Abstract

For biomedical research, successful imaging of calcified microstructures often relies on absorption differences between features, or on employing dies with selective affinity to areas of interest. When texture is concerned, e.g. for crystal orientation studies, polarization induced contrast is of particular interest. This requires sufficient interaction of the incoming radiation with the volume of interest in the sample to produce orientation-based contrast. Here we demonstrate polarization induced contrast at the calcium K-edge using submicron sized monochromatic synchrotron X-ray beams. We exploit the orientation dependent subtle absorption differences of hydroxyl-apatite crystals in teeth, with respect to the polarization field of the beam. Interaction occurs with the fully mineralized samples, such that differences in density do not contribute to the contrast. Our results show how polarization induced contrast X-ray fluorescence mapping at specific energies of the calcium K-edge reveals the micrometer and submicrometer crystal arrangements in human tooth tissues. This facilitates combining both high spatial resolution and large fields of view, achieved in relatively short acquisition times in reflection geometry. In enamel we observe the varying crystal orientations of the micron sized prisms exposed on our prepared surface. We easily reproduce crystal orientation maps, typically observed in polished thin sections. We even reveal maps of submicrometer mineralization fronts in spherulites in intertubular dentine. This Ca K-edge polarization sensitive method (XRF-PIC) does not require thin samples for transmission nor extensive sample preparation. It can be used on both fresh, moist samples as well as fossilized samples where the information of interests lies in the crystal orientations and where the crystalline domains extend several micrometers beneath the exposed surface.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. S. Bechtle, H. Özcoban, E. T. Lilleodden, N. Huber, A. Schreyer, M. V. Swain, and G. A. Schneider, “Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(71), 1265–1274 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. A. Braly, L. A. Darnell, A. B. Mann, M. F. Teaford, and T. P. Weihs, “The effect of prism orientation on the indentation testing of human molar enamel,” Arch. Oral Biol. 52(9), 856–860 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. A. Märten, P. Fratzl, O. Paris, and P. Zaslansky, “On the mineral in collagen of human crown dentine,” Biomaterials 31(20), 5479–5490 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]

2017 (3)

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. A. Castillo-Michel, C. Larue, A. E. Pradas Del Real, M. Cotte, and G. Sarret, “Practical review on the use of synchrotron based micro- and nano- X-ray fluorescence mapping and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions between plants and engineered nanomaterials,” Plant Physiol. Biochem. 110, 13–32 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cesar da Silva, A. Pacureanu, Y. Yang, S. Bohic, C. Morawe, R. Barrett, and P. Cloetens, “Efficient concentration of high-energy x-rays for diffraction-limited imaging resolution,” Optica 4(5), 492 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

S. Schrof, P. Varga, B. Hesse, M. Schöne, R. Schütz, A. Masic, and K. Raum, “Multimodal correlative investigation of the interplaying micro-architecture, chemical composition and mechanical properties of human cortical bone tissue reveals predominant role of fibrillar organization in determining microelastic tissue properties,” Acta Biomater. 44, 51–64 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Georgiadis, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “Techniques to assess bone ultrastructure organization: orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils,” J. R. Soc. Interface 13(119), 20160088 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Krüger and C. R. Natoli, “Theory of x-ray absorption and linear dichroism at the Ca L 23 -edge of CaCO 3,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 712, 012007 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

J. B. Forien, C. Fleck, P. Cloetens, G. Duda, P. Fratzl, E. Zolotoyabko, and P. Zaslansky, “Compressive Residual Strains in Mineral Nanoparticles as a Possible Origin of Enhanced Crack Resistance in Human Tooth Dentin,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3729–3734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (3)

K. A. Evans, M. D. Dyar, S. M. Reddy, A. Lanzirotti, D. T. Adams, and N. Tailby, “Variation in XANES in biotite as a function of orientation, crystal composition, and metamorphic history,” Am. Mineral. 99(2–3), 443–457 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. A. Metzler and P. Rez, “Polarization dependence of aragonite calcium L-edge XANES spectrum indicates c and b axes orientation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(24), 6758–6766 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. Rajendran, S. Gialanella, and P. B. Aswath, “XANES analysis of dried and calcined bones,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 33(7), 3968–3979 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zaslansky, A. Maerten, and P. Fratzl, “Apatite alignment and orientation at the Ångstrom and nanometer length scales shed light on the adaptation of dentine to whole tooth mechanical function,” Bioinspired, Biomim. Nanobiomaterials 2(4), 194–202 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

