Abstract

Vision researchers often use small animals due to the availability of many transgenic strains that model human diseases or express biomarkers. Adaptive optics (AO) enables non-invasive single-cell imaging in a living animal but often results in high system complexity. Sensorless AO (SAO) can provide depth-resolved aberration correction with low system complexity. We present a multi-modal sensorless AO en face retina imaging system that includes optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT-angiography, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), and fluorescence detection. We present a compact lens-based imaging system design that allows for a 50-degree maximum field of view (FOV), which can be reduced to the region of interest to perform SAO with the modality of choice. The system performance was demonstrated on wild type mice (C57BL/6J), and transgenic mice with GFP labeled cells. SAO SLO was used for imaging microglia (Cx3cr1-GFP) over ~1 hour, where dynamics of the microglia branches were clearly observed. Our results also include volumetric cellular imaging of microglia throughout the inner retina.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (2)

P. Zhang, J. Mocci, D. J. Wahl, R. K. Meleppat, S. K. Manna, M. Quintavalla, R. Muradore, M. V. Sarunic, S. Bonora, E. N. Pugh, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Effect of a contact lens on mouse retinal in vivo imaging: Effective focal length changes and monochromatic aberrations,” Exp. Eye Res. 172, 86–93 (2018).
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D. J. Wahl, P. Zhang, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Image-based adaptive optics compared to wavefront sensing methods for retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10502, 105020G (2018).

2017 (5)

H. R. G. W. Verstraete, M. Heisler, M. J. Ju, D. Wahl, L. Bliek, J. Kalkman, S. Bonora, Y. Jian, M. Verhaegen, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics OCT with the DONE algorithm for in vivo human retinal imaging [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2261–2275 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Wahl, C. Huang, S. Bonora, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Pupil segmentation adaptive optics for invivo mouse retinal fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 42(7), 1365–1368 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2536–2562 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Schallek and A. Joseph, “Time-lapse imaging of retinal microglia in vivo show dynamic process motility at rest,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(8), 316 (2017).

2016 (2)

M. Cua, D. J. Wahl, Y. Zhao, S. Lee, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32223 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. S. Alexander, G. Palczewska, P. Stremplewski, M. Wojtkowski, T. S. Kern, and K. Palczewski, “Image registration and averaging of low laser power two-photon fluorescence images of mouse retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2671–2691 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (5)

2014 (5)

M. J. Booth, “Adaptive optical microscopy: the ongoing quest for a perfect image,” Light Sci. Appl. 3(4), e165 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Alt, J. M. Runnels, L. J. Mortensen, W. Zaher, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of microglia turnover in the mouse retina after ionizing radiation and dexamethasone treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(8), 5314–5319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, J. Xu, M. A. Gradowski, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 547–559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Negrean and H. D. Mansvelder, “Optimal lens design and use in laser-scanning microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1588–1609 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Yin, Y. Geng, F. Osakada, R. Sharma, A. H. Cetin, E. M. Callaway, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “Imaging light responses of retinal ganglion cells in the living mouse eye,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(9), 2415–2421 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (3)

Y. Geng, L. A. Schery, R. Sharma, A. Dubra, K. Ahmad, R. T. Libby, and D. R. Williams, “Optical properties of the mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 717–738 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, “Imaging single cells in the living retina,” Vision Res. 51(13), 1379–1396 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, “Adaptive optics for studying visual function: a comprehensive review,” J. Vis. 11(5), 6 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Nimmerjahn, F. Kirchhoff, and F. Helmchen, “Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo,” Science 308(5726), 1314–1318 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VSIA Standards Taskforce Members. Vision science and its applications, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S652–S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

1974 (1)

Ahmad, K.

Albiani, D.

J. Xu, S. Han, C. Balaratnasingam, Z. Mammo, K. S. K. Wong, S. Lee, M. Cua, M. Young, A. Kirker, D. Albiani, F. Forooghian, P. Mackenzie, A. Merkur, D.-Y. Yu, and M. V. Sarunic, “Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(10), 1315–1319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexander, N. S.

Alt, C.

C. Alt, J. M. Runnels, L. J. Mortensen, W. Zaher, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of microglia turnover in the mouse retina after ionizing radiation and dexamethasone treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(8), 5314–5319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. A.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VSIA Standards Taskforce Members. Vision science and its applications, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S652–S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

Arathorn, D. W.

