. Gorczynska, “Challenges and advantages in wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the human retinal and choroidal vasculature at 1.7-MHz A-scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1–14 (2017).
[PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. Jonnal, R. J. Zawadzki, R. Poddar, and J. S. Werner, “Imaging of the human choroid with a 1.7 MHz A-scan rate FDML swept source OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 10045. Ophthalmic Technologies XXVII, 1004510 (2017).

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. J. Zawadzki, A. G. Capps, and J. S. Werner, “Comparison of amplitude-decorrelation, speckle-ariance and phase-variance OCT angiography methods for imaging the human retina and choroid,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 911–942 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grajciar, B.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hitzenberger, C.

Hong, Y.

Hornegger, J.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tokayer, Y. Jia, A. H. Dhalla, and D. Huang, “Blood flow velocity quantification using split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1909–1924 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, T. Zhang, S. Kubach, L. An, M. Laron, U. Sharma, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field imaging of retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography provided by motion tracking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 066008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Husvogt, L.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, T. S.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jayaraman, V.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Tokayer, Y. Jia, A. H. Dhalla, and D. Huang, “Blood flow velocity quantification using split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1909–1924 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jonnal, R.

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. Jonnal, R. J. Zawadzki, R. Poddar, and J. S. Werner, “Imaging of the human choroid with a 1.7 MHz A-scan rate FDML swept source OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 10045. Ophthalmic Technologies XXVII, 1004510 (2017).

Kerbage, C.

Kim, D. Y.

Klein, T.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubach, S.

Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, T. Zhang, S. Kubach, L. An, M. Laron, U. Sharma, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field imaging of retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography provided by motion tracking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 066008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, M. D.

Kurokawa, K.

Langlo, C. S.

R. F. Cooper, C. S. Langlo, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Automatic detection of modal spacing (Yellott’s ring) in adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33(4), 540–549 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laron, M.

Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, T. Zhang, S. Kubach, L. An, M. Laron, U. Sharma, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field imaging of retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography provided by motion tracking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 066008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, B.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

Leitgeb, R. A.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. T.

Liang, J.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, G.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Lu, C. D.

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lutty, G.

I. Bhutto and G. Lutty, “Understanding age-related macular degeneration (AMD): relationships between the photoreceptor/retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch’s membrane/choriocapillaris complex,” Mol. Aspects Med. 33(4), 295–317 (2012).
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Maier, A.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Malekafzali, A.

Migacz, J. V.

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. Jonnal, R. J. Zawadzki, R. Poddar, and J. S. Werner, “Imaging of the human choroid with a 1.7 MHz A-scan rate FDML swept source OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 10045. Ophthalmic Technologies XXVII, 1004510 (2017).

R. Poddar, J. V. Migacz, D. M. Schwartz, J. S. Werner, and I. Gorczynska, “Challenges and advantages in wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the human retinal and choroidal vasculature at 1.7-MHz A-scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1–14 (2017).
[PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. J. Zawadzki, A. G. Capps, and J. S. Werner, “Comparison of amplitude-decorrelation, speckle-ariance and phase-variance OCT angiography methods for imaging the human retina and choroid,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 911–942 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miller, D. T.

Milner, T. E.

Mohler, K. J.

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morris, G. M.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moult, E. M.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Nicholas, P.

Novais, E. A.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pechauer, A. D.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ploner, S. B.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poddar, R.

R. Poddar, J. V. Migacz, D. M. Schwartz, J. S. Werner, and I. Gorczynska, “Challenges and advantages in wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the human retinal and choroidal vasculature at 1.7-MHz A-scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1–14 (2017).
[PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. Jonnal, R. J. Zawadzki, R. Poddar, and J. S. Werner, “Imaging of the human choroid with a 1.7 MHz A-scan rate FDML swept source OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 10045. Ophthalmic Technologies XXVII, 1004510 (2017).

Potsaid, B.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, W.

Rollins, A. M.

Roorda, A.

Rosenfeld, P. J.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schottenhamml, J.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwartz, D.

Schwartz, D. M.

R. Poddar, J. V. Migacz, D. M. Schwartz, J. S. Werner, and I. Gorczynska, “Challenges and advantages in wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the human retinal and choroidal vasculature at 1.7-MHz A-scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1–14 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, U.

Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, T. Zhang, S. Kubach, L. An, M. Laron, U. Sharma, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field imaging of retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography provided by motion tracking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 066008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheehy, C. K.

Sicam, V. A. D. P.

Spaide, R. F.

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2161–2162 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J. P.

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E.