S. Bechtle, H. Özcoban, E. T. Lilleodden, N. Huber, A. Schreyer, M. V. Swain, and G. A. Schneider, “Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(71), 1265–1274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. An, R. Wang, D. Arola, and D. Zhang, “The role of property gradients on the mechanical behavior of human enamel,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 9, 63–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tadano and B. Giri, “X-ray diffraction as a promising tool to characterize bone nanocomposites,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 12(6), 064708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

M. Goldberg, A. B. Kulkarni, M. Young, and A. Boskey, “Dentin: structure, composition and mineralization,” Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed.) 3(2), 711–735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

C. D. Lynch, V. R. O’Sullivan, P. Dockery, C. T. McGillycuddy, and A. J. Sloan, “Hunter-Schreger Band patterns in human tooth enamel,” J. Anat. 217(2), 106–115 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Märten, P. Fratzl, O. Paris, and P. Zaslansky, “On the mineral in collagen of human crown dentine,” Biomaterials 31(20), 5479–5490 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Ang, E. L. Bortel, M. V. Swain, A. Klocke, and G. A. Schneider, “Size-dependent elastic/inelastic behavior of enamel over millimeter and nanometer length scales,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1955–1963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. Fratzl and R. Weinkamer, “Nature’s hierarchical materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 52(8), 1263–1334 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Braly, L. A. Darnell, A. B. Mann, M. F. Teaford, and T. P. Weihs, “The effect of prism orientation on the indentation testing of human molar enamel,” Arch. Oral Biol. 52(9), 856–860 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

G. Cibin, A. Mottana, A. Marcelli, and M. F. Brigatti, “Angular dependence of potassium K-edge XANES spectra of trioctahedral micas: Significance for the determination of the local structure and electronic behavior of the interlayer site,” Am. Mineral. 91(7), 1150–1162 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Eichert, M. Salomé, M. Banu, J. Susini, and C. Rey, “Preliminary characterization of calcium chemical environment in apatitic and non-apatitic calcium phosphates of biological interest by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 60(6), 850–858 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

O. Šipr, A. Simůnek, S. Bocharov, T. Kirchner, and G. Dräger, “Polarized Cu K edge XANES spectra of CuO-Theory and experiment,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 8(2), 235–237 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

C. Brouder, “Angular dependence of X-ray absorption spectra,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2(3), 701–738 (1990).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

J. M. ten Cate, W. L. Jongebloed, and J. Arends, “Remineralization of artificial enamel lesions in vitro. IV. Influence of fluorides and diphosphonates on short- and long-term reimineralization,” Caries Res. 15(1), 60–69 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

J.-E. Glas, “Studies on the ultrastructure of dental enamel. II. The orientation of the apatite crystallites as deduced from X-ray diffraction,” Arch. Oral Biol. 7(1), 91–104 (1962).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adams, D. T.

K. A. Evans, M. D. Dyar, S. M. Reddy, A. Lanzirotti, D. T. Adams, and N. Tailby, “Variation in XANES in biotite as a function of orientation, crystal composition, and metamorphic history,” Am. Mineral. 99(2–3), 443–457 (2014).
[Crossref]

Addadi, L.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

An, B.

B. An, R. Wang, D. Arola, and D. Zhang, “The role of property gradients on the mechanical behavior of human enamel,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 9, 63–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ang, S. F.

S. F. Ang, E. L. Bortel, M. V. Swain, A. Klocke, and G. A. Schneider, “Size-dependent elastic/inelastic behavior of enamel over millimeter and nanometer length scales,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1955–1963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arends, J.

J. M. ten Cate, W. L. Jongebloed, and J. Arends, “Remineralization of artificial enamel lesions in vitro. IV. Influence of fluorides and diphosphonates on short- and long-term reimineralization,” Caries Res. 15(1), 60–69 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arola, D.

B. An, R. Wang, D. Arola, and D. Zhang, “The role of property gradients on the mechanical behavior of human enamel,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 9, 63–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aswath, P. B.

J. Rajendran, S. Gialanella, and P. B. Aswath, “XANES analysis of dried and calcined bones,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 33(7), 3968–3979 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baker, R.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Balcar, N.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Banu, M.