Artal, P.

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Atchison, D. A.

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, Y.

Balaratnasingam, C.

J. Xu, S. Han, C. Balaratnasingam, Z. Mammo, K. S. K. Wong, S. Lee, M. Cua, M. Young, A. Kirker, D. Albiani, F. Forooghian, P. Mackenzie, A. Merkur, D.-Y. Yu, and M. V. Sarunic, “Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(10), 1315–1319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedggood, P.

Beg, M. F.

Bifano, T. G.

Biss, D. P.

Bliek, L.

Bonora, S.

D. J. Wahl, P. Zhang, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Image-based adaptive optics compared to wavefront sensing methods for retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10502, 105020G (2018).

P. Zhang, J. Mocci, D. J. Wahl, R. K. Meleppat, S. K. Manna, M. Quintavalla, R. Muradore, M. V. Sarunic, S. Bonora, E. N. Pugh, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Effect of a contact lens on mouse retinal in vivo imaging: Effective focal length changes and monochromatic aberrations,” Exp. Eye Res. 172, 86–93 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. G. W. Verstraete, M. Heisler, M. J. Ju, D. Wahl, L. Bliek, J. Kalkman, S. Bonora, Y. Jian, M. Verhaegen, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics OCT with the DONE algorithm for in vivo human retinal imaging [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2261–2275 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Wahl, C. Huang, S. Bonora, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Pupil segmentation adaptive optics for invivo mouse retinal fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 42(7), 1365–1368 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cua, D. J. Wahl, Y. Zhao, S. Lee, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32223 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Wahl, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, J. Xu, M. A. Gradowski, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 547–559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, M.

Booth, M. J.

Buffington, A.

Bui, B.

Burns, M. E.

Burns, S. A.

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Biss, D. Sumorok, S. A. Burns, R. H. Webb, Y. Zhou, T. G. Bifano, D. Côté, I. Veilleux, P. Zamiri, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo fluorescent imaging of the mouse retina using adaptive optics,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 659–661 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Callaway, E. M.

L. Yin, Y. Geng, F. Osakada, R. Sharma, A. H. Cetin, E. M. Callaway, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “Imaging light responses of retinal ganglion cells in the living mouse eye,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(9), 2415–2421 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Campbell, M.

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carroll, J.

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cetin, A. H.

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S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
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S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
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J. Xu, S. Han, C. Balaratnasingam, Z. Mammo, K. S. K. Wong, S. Lee, M. Cua, M. Young, A. Kirker, D. Albiani, F. Forooghian, P. Mackenzie, A. Merkur, D.-Y. Yu, and M. V. Sarunic, “Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(10), 1315–1319 (2015).
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Gibson, E.

Goswami, M.

Gradowski, M. A.

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S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
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Heisler, M.

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A. Nimmerjahn, F. Kirchhoff, and F. Helmchen, “Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo,” Science 308(5726), 1314–1318 (2005).
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Huang, C.

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S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
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D. J. Wahl, P. Zhang, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Image-based adaptive optics compared to wavefront sensing methods for retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10502, 105020G (2018).

D. J. Wahl, C. Huang, S. Bonora, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Pupil segmentation adaptive optics for invivo mouse retinal fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 42(7), 1365–1368 (2017).
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D. J. Wahl, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 1–12 (2015).
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J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
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S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
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A. Nimmerjahn, F. Kirchhoff, and F. Helmchen, “Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo,” Science 308(5726), 1314–1318 (2005).
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J. Xu, S. Han, C. Balaratnasingam, Z. Mammo, K. S. K. Wong, S. Lee, M. Cua, M. Young, A. Kirker, D. Albiani, F. Forooghian, P. Mackenzie, A. Merkur, D.-Y. Yu, and M. V. Sarunic, “Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(10), 1315–1319 (2015).
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Lin, C. P.

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J. Xu, S. Han, C. Balaratnasingam, Z. Mammo, K. S. K. Wong, S. Lee, M. Cua, M. Young, A. Kirker, D. Albiani, F. Forooghian, P. Mackenzie, A. Merkur, D.-Y. Yu, and M. V. Sarunic, “Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(10), 1315–1319 (2015).
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Marcos, S.