J. Fujimoto and E. Swanson, “The development, commercialization, and impact of optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT1–OCT13 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tiruveedhula, P.

Tokayer, J.

Toth, C. A.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

van Meurs, J. C.

van Zeeburg, E.

Vermeer, K. A.

Vienola, K. V.

Waheed, N. K.

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2161–2162 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, W. Qin, C. L. Chen, J. Wang, Q. Zhang, X. Yang, B. Z. Gao, and R. K. Wang, “Characterizing relationship between optical microangiography signals and capillary flow using microfluidic channels,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2709–2728 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Wang, X.

Welch, A. J.

Werner, J. S.

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. Jonnal, R. J. Zawadzki, R. Poddar, and J. S. Werner, “Imaging of the human choroid with a 1.7 MHz A-scan rate FDML swept source OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 10045. Ophthalmic Technologies XXVII, 1004510 (2017).

R. Poddar, J. V. Migacz, D. M. Schwartz, J. S. Werner, and I. Gorczynska, “Challenges and advantages in wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the human retinal and choroidal vasculature at 1.7-MHz A-scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1–14 (2017).
[PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. J. Zawadzki, A. G. Capps, and J. S. Werner, “Comparison of amplitude-decorrelation, speckle-ariance and phase-variance OCT angiography methods for imaging the human retina and choroid,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 911–942 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wieser, W.

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

Yamanari, M.

Yang, C.

Yang, Q.

Yang, X.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yazdanfar, S.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, M.

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

W. J. Choi, W. Qin, C. L. Chen, J. Wang, Q. Zhang, X. Yang, B. Z. Gao, and R. K. Wang, “Characterizing relationship between optical microangiography signals and capillary flow using microfluidic channels,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2709–2728 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, T. Zhang, S. Kubach, L. An, M. Laron, U. Sharma, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field imaging of retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography provided by motion tracking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 066008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, T.

Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, T. Zhang, S. Kubach, L. An, M. Laron, U. Sharma, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field imaging of retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography provided by motion tracking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 066008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (9)

J. F. de Boer, R. Leitgeb, and M. Wojtkowski, “Twenty-five years of optical coherence tomography: the paradigm shift in sensitivity and speed provided by Fourier domain OCT [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(7), 3248–3280 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Chen and R. K. Wang, “Optical coherence tomography based angiography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(2), 1056–1082 (2017).
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K. V. Vienola, B. Braaf, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “Real-time eye motion compensation for OCT imaging with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2950–2963 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Braaf, K. V. Vienola, C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, K. A. Vermeer, P. Tiruveedhula, D. W. Arathorn, A. Roorda, and J. F. de Boer, “Real-time eye motion correction in phase-resolved OCT angiography with tracking SLO,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(1), 51–65 (2013).
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J. Tokayer, Y. Jia, A. H. Dhalla, and D. Huang, “Blood flow velocity quantification using split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography with optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1909–1924 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Choi, W. Qin, C. L. Chen, J. Wang, Q. Zhang, X. Yang, B. Z. Gao, and R. K. Wang, “Characterizing relationship between optical microangiography signals and capillary flow using microfluidic channels,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2709–2728 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Y. Kim, J. Fingler, J. S. Werner, D. M. Schwartz, S. E. Fraser, and R. J. Zawadzki, “In vivo volumetric imaging of human retinal circulation with phase-variance optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1504–1513 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kurokawa, Z. Liu, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography angiography for morphometric analysis of choriocapillaris [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1803–1822 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. J. Zawadzki, A. G. Capps, and J. S. Werner, “Comparison of amplitude-decorrelation, speckle-ariance and phase-variance OCT angiography methods for imaging the human retina and choroid,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(3), 911–942 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

S. S. Gao, Y. Jia, M. Zhang, J. P. Su, G. Liu, T. S. Hwang, S. T. Bailey, and D. Huang, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT27–OCT36 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Fujimoto and E. Swanson, “The development, commercialization, and impact of optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT1–OCT13 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

Q. Zhang, Y. Huang, T. Zhang, S. Kubach, L. An, M. Laron, U. Sharma, and R. K. Wang, “Wide-field imaging of retinal vasculature using optical coherence tomography-based microangiography provided by motion tracking,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(6), 066008 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Blatter, T. Klein, B. Grajciar, T. Schmoll, W. Wieser, R. Andre, R. Huber, and R. A. Leitgeb, “Ultrahigh-speed non-invasive widefield angiography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(7), 070505 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Poddar, J. V. Migacz, D. M. Schwartz, J. S. Werner, and I. Gorczynska, “Challenges and advantages in wide-field optical coherence tomography angiography imaging of the human retinal and choroidal vasculature at 1.7-MHz A-scan rate,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(10), 1–14 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. P. Su, R. Chandwani, S. S. Gao, A. D. Pechauer, M. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Jia, D. Huang, and G. Liu, “Calibration of optical coherence tomography angiography with a microfluidic chip,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(8), 86015 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mol. Aspects Med. (1)