D. Eichert, M. Salomé, M. Banu, J. Susini, and C. Rey, “Preliminary characterization of calcium chemical environment in apatitic and non-apatitic calcium phosphates of biological interest by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 60(6), 850–858 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barrett, R.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Cesar da Silva, A. Pacureanu, Y. Yang, S. Bohic, C. Morawe, R. Barrett, and P. Cloetens, “Efficient concentration of high-energy x-rays for diffraction-limited imaging resolution,” Optica 4(5), 492 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bechtel, H. A.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bechtle, S.

S. Bechtle, H. Özcoban, E. T. Lilleodden, N. Huber, A. Schreyer, M. V. Swain, and G. A. Schneider, “Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(71), 1265–1274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blonsky, A. Z.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bocharov, S.

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B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
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H. A. Castillo-Michel, C. Larue, A. E. Pradas Del Real, M. Cotte, and G. Sarret, “Practical review on the use of synchrotron based micro- and nano- X-ray fluorescence mapping and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions between plants and engineered nanomaterials,” Plant Physiol. Biochem. 110, 13–32 (2017).
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Cesar da Silva, J.

Cibin, G.

G. Cibin, A. Mottana, A. Marcelli, and M. F. Brigatti, “Angular dependence of potassium K-edge XANES spectra of trioctahedral micas: Significance for the determination of the local structure and electronic behavior of the interlayer site,” Am. Mineral. 91(7), 1150–1162 (2006).
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M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
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B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
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M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
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M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
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B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schrof, P. Varga, B. Hesse, M. Schöne, R. Schütz, A. Masic, and K. Raum, “Multimodal correlative investigation of the interplaying micro-architecture, chemical composition and mechanical properties of human cortical bone tissue reveals predominant role of fibrillar organization in determining microelastic tissue properties,” Acta Biomater. 44, 51–64 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hradilova, J.

B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
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Huber, N.

S. Bechtle, H. Özcoban, E. T. Lilleodden, N. Huber, A. Schreyer, M. V. Swain, and G. A. Schneider, “Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(71), 1265–1274 (2012).
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Ihli, J.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janssens, K.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
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Jenkins, C.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
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R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
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Kanngießer, B.

B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
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Kieffer, J.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
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R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
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O. Šipr, A. Simůnek, S. Bocharov, T. Kirchner, and G. Dräger, “Polarized Cu K edge XANES spectra of CuO-Theory and experiment,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 8(2), 235–237 (2001).
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P. Krüger and C. R. Natoli, “Theory of x-ray absorption and linear dichroism at the Ca L 23 -edge of CaCO 3,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 712, 012007 (2016).
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M. Goldberg, A. B. Kulkarni, M. Young, and A. Boskey, “Dentin: structure, composition and mineralization,” Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed.) 3(2), 711–735 (2011).
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Langlois, J.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
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Lanzirotti, A.

K. A. Evans, M. D. Dyar, S. M. Reddy, A. Lanzirotti, D. T. Adams, and N. Tailby, “Variation in XANES in biotite as a function of orientation, crystal composition, and metamorphic history,” Am. Mineral. 99(2–3), 443–457 (2014).
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Larue, C.

H. A. Castillo-Michel, C. Larue, A. E. Pradas Del Real, M. Cotte, and G. Sarret, “Practical review on the use of synchrotron based micro- and nano- X-ray fluorescence mapping and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions between plants and engineered nanomaterials,” Plant Physiol. Biochem. 110, 13–32 (2017).
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Lilleodden, E. T.

S. Bechtle, H. Özcoban, E. T. Lilleodden, N. Huber, A. Schreyer, M. V. Swain, and G. A. Schneider, “Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(71), 1265–1274 (2012).
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C. D. Lynch, V. R. O’Sullivan, P. Dockery, C. T. McGillycuddy, and A. J. Sloan, “Hunter-Schreger Band patterns in human tooth enamel,” J. Anat. 217(2), 106–115 (2010).
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Maerten, A.

P. Zaslansky, A. Maerten, and P. Fratzl, “Apatite alignment and orientation at the Ångstrom and nanometer length scales shed light on the adaptation of dentine to whole tooth mechanical function,” Bioinspired, Biomim. Nanobiomaterials 2(4), 194–202 (2013).
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Marcelli, A.

G. Cibin, A. Mottana, A. Marcelli, and M. F. Brigatti, “Angular dependence of potassium K-edge XANES spectra of trioctahedral micas: Significance for the determination of the local structure and electronic behavior of the interlayer site,” Am. Mineral. 91(7), 1150–1162 (2006).
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Marcus, M. A.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
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Märten, A.