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Y. Geng, A. Dubra, L. Yin, W. H. Merigan, R. Sharma, R. T. Libby, and D. R. Williams, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(4), 715–734 (2012).
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Merkur, A.

J. Xu, S. Han, C. Balaratnasingam, Z. Mammo, K. S. K. Wong, S. Lee, M. Cua, M. Young, A. Kirker, D. Albiani, F. Forooghian, P. Mackenzie, A. Merkur, D.-Y. Yu, and M. V. Sarunic, “Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(10), 1315–1319 (2015).
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S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
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C. Alt, J. M. Runnels, L. J. Mortensen, W. Zaher, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of microglia turnover in the mouse retina after ionizing radiation and dexamethasone treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(8), 5314–5319 (2014).
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Muradore, R.

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A. Nimmerjahn, F. Kirchhoff, and F. Helmchen, “Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo,” Science 308(5726), 1314–1318 (2005).
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Osakada, F.

L. Yin, Y. Geng, F. Osakada, R. Sharma, A. H. Cetin, E. M. Callaway, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “Imaging light responses of retinal ganglion cells in the living mouse eye,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(9), 2415–2421 (2013).
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S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
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S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
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Runnels, J. M.

C. Alt, J. M. Runnels, L. J. Mortensen, W. Zaher, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of microglia turnover in the mouse retina after ionizing radiation and dexamethasone treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(8), 5314–5319 (2014).
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Sarunic, M. V.

D. J. Wahl, P. Zhang, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Image-based adaptive optics compared to wavefront sensing methods for retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10502, 105020G (2018).

P. Zhang, J. Mocci, D. J. Wahl, R. K. Meleppat, S. K. Manna, M. Quintavalla, R. Muradore, M. V. Sarunic, S. Bonora, E. N. Pugh, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Effect of a contact lens on mouse retinal in vivo imaging: Effective focal length changes and monochromatic aberrations,” Exp. Eye Res. 172, 86–93 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Wahl, C. Huang, S. Bonora, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Pupil segmentation adaptive optics for invivo mouse retinal fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 42(7), 1365–1368 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. G. W. Verstraete, M. Heisler, M. J. Ju, D. Wahl, L. Bliek, J. Kalkman, S. Bonora, Y. Jian, M. Verhaegen, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics OCT with the DONE algorithm for in vivo human retinal imaging [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2261–2275 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cua, D. J. Wahl, Y. Zhao, S. Lee, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32223 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, S. Han, C. Balaratnasingam, Z. Mammo, K. S. K. Wong, S. Lee, M. Cua, M. Young, A. Kirker, D. Albiani, F. Forooghian, P. Mackenzie, A. Merkur, D.-Y. Yu, and M. V. Sarunic, “Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(10), 1315–1319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Wahl, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, J. Xu, M. A. Gradowski, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 547–559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Sarunic, A. Yazdanpanah, E. Gibson, J. Xu, Y. Bai, S. Lee, H. U. Saragovi, and M. F. Beg, “Longitudinal study of retinal degeneration in a rat using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23435–23441 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schallek, J.

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schallek, J. B.

J. B. Schallek and A. Joseph, “Time-lapse imaging of retinal microglia in vivo show dynamic process motility at rest,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(8), 316 (2017).

Schery, L. A.

Schwiegerling, J. T.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VSIA Standards Taskforce Members. Vision science and its applications, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S652–S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

Sharma, R.

Sheehy, C. K.

Sincich, L. C.

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sliney, D. H.

Smithson, H. E.

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, X.

A. Myronenko and X. Song, “Intensity-based image registration by minimizing residual complexity,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(11), 1882–1891 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stremplewski, P.

Sumorok, D.

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VSIA Standards Taskforce Members. Vision science and its applications, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S652–S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

Tiruveedhula, P.

Veilleux, I.

Verhaegen, M.

Verstraete, H. R. G. W.

Vogel, C. R.

Wahl, D.

Wahl, D. J.

D. J. Wahl, P. Zhang, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Image-based adaptive optics compared to wavefront sensing methods for retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10502, 105020G (2018).