I. Bhutto and G. Lutty, “Understanding age-related macular degeneration (AMD): relationships between the photoreceptor/retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch’s membrane/choriocapillaris complex,” Mol. Aspects Med. 33(4), 295–317 (2012).
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Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. (1)

R. F. Cooper, C. S. Langlo, A. Dubra, and J. Carroll, “Automatic detection of modal spacing (Yellott’s ring) in adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope images,” Ophthalmic Physiol. Opt. 33(4), 540–549 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

W. Choi, E. M. Moult, N. K. Waheed, M. Adhi, B. Lee, C. D. Lu, T. E. de Carlo, V. Jayaraman, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in nonexudative age-related macular degeneration with geographic atrophy,” Ophthalmology 122(12), 2532–2544 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, D. M. de Bruin, C. Kerbage, and J. F. de Boer, “Spectrally balanced detection for optical frequency domain imaging,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16390–16399 (2007).
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R. Leitgeb, C. Hitzenberger, and A. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
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B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, V. A. D. P. Sicam, E. van Zeeburg, J. C. van Meurs, and J. F. de Boer, “Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20886–20903 (2011).
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S. J. Chiu, X. T. Li, P. Nicholas, C. A. Toth, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19413–19428 (2010).
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B. Braaf, K. A. Vermeer, K. V. Vienola, and J. F. de Boer, “Angiography of the retina and the choroid with phase-resolved OCT using interval-optimized backstitched B-scans,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20516–20534 (2012).
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S. Makita, Y. Hong, M. Yamanari, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 14(17), 7821–7840 (2006).
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J. Fingler, D. Schwartz, C. Yang, and S. E. Fraser, “Mobility and transverse flow visualization using phase variance contrast with spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12636–12653 (2007).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

PLoS One (1)

W. Choi, K. J. Mohler, B. Potsaid, C. D. Lu, J. J. Liu, V. Jayaraman, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Choriocapillaris and choroidal microvasculature imaging with ultrahigh speed OCT angiography,” PLoS One 8(12), e81499 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE 10045. Ophthalmic Technologies (1)

I. Gorczynska, J. V. Migacz, R. Jonnal, R. J. Zawadzki, R. Poddar, and J. S. Werner, “Imaging of the human choroid with a 1.7 MHz A-scan rate FDML swept source OCT system,” Proc. SPIE 10045. Ophthalmic Technologies XXVII, 1004510 (2017).

Retina (2)

R. F. Spaide, J. G. Fujimoto, and N. K. Waheed, “Optical coherence tomography angiography,” Retina 35(11), 2161–2162 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. B. Ploner, E. M. Moult, W. Choi, N. K. Waheed, B. Lee, E. A. Novais, E. D. Cole, B. Potsaid, L. Husvogt, J. Schottenhamml, A. Maier, P. J. Rosenfeld, J. S. Duker, J. Hornegger, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Toward quantitative optical coherence tomography angiography: visualizing blood flow speeds in ocular pathology using variable interscan time analysis,” Retina 36(12), S118–S126 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

D. T. Miller, D. R. Williams, G. M. Morris, and J. Liang, “Images of cone photoreceptors in the living human eye,” Vision Res. 36(8), 1067–1079 (1996).
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Other (4)

American National Standards Institute Z136, 1, “American national standard for the safe use of lasers,” Laser Institute of America, Orlando, Florida (2014).

J. Migacz, “Design files for UC Davis FDML OCTA system,” figshare (2017) [retrieved 27 December 2017], https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5735151.v1 .

J. Migacz, “MATLAB script for OCTA processing,” figshare (2017) [retrieved 27 December 2017], https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5735142.v2 .

J. Migacz, “Example dataset for OCTA processing,” figshare (2017) [retrieved 27 December 2017], https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5735154.v2 .

Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Dataset 1       Design files for UC Davis FDML OCTA system
» Dataset 2       MATLAB script for OCTA processing
» Dataset 3       Example dataset for OCTA processing

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Specifications of the imaging system. (A) Optical system layout using two fiber couplers to enable balanced detection. A small, custom fiber patch cord is added to the reference portion of the interferometer to compensate for most of the dispersion mismatch. (B) Image of a 1951 USAF resolution test chart imaged through a 50 mm lens in the place of the subject’s eye. Elements from group 4 and the first from group 5 are clearly visible. (C) Sensitivity roll-off graph of the systems is shown as determined with a calibrated mirror. Sensitivity is reduced to 6 dB below the peak value at approximately 2 mm of distance in the fast FDML system. For the slower system, the −6 dB point is beyond the ~3.5 mm range of the acquisition. (D) The axial resolution of the two systems. (E) Lateral line-spread function, measured as an angular subtense, is a proxy for the lateral point-spread function. It was determined from a fit (red curve) of the derivative (blue dots) of the feature edge highlighted by the red square and arrow in (B). The resolution (9.1µm) denoted in E indicates an indirect estimation of the angular resolution multiplied by the effective focal length of a standard human eye (16.7mm).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 A comparison of standard clinical imaging and our high-speed OCTA imaging of the right eye of subject 1, a 32-year-old male, without known ocular pathology. (A) A color fundus photo in which some of the large vessels are visible. (B) A mosaic of 8 adjacent OCT B-scans taken with the FDML system. (C) OCTA images from the same data as (B). The locations for both (B) and (C) are indicated by the yellow line in (A). (D) A fluorescein angiogram of the same eye reveals finer retinal vasculature than the fundus photo. (E) A zoomed-in section of the fluorescein angiogram centered at the fovea. (F) An OCTA projection of the same area from (E) shows a much more detailed view of the vessels including the capillaries. (G) An indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) image shows some of the larger choroidal vessels more clearly, owing to the near-infrared fluorescent emission scattering less in the pigment epithelial cells than the visible emission of (D). (H) A zoomed-in section of the ICGA scan. (I) An OCTA projection of the same area as in (H) reveals more detail of the choroidal vessels. Both (E) and (H) have had their brightness and contrast adjusted to highlight details in the narrow region. The blue and green squares in (C) show the depth ranges that were integrated to generate the images in (F) and (I), respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A direct comparison of the imaging performance of the two swept-source systems of a foveal scan from subject 4, a 36-year-old emmetropic male. Images from the slow system are shown on the left half (A,B,E,G,I) of the figure while the right half (C,D,F,H,J) shows images produced using the fast system. En face images from the fast system (right side) have been cropped, height-wise, to match the corresponding images from the slower system (left side). White arrows in B and D show that the fast system suppresses bulk motion-related noise in the vessel-free region of the pigment epithelium and photoreceptors better than the slow system. A white arrowhead in F shows that a this specific retinal capillary appears fainter in the fast system, most likely due to a momentary reduction of flow during the short period of scanning. All scale bars are 200µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Example of radially-averaged power spectra for two images taken at the foveal center on subject 4. The left column shows the two original en face projections of the choriocapillaris using the slow (top) and fast (bottom) systems. The dashed yellow rectangle in the bottom-left image indicates where the top-left image is located relatively. The 2D discrete Fourier transform of both images is shown in the middle column. From each point in the 2D spectral image, the radial distance is computed and summed into the appropriate frequency bin of the point in the plot to the right. The maxima and minima of each curve are set to the boundaries of one and zero, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Radially-averaged power spectrum (RAPS) curves of the choriocapillaris images from all five subjects (top left, top right, middle row, and bottom left). All curves are the averages from many individual images taken throughout the macula, as designated by the number (N) in the legend of each panel of the figure. A summary bar chart of the relative heights of the power spectrum at a chosen spatial frequency is shown in the bottom right. The chosen frequency roughly matches the density of choriocapillaris vessels and the knee shape in the curve. Error bars denote one standard deviation.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Example of a mosaic of 15 images taken from the right eye of Subject 1, a 32-year-old male with 2.5 diopters of myopia. The images were taken with the high-speed system. The first mosaic shows the maximum intensity projection of all the outer retinal layers. The second panel shows a mean of the projections within the range of the choriocapillaris. The bottom mosaic shows a mean projection of the choroid. Depth ranges of each projection are the same as those indicated by the annotations to the left of Fig. 4(A). Images are stitched together manually without any intra-volume motion correction. Scalebars are 300µm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Example of a mosaic of 18 images taken from the left eye of Subject 4, a 36-year-old emmetropic male. The images were taken with the high-speed, 1.64 MHz system. The images were assembled in the same manner as for Fig. 6. It is noteworthy that the choriocapillaris appears so have different vessel densities between the two subjects. Scalebars are 300µm.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Summary of relevant acquisition parameters in the systems used.

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Table 2 Details about the 5 subjects without ocular pathology used in this study.