A. Märten, P. Fratzl, O. Paris, and P. Zaslansky, “On the mineral in collagen of human crown dentine,” Biomaterials 31(20), 5479–5490 (2010).
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Masic, A.

S. Schrof, P. Varga, B. Hesse, M. Schöne, R. Schütz, A. Masic, and K. Raum, “Multimodal correlative investigation of the interplaying micro-architecture, chemical composition and mechanical properties of human cortical bone tissue reveals predominant role of fibrillar organization in determining microelastic tissue properties,” Acta Biomater. 44, 51–64 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
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McGillycuddy, C. T.

C. D. Lynch, V. R. O’Sullivan, P. Dockery, C. T. McGillycuddy, and A. J. Sloan, “Hunter-Schreger Band patterns in human tooth enamel,” J. Anat. 217(2), 106–115 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meldrum, F. C.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
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Metzler, R. A.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Metzler and P. Rez, “Polarization dependence of aragonite calcium L-edge XANES spectrum indicates c and b axes orientation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(24), 6758–6766 (2014).
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Monico, L.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Morawe, C.

Mottana, A.

G. Cibin, A. Mottana, A. Marcelli, and M. F. Brigatti, “Angular dependence of potassium K-edge XANES spectra of trioctahedral micas: Significance for the determination of the local structure and electronic behavior of the interlayer site,” Am. Mineral. 91(7), 1150–1162 (2006).
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Müller, R.

M. Georgiadis, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “Techniques to assess bone ultrastructure organization: orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils,” J. R. Soc. Interface 13(119), 20160088 (2016).
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Natoli, C. R.

P. Krüger and C. R. Natoli, “Theory of x-ray absorption and linear dichroism at the Ca L 23 -edge of CaCO 3,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 712, 012007 (2016).
[Crossref]

O’Sullivan, V. R.

C. D. Lynch, V. R. O’Sullivan, P. Dockery, C. T. McGillycuddy, and A. J. Sloan, “Hunter-Schreger Band patterns in human tooth enamel,” J. Anat. 217(2), 106–115 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Özcoban, H.

S. Bechtle, H. Özcoban, E. T. Lilleodden, N. Huber, A. Schreyer, M. V. Swain, and G. A. Schneider, “Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(71), 1265–1274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pacureanu, A.

Papillon, E.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Paris, O.

A. Märten, P. Fratzl, O. Paris, and P. Zaslansky, “On the mineral in collagen of human crown dentine,” Biomaterials 31(20), 5479–5490 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pokroy, B.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Politi, Y.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pouyet, E.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pradas del Real, A. E.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. A. Castillo-Michel, C. Larue, A. E. Pradas Del Real, M. Cotte, and G. Sarret, “Practical review on the use of synchrotron based micro- and nano- X-ray fluorescence mapping and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions between plants and engineered nanomaterials,” Plant Physiol. Biochem. 110, 13–32 (2017).
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Rajendran, J.

J. Rajendran, S. Gialanella, and P. B. Aswath, “XANES analysis of dried and calcined bones,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 33(7), 3968–3979 (2013).
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Raum, K.

S. Schrof, P. Varga, B. Hesse, M. Schöne, R. Schütz, A. Masic, and K. Raum, “Multimodal correlative investigation of the interplaying micro-architecture, chemical composition and mechanical properties of human cortical bone tissue reveals predominant role of fibrillar organization in determining microelastic tissue properties,” Acta Biomater. 44, 51–64 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reddy, S. M.

K. A. Evans, M. D. Dyar, S. M. Reddy, A. Lanzirotti, D. T. Adams, and N. Tailby, “Variation in XANES in biotite as a function of orientation, crystal composition, and metamorphic history,” Am. Mineral. 99(2–3), 443–457 (2014).
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Rey, C.

D. Eichert, M. Salomé, M. Banu, J. Susini, and C. Rey, “Preliminary characterization of calcium chemical environment in apatitic and non-apatitic calcium phosphates of biological interest by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 60(6), 850–858 (2005).
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Rez, P.

R. A. Metzler and P. Rez, “Polarization dependence of aragonite calcium L-edge XANES spectrum indicates c and b axes orientation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(24), 6758–6766 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rivard, C.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sahle, C. J.

B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salling, C. B.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salome, M.