P. Zhang, J. Mocci, D. J. Wahl, R. K. Meleppat, S. K. Manna, M. Quintavalla, R. Muradore, M. V. Sarunic, S. Bonora, E. N. Pugh, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Effect of a contact lens on mouse retinal in vivo imaging: Effective focal length changes and monochromatic aberrations,” Exp. Eye Res. 172, 86–93 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Wahl, C. Huang, S. Bonora, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Pupil segmentation adaptive optics for invivo mouse retinal fluorescence imaging,” Opt. Lett. 42(7), 1365–1368 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cua, D. J. Wahl, Y. Zhao, S. Lee, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32223 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Wahl, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahls, S.

Wang, X.

Webb, R.

L. N. Thibos, R. A. Applegate, J. T. Schwiegerling, R. Webb, and VSIA Standards Taskforce Members. Vision science and its applications, “Standards for reporting the optical aberrations of eyes,” J. Refract. Surg. 18(5), S652–S660 (2002).
[PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Werner, J. S.

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, P. Zhang, A. Zam, E. B. Miller, M. Goswami, X. Wang, R. S. Jonnal, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Kim, J. G. Flannery, J. S. Werner, M. E. Burns, and E. N. Pugh, “Adaptive-optics SLO imaging combined with widefield OCT and SLO enables precise 3D localization of fluorescent cells in the mouse retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(6), 2191–2210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

L. Yin, Y. Geng, F. Osakada, R. Sharma, A. H. Cetin, E. M. Callaway, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “Imaging light responses of retinal ganglion cells in the living mouse eye,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(9), 2415–2421 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Geng, A. Dubra, L. Yin, W. H. Merigan, R. Sharma, R. T. Libby, and D. R. Williams, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(4), 715–734 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Geng, L. A. Schery, R. Sharma, A. Dubra, K. Ahmad, R. T. Libby, and D. R. Williams, “Optical properties of the mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 717–738 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Williams, “Imaging single cells in the living retina,” Vision Res. 51(13), 1379–1396 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

Wojtkowski, M.

Wong, K.

J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wong, K. S. K.

J. Xu, S. Han, C. Balaratnasingam, Z. Mammo, K. S. K. Wong, S. Lee, M. Cua, M. Young, A. Kirker, D. Albiani, F. Forooghian, P. Mackenzie, A. Merkur, D.-Y. Yu, and M. V. Sarunic, “Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(10), 1315–1319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, S. Han, C. Balaratnasingam, Z. Mammo, K. S. K. Wong, S. Lee, M. Cua, M. Young, A. Kirker, D. Albiani, F. Forooghian, P. Mackenzie, A. Merkur, D.-Y. Yu, and M. V. Sarunic, “Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(10), 1315–1319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, J. Xu, M. A. Gradowski, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 547–559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. V. Sarunic, A. Yazdanpanah, E. Gibson, J. Xu, Y. Bai, S. Lee, H. U. Saragovi, and M. F. Beg, “Longitudinal study of retinal degeneration in a rat using spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23435–23441 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Q.

Yazdanpanah, A.

Yin, L.

L. Yin, Y. Geng, F. Osakada, R. Sharma, A. H. Cetin, E. M. Callaway, D. R. Williams, and W. H. Merigan, “Imaging light responses of retinal ganglion cells in the living mouse eye,” J. Neurophysiol. 109(9), 2415–2421 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Geng, A. Dubra, L. Yin, W. H. Merigan, R. Sharma, R. T. Libby, and D. R. Williams, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(4), 715–734 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, G.

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, L. K.

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, M.

J. Xu, S. Han, C. Balaratnasingam, Z. Mammo, K. S. K. Wong, S. Lee, M. Cua, M. Young, A. Kirker, D. Albiani, F. Forooghian, P. Mackenzie, A. Merkur, D.-Y. Yu, and M. V. Sarunic, “Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(10), 1315–1319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, D.-Y.

J. Xu, S. Han, C. Balaratnasingam, Z. Mammo, K. S. K. Wong, S. Lee, M. Cua, M. Young, A. Kirker, D. Albiani, F. Forooghian, P. Mackenzie, A. Merkur, D.-Y. Yu, and M. V. Sarunic, “Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(10), 1315–1319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaher, W.

C. Alt, J. M. Runnels, L. J. Mortensen, W. Zaher, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of microglia turnover in the mouse retina after ionizing radiation and dexamethasone treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(8), 5314–5319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zam, A.

Zamiri, P.

Zawadzki, R. J.

D. J. Wahl, P. Zhang, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Image-based adaptive optics compared to wavefront sensing methods for retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10502, 105020G (2018).

P. Zhang, J. Mocci, D. J. Wahl, R. K. Meleppat, S. K. Manna, M. Quintavalla, R. Muradore, M. V. Sarunic, S. Bonora, E. N. Pugh, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Effect of a contact lens on mouse retinal in vivo imaging: Effective focal length changes and monochromatic aberrations,” Exp. Eye Res. 172, 86–93 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2536–2562 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cua, D. J. Wahl, Y. Zhao, S. Lee, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32223 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Wahl, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, P. Zhang, A. Zam, E. B. Miller, M. Goswami, X. Wang, R. S. Jonnal, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Kim, J. G. Flannery, J. S. Werner, M. E. Burns, and E. N. Pugh, “Adaptive-optics SLO imaging combined with widefield OCT and SLO enables precise 3D localization of fluorescent cells in the mouse retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(6), 2191–2210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, J. Xu, M. A. Gradowski, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 547–559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, P.

D. J. Wahl, P. Zhang, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Image-based adaptive optics compared to wavefront sensing methods for retinal imaging,” Proc. SPIE 10502, 105020G (2018).

P. Zhang, J. Mocci, D. J. Wahl, R. K. Meleppat, S. K. Manna, M. Quintavalla, R. Muradore, M. V. Sarunic, S. Bonora, E. N. Pugh, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Effect of a contact lens on mouse retinal in vivo imaging: Effective focal length changes and monochromatic aberrations,” Exp. Eye Res. 172, 86–93 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, P. Zhang, A. Zam, E. B. Miller, M. Goswami, X. Wang, R. S. Jonnal, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Kim, J. G. Flannery, J. S. Werner, M. E. Burns, and E. N. Pugh, “Adaptive-optics SLO imaging combined with widefield OCT and SLO enables precise 3D localization of fluorescent cells in the mouse retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(6), 2191–2210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

S. Marcos, J. S. Werner, S. A. Burns, W. H. Merigan, P. Artal, D. A. Atchison, K. M. Hampson, R. Legras, L. Lundstrom, G. Yoon, J. Carroll, S. S. Choi, N. Doble, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, A. Elsner, R. Jonnal, D. T. Miller, M. Paques, H. E. Smithson, L. K. Young, Y. Zhang, M. Campbell, J. Hunter, A. Metha, G. Palczewska, J. Schallek, and L. C. Sincich, “Vision science and adaptive optics, the state of the field,” Vision Res. 132, 3–33 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. W. Arathorn, Q. Yang, C. R. Vogel, Y. Zhang, P. Tiruveedhula, and A. Roorda, “Retinally stabilized cone-targeted stimulus delivery,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13731–13744 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

M. Cua, D. J. Wahl, Y. Zhao, S. Lee, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Coherence-Gated Sensorless Adaptive Optics Multiphoton Retinal Imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 32223 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.

Zhou, Y.

Biomed. Opt. Express (11)

Y. Geng, L. A. Schery, R. Sharma, A. Dubra, K. Ahmad, R. T. Libby, and D. R. Williams, “Optical properties of the mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 717–738 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Geng, A. Dubra, L. Yin, W. H. Merigan, R. Sharma, R. T. Libby, and D. R. Williams, “Adaptive optics retinal imaging in the living mouse eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(4), 715–734 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher and R. J. Zawadzki, “Review of adaptive optics OCT (AO-OCT): principles and applications for retinal imaging [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2536–2562 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, P. Zhang, A. Zam, E. B. Miller, M. Goswami, X. Wang, R. S. Jonnal, S. H. Lee, D. Y. Kim, J. G. Flannery, J. S. Werner, M. E. Burns, and E. N. Pugh, “Adaptive-optics SLO imaging combined with widefield OCT and SLO enables precise 3D localization of fluorescent cells in the mouse retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(6), 2191–2210 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, J. Xu, M. A. Gradowski, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics optical coherence tomography for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 547–559 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Wahl, Y. Jian, S. Bonora, R. J. Zawadzki, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics fluorescence biomicroscope for in vivo retinal imaging in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(1), 1–12 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Negrean and H. D. Mansvelder, “Optimal lens design and use in laser-scanning microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(5), 1588–1609 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. R. G. W. Verstraete, M. Heisler, M. J. Ju, D. Wahl, L. Bliek, J. Kalkman, S. Bonora, Y. Jian, M. Verhaegen, and M. V. Sarunic, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics OCT with the DONE algorithm for in vivo human retinal imaging [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(4), 2261–2275 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. S. Alexander, G. Palczewska, P. Stremplewski, M. Wojtkowski, T. S. Kern, and K. Palczewski, “Image registration and averaging of low laser power two-photon fluorescence images of mouse retina,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2671–2691 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhou, P. Bedggood, B. Bui, C. T. O. Nguyen, Z. He, and A. Metha, “Contrast-based sensorless adaptive optics for retinal imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(9), 3577–3595 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Sheehy, Q. Yang, D. W. Arathorn, P. Tiruveedhula, J. F. de Boer, and A. Roorda, “High-speed, image-based eye tracking with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(10), 2611–2622 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. Xu, S. Han, C. Balaratnasingam, Z. Mammo, K. S. K. Wong, S. Lee, M. Cua, M. Young, A. Kirker, D. Albiani, F. Forooghian, P. Mackenzie, A. Merkur, D.-Y. Yu, and M. V. Sarunic, “Retinal angiography with real-time speckle variance optical coherence tomography,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 99(10), 1315–1319 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