B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salomé, M.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Eichert, M. Salomé, M. Banu, J. Susini, and C. Rey, “Preliminary characterization of calcium chemical environment in apatitic and non-apatitic calcium phosphates of biological interest by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 60(6), 850–858 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sarret, G.

H. A. Castillo-Michel, C. Larue, A. E. Pradas Del Real, M. Cotte, and G. Sarret, “Practical review on the use of synchrotron based micro- and nano- X-ray fluorescence mapping and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions between plants and engineered nanomaterials,” Plant Physiol. Biochem. 110, 13–32 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, G. A.

S. Bechtle, H. Özcoban, E. T. Lilleodden, N. Huber, A. Schreyer, M. V. Swain, and G. A. Schneider, “Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(71), 1265–1274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Ang, E. L. Bortel, M. V. Swain, A. Klocke, and G. A. Schneider, “Size-dependent elastic/inelastic behavior of enamel over millimeter and nanometer length scales,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1955–1963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schneider, P.

M. Georgiadis, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “Techniques to assess bone ultrastructure organization: orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils,” J. R. Soc. Interface 13(119), 20160088 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scholl, A.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schöne, M.

S. Schrof, P. Varga, B. Hesse, M. Schöne, R. Schütz, A. Masic, and K. Raum, “Multimodal correlative investigation of the interplaying micro-architecture, chemical composition and mechanical properties of human cortical bone tissue reveals predominant role of fibrillar organization in determining microelastic tissue properties,” Acta Biomater. 44, 51–64 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schreyer, A.

S. Bechtle, H. Özcoban, E. T. Lilleodden, N. Huber, A. Schreyer, M. V. Swain, and G. A. Schneider, “Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(71), 1265–1274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schrof, S.

S. Schrof, P. Varga, B. Hesse, M. Schöne, R. Schütz, A. Masic, and K. Raum, “Multimodal correlative investigation of the interplaying micro-architecture, chemical composition and mechanical properties of human cortical bone tissue reveals predominant role of fibrillar organization in determining microelastic tissue properties,” Acta Biomater. 44, 51–64 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schütz, R.

S. Schrof, P. Varga, B. Hesse, M. Schöne, R. Schütz, A. Masic, and K. Raum, “Multimodal correlative investigation of the interplaying micro-architecture, chemical composition and mechanical properties of human cortical bone tissue reveals predominant role of fibrillar organization in determining microelastic tissue properties,” Acta Biomater. 44, 51–64 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sciau, P.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Simunek, A.

O. Šipr, A. Simůnek, S. Bocharov, T. Kirchner, and G. Dräger, “Polarized Cu K edge XANES spectra of CuO-Theory and experiment,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 8(2), 235–237 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Šipr, O.

O. Šipr, A. Simůnek, S. Bocharov, T. Kirchner, and G. Dräger, “Polarized Cu K edge XANES spectra of CuO-Theory and experiment,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 8(2), 235–237 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sloan, A. J.

C. D. Lynch, V. R. O’Sullivan, P. Dockery, C. T. McGillycuddy, and A. J. Sloan, “Hunter-Schreger Band patterns in human tooth enamel,” J. Anat. 217(2), 106–115 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solé, V. A.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Susini, J.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

D. Eichert, M. Salomé, M. Banu, J. Susini, and C. Rey, “Preliminary characterization of calcium chemical environment in apatitic and non-apatitic calcium phosphates of biological interest by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 60(6), 850–858 (2005).
[Crossref]

Swain, M. V.

S. Bechtle, H. Özcoban, E. T. Lilleodden, N. Huber, A. Schreyer, M. V. Swain, and G. A. Schneider, “Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(71), 1265–1274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Ang, E. L. Bortel, M. V. Swain, A. Klocke, and G. A. Schneider, “Size-dependent elastic/inelastic behavior of enamel over millimeter and nanometer length scales,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1955–1963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tadano, S.

S. Tadano and B. Giri, “X-ray diffraction as a promising tool to characterize bone nanocomposites,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 12(6), 064708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tailby, N.

K. A. Evans, M. D. Dyar, S. M. Reddy, A. Lanzirotti, D. T. Adams, and N. Tailby, “Variation in XANES in biotite as a function of orientation, crystal composition, and metamorphic history,” Am. Mineral. 99(2–3), 443–457 (2014).
[Crossref]

Teaford, M. F.

A. Braly, L. A. Darnell, A. B. Mann, M. F. Teaford, and T. P. Weihs, “The effect of prism orientation on the indentation testing of human molar enamel,” Arch. Oral Biol. 52(9), 856–860 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ten Cate, J. M.

J. M. ten Cate, W. L. Jongebloed, and J. Arends, “Remineralization of artificial enamel lesions in vitro. IV. Influence of fluorides and diphosphonates on short- and long-term reimineralization,” Caries Res. 15(1), 60–69 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vandenberghe, Y.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Varga, P.

B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schrof, P. Varga, B. Hesse, M. Schöne, R. Schütz, A. Masic, and K. Raum, “Multimodal correlative investigation of the interplaying micro-architecture, chemical composition and mechanical properties of human cortical bone tissue reveals predominant role of fibrillar organization in determining microelastic tissue properties,” Acta Biomater. 44, 51–64 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Verger, L.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Veronesi, G.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wang, R.

B. An, R. Wang, D. Arola, and D. Zhang, “The role of property gradients on the mechanical behavior of human enamel,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 9, 63–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

Weihs, T. P.

A. Braly, L. A. Darnell, A. B. Mann, M. F. Teaford, and T. P. Weihs, “The effect of prism orientation on the indentation testing of human molar enamel,” Arch. Oral Biol. 52(9), 856–860 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiner, S.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weinkamer, R.

P. Fratzl and R. Weinkamer, “Nature’s hierarchical materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 52(8), 1263–1334 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

Young, A. T.

R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, M.

M. Goldberg, A. B. Kulkarni, M. Young, and A. Boskey, “Dentin: structure, composition and mineralization,” Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed.) 3(2), 711–735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaslansky, P.

J. B. Forien, C. Fleck, P. Cloetens, G. Duda, P. Fratzl, E. Zolotoyabko, and P. Zaslansky, “Compressive Residual Strains in Mineral Nanoparticles as a Possible Origin of Enhanced Crack Resistance in Human Tooth Dentin,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3729–3734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Zaslansky, A. Maerten, and P. Fratzl, “Apatite alignment and orientation at the Ångstrom and nanometer length scales shed light on the adaptation of dentine to whole tooth mechanical function,” Bioinspired, Biomim. Nanobiomaterials 2(4), 194–202 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Märten, P. Fratzl, O. Paris, and P. Zaslansky, “On the mineral in collagen of human crown dentine,” Biomaterials 31(20), 5479–5490 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

B. An, R. Wang, D. Arola, and D. Zhang, “The role of property gradients on the mechanical behavior of human enamel,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 9, 63–72 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zolotoyabko, E.

J. B. Forien, C. Fleck, P. Cloetens, G. Duda, P. Fratzl, E. Zolotoyabko, and P. Zaslansky, “Compressive Residual Strains in Mineral Nanoparticles as a Possible Origin of Enhanced Crack Resistance in Human Tooth Dentin,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3729–3734 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acta Biomater. (1)

S. Schrof, P. Varga, B. Hesse, M. Schöne, R. Schütz, A. Masic, and K. Raum, “Multimodal correlative investigation of the interplaying micro-architecture, chemical composition and mechanical properties of human cortical bone tissue reveals predominant role of fibrillar organization in determining microelastic tissue properties,” Acta Biomater. 44, 51–64 (2016).
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Am. Mineral. (2)

G. Cibin, A. Mottana, A. Marcelli, and M. F. Brigatti, “Angular dependence of potassium K-edge XANES spectra of trioctahedral micas: Significance for the determination of the local structure and electronic behavior of the interlayer site,” Am. Mineral. 91(7), 1150–1162 (2006).
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K. A. Evans, M. D. Dyar, S. M. Reddy, A. Lanzirotti, D. T. Adams, and N. Tailby, “Variation in XANES in biotite as a function of orientation, crystal composition, and metamorphic history,” Am. Mineral. 99(2–3), 443–457 (2014).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

B. Hesse, M. Salome, H. Castillo-Michel, M. Cotte, B. Fayard, C. J. Sahle, W. De Nolf, J. Hradilova, A. Masic, B. Kanngießer, M. Bohner, P. Varga, K. Raum, and S. Schrof, “Full-Field Calcium K-Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy on Cortical Bone at the Micron-Scale: Polarization Effects Reveal Mineral Orientation,” Anal. Chem. 88(7), 3826–3835 (2016).
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Arch. Oral Biol. (2)