P. Zhang, J. Mocci, D. J. Wahl, R. K. Meleppat, S. K. Manna, M. Quintavalla, R. Muradore, M. V. Sarunic, S. Bonora, E. N. Pugh, and R. J. Zawadzki, “Effect of a contact lens on mouse retinal in vivo imaging: Effective focal length changes and monochromatic aberrations,” Exp. Eye Res. 172, 86–93 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

A. Myronenko and X. Song, “Intensity-based image registration by minimizing residual complexity,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 29(11), 1882–1891 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

J. B. Schallek and A. Joseph, “Time-lapse imaging of retinal microglia in vivo show dynamic process motility at rest,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(8), 316 (2017).

C. Alt, J. M. Runnels, L. J. Mortensen, W. Zaher, and C. P. Lin, “In vivo imaging of microglia turnover in the mouse retina after ionizing radiation and dexamethasone treatment,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(8), 5314–5319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. Xu, K. Wong, Y. Jian, and M. V. Sarunic, “Real-time acquisition and display of flow contrast using speckle variance optical coherence tomography in a graphics processing unit,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(2), 026001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jian, K. Wong, and M. V. Sarunic, “Graphics processing unit accelerated optical coherence tomography processing at megahertz axial scan rate and high resolution video rate volumetric rendering,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(2), 026002 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

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Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Sensorless Adaptive Optics (SAO) Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) depth fly-through of EGFP labeled microglia in the mouse retina between the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and the nerve fiber layer (NFL).
» Visualization 2       Sensorless Adaptive Optics (SAO) Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) images of EGFP labeled microglia in the mouse retina between the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and the nerve fiber layer (NFL). The microglia images color-coded in depth between the O
» Visualization 3       Sensorless Adaptive Optics (SAO) Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) video of EGFP labeled microglia in the mouse retina, acquired over 68 minutes.
» Visualization 4       Sensorless Adaptive Optics (SAO) Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) video of EGFP labeled microglia in the mouse retina, acquired over 89 minutes.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) and confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (SLO) system. The cyan represents the beam path of only 488 nm light, the green represents the beam path of only the fluorescence emission and the red represents the beam path of only the SLD light. The pink represents the co-aligned beam path of the 488 nm light, fluorescence emission, and SLD light. System components: Superluminescent diode (SLD), fiber coupler (FC), polarization controller (PC), polarization beam splitter (PBS), dichroic mirror (DC), emission filter (EF), cold mirror (CM), variable focus lens (VFL), deformable mirror (DM), galvanometer-scanning mirrors (GM), quarter wave plate (QWP), photomultiplier tube (PMT), dispersion compensation block (DCB), mirror (M). Achromatic doublet lenses: L1 = 50mm, L2 = 150mm, L3 = 300mm, L4 = 75mm, L5 = 2x125mm, L6 = 2x50mm. (b) Computer simulation of optical layout on custom optical mounts using OpticStudio and SolidWorks.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Spot diagrams of the OCT light at 820 nm (red), 840 nm (pink) and 860 nm (purple) across a 15-degree FOV, where the black circle represents the Airy disk with a 2.1 µm radius. Spot diagrams of the 488 nm (blue) SLO light scanned across a 15-degree FOV with 0 D of vergence at the sample pupil plane and 7-degress with 20 D of vergence at the sample pupil plane where the black circle represents the Airy disk with a 1.2 µm radius. (b) The boundary of the imaging beam at the final pupil plane of the system. The black circle represents a 2 mm aperture. Each color represents a different scan position across a 15-degree and 7-degree FOV to simulate the pupil wander due to the space between the scanning mirrors in the optical design.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) OCT B-scan across 50 degrees in the mouse retina and en face projection of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) across 44 degrees. The B-scan is an average of 200 consecutively acquired cross-sectional frames and the en face OCT image is an average of 5 frames. (b,c) Average of 5 adjacent OCT B-scans and an average of 5 en face OCT frames. The B-scans are located at the position of the red dashed lines. Vertical scale bar: 50 µm. Horizontal scale bars: 100 µm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Confocal SLO images of a mouse retina with 488 nm light. (a) Structural image of the nerve fiber layer from back-scattering. (b) Fluorescein angiography composited with a MIP from images of three different vascular layers. Scale bar: 100 µm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) En face OCT-A images of the OPL in a mouse retina. (b) En face OCT intensity image from the same image data. (c) En face OCT-A images that were generated from the OPL (red), IPL (green), and NFL (blue). Scale bar: 50 µm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) En face images of the outer plexiform layer (OPL, top row, ~250 µm FOV) and nerve fiber layer (NFL, bottom row, ~280 µm FOV) retinal layers before and after Sensorless Adaptive Optics (SAO). SAO-OCT B-scans with the imaging focal plane on the OPL (red arrows) and NFL (blue arrows). (b) The normalized image quality for each step in the SAO optimization over two iterations and the Zernike coefficients selected for each iteration. Vertical scale bars: 50 µm. Horizontal scale bars: 20 µm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Confocal SLO images before and after Sensorless Adaptive Optics (SAO) of the nerve fiber layer (NFL) with a FOV ~250 µm. Images of the outer plexiform layer (OPL) after SAO. (b) The normalized image quality metric values for each step used for the SAO optimization for each iteration. The Zernike coefficients selected for each iteration. Scale bar: 20 µm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Confocal SLO images of a mouse retina with labelled retinal ganglion cells (Tg(Thy1-EGFP)MJrs/J). (a) Fluorescence images before and after Sensorless Adaptive Optics (SAO) and an intensity line plot between the blue arrows (before SAO) and red arrows (after SAO). (b) The left column presents structural images focused on the nerve fiber layer at a ~750 µm FOV (top) and ~230 µm FOV (bottom). The right column presents the structural image in magenta overlaid by the fluorescence image in green. The fluorescence image was composited from two different focal planes for the axon and the dendrites of the RGC. Scale bars: 50 µm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Confocal SLO fluorescein angiography of a mouse retinal vasculature after Sensorless Adaptive Optics. Images (left to right) of the nerve fiber layer (NFL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), and the MIP with the NFL in red, IPL in green, and NFL in blue. Scale bar: 50 µm.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Confocal SLO images with Sensorless Adaptive Optics of EGFP labeled microglia in the mouse retina (B6.129P-Cx3cr1tm1Litt/J) acquired at different focal position between the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and the nerve fiber layer (NFL) selected from Visualization 1. The microglia images were color-coded in depth between the OPL and the NFL of the retina and rendered in 3D for Visualization 2. Scale bar: 20 µm.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Confocal SLO fluorescence images with Sensorless Adaptive Optics of EGFP labeled microglia in the mouse retina (B6.129P-Cx3cr1{tm1Litt}/J) from three time points in the time-lapse video from Visualization 3. (b) The microglia images color-coded with time. The white arrows 1-4 note areas of significant growth and retraction. Scale bar: 20 µm.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 (a) Confocal SLO fluorescence images with Sensorless Adaptive Optics of EGFP labelled microglia in the mouse retina (B6.129P-Cx3cr1{tm1Litt}/J) from three time points in the time-lapse video from Visualization 4 with an increase in laser power at 39 minutes. (b) The microglia images color-coded with time. The white arrows 1-2 note areas of significant growth and retraction. Scale bar: 20 µm.

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