J.-E. Glas, “Studies on the ultrastructure of dental enamel. II. The orientation of the apatite crystallites as deduced from X-ray diffraction,” Arch. Oral Biol. 7(1), 91–104 (1962).
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A. Braly, L. A. Darnell, A. B. Mann, M. F. Teaford, and T. P. Weihs, “The effect of prism orientation on the indentation testing of human molar enamel,” Arch. Oral Biol. 52(9), 856–860 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bioinspired, Biomim. Nanobiomaterials (1)

P. Zaslansky, A. Maerten, and P. Fratzl, “Apatite alignment and orientation at the Ångstrom and nanometer length scales shed light on the adaptation of dentine to whole tooth mechanical function,” Bioinspired, Biomim. Nanobiomaterials 2(4), 194–202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Biomaterials (2)

S. F. Ang, E. L. Bortel, M. V. Swain, A. Klocke, and G. A. Schneider, “Size-dependent elastic/inelastic behavior of enamel over millimeter and nanometer length scales,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1955–1963 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Märten, P. Fratzl, O. Paris, and P. Zaslansky, “On the mineral in collagen of human crown dentine,” Biomaterials 31(20), 5479–5490 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caries Res. (1)

J. M. ten Cate, W. L. Jongebloed, and J. Arends, “Remineralization of artificial enamel lesions in vitro. IV. Influence of fluorides and diphosphonates on short- and long-term reimineralization,” Caries Res. 15(1), 60–69 (1981).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed.) (1)

M. Goldberg, A. B. Kulkarni, M. Young, and A. Boskey, “Dentin: structure, composition and mineralization,” Front. Biosci. (Elite Ed.) 3(2), 711–735 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Anal. At. Spectrom. (1)

M. Cotte, E. Pouyet, M. Salomé, C. Rivard, W. De Nolf, H. Castillo-Michel, T. Fabris, L. Monico, K. Janssens, T. Wang, P. Sciau, L. Verger, L. Cormier, O. Dargaud, E. Brun, D. Bugnazet, B. Fayard, B. Hesse, A. E. Pradas del Real, G. Veronesi, J. Langlois, N. Balcar, Y. Vandenberghe, V. A. Solé, J. Kieffer, R. Barrett, C. Cohen, C. Cornu, R. Baker, E. Gagliardini, E. Papillon, and J. Susini, “The ID21 X-ray and infrared microscopy beamline at the ESRF: status and recent applications to artistic materials,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 32(3), 477–493 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Anat. (1)

C. D. Lynch, V. R. O’Sullivan, P. Dockery, C. T. McGillycuddy, and A. J. Sloan, “Hunter-Schreger Band patterns in human tooth enamel,” J. Anat. 217(2), 106–115 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. (1)

B. An, R. Wang, D. Arola, and D. Zhang, “The role of property gradients on the mechanical behavior of human enamel,” J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 9, 63–72 (2012).
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J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

R. A. Metzler and P. Rez, “Polarization dependence of aragonite calcium L-edge XANES spectrum indicates c and b axes orientation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(24), 6758–6766 (2014).
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R. T. DeVol, R. A. Metzler, L. Kabalah-Amitai, B. Pokroy, Y. Politi, A. Gal, L. Addadi, S. Weiner, A. Fernandez-Martinez, R. Demichelis, J. D. Gale, J. Ihli, F. C. Meldrum, A. Z. Blonsky, C. E. Killian, C. B. Salling, A. T. Young, M. A. Marcus, A. Scholl, A. Doran, C. Jenkins, H. A. Bechtel, and P. U. P. A. Gilbert, “Oxygen spectroscopy and polarization-dependent imaging contrast (PIC)-mapping of calcium carbonate minerals and biominerals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 118(28), 8449–8457 (2014).
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J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

C. Brouder, “Angular dependence of X-ray absorption spectra,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 2(3), 701–738 (1990).
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J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

P. Krüger and C. R. Natoli, “Theory of x-ray absorption and linear dichroism at the Ca L 23 -edge of CaCO 3,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 712, 012007 (2016).
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J. R. Soc. Interface (2)

S. Bechtle, H. Özcoban, E. T. Lilleodden, N. Huber, A. Schreyer, M. V. Swain, and G. A. Schneider, “Hierarchical flexural strength of enamel: transition from brittle to damage-tolerant behaviour,” J. R. Soc. Interface 9(71), 1265–1274 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Georgiadis, R. Müller, and P. Schneider, “Techniques to assess bone ultrastructure organization: orientation and arrangement of mineralized collagen fibrils,” J. R. Soc. Interface 13(119), 20160088 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

O. Šipr, A. Simůnek, S. Bocharov, T. Kirchner, and G. Dräger, “Polarized Cu K edge XANES spectra of CuO-Theory and experiment,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 8(2), 235–237 (2001).
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Mater. Sci. Eng. C (1)

J. Rajendran, S. Gialanella, and P. B. Aswath, “XANES analysis of dried and calcined bones,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 33(7), 3968–3979 (2013).
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Nano Lett. (1)

J. B. Forien, C. Fleck, P. Cloetens, G. Duda, P. Fratzl, E. Zolotoyabko, and P. Zaslansky, “Compressive Residual Strains in Mineral Nanoparticles as a Possible Origin of Enhanced Crack Resistance in Human Tooth Dentin,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3729–3734 (2015).
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Optica (1)

Plant Physiol. Biochem. (1)

H. A. Castillo-Michel, C. Larue, A. E. Pradas Del Real, M. Cotte, and G. Sarret, “Practical review on the use of synchrotron based micro- and nano- X-ray fluorescence mapping and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interactions between plants and engineered nanomaterials,” Plant Physiol. Biochem. 110, 13–32 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Mater. Sci. (1)

P. Fratzl and R. Weinkamer, “Nature’s hierarchical materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 52(8), 1263–1334 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Tadano and B. Giri, “X-ray diffraction as a promising tool to characterize bone nanocomposites,” Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 12(6), 064708 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. (1)

D. Eichert, M. Salomé, M. Banu, J. Susini, and C. Rey, “Preliminary characterization of calcium chemical environment in apatitic and non-apatitic calcium phosphates of biological interest by X-ray absorption spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta - Part B At. Spectrosc. 60(6), 850–858 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

H. A. Lowenstam and W. Stephen, On Biomineralization (Cambridge University Press, 1990), 16(04).

N. Miller, Ten Cate’s Oral Histology, 8th ed. BDJ 213(4), 194–194 (2012).

P. Fratzl and H. S. Gupta, “Nanoscale Mechanisms of Bone Deformation and Fracture,” in Handbook of Biomineralization (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, n.d.), pp. 397–414.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic illustration of the main optical components of the setup installed at beamline ID21 for XRF-PIC mapping. Two undulators are used to generate the X-rays that are polarized in the horizontal plane, subsequently monochromatized by a fixed exit double-crystal Si(111) Kohzu-monochromator, then focused using KB optics. The polarization orientation is not affected by any of the components downstream of the source until impinging on the sample. Following interaction with the apatite (in the tooth), non-polarized XRF radiation is generated. The total XRF signal (illustrated by green arrows) is collected by a photodiode detector.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Typical human tooth tissues (a). Cross sectional slice in a human canine crown revealing the outer enamel (worn on the upper left edge) encasing a large bulk of dentine. These 2 tissues are attached at the dentine-enamel junction (DEJ). The pulp is partially stained. (b) Higher magnification of a segment of enamel, DEJ and dentine, viewed in polarized light. Groups of alternating prism orientations in enamel (black double headed arrow) exhibit Hunter Schreger optical bands. (c) In cross section, enamel surrounds dentine (upper right) attached at the DEJ where dark tufts of organic material extend outwards (magnified area shows polarization light microscope image of clusters of enamel prisms). (d) Typical backscattered electron microscopy image of dentine containing tubules, perforating the intertubular (ITD) tissue. Tubules lie approximately 10 µm apart and are ~1 µm in diameter. Many tubules are lined by a thin highly-mineralized sheath of peritubular dentine (PTD) within ITD.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Polarisation effects in XANES spectroscopy at the Ca K-edge of tooth c-HAP: a) Schematic drawing of three orientations of the c-HAP crystals and the 4p3/2 orbital of Ca relative to the polarisation (along y-axis). Depending on crystal orientation with respect to the polarization axis, the interactions vary due to an angular absorption dependence. The 3D crystal orientation can be determined by sample rotation around the illumination axis. b) The XANES spectra corresponding to the three orientations shown in (a) were normalized at the edge and shifted vertically with an offset for clarity. c) Same spectra as (b) normalised to the maximum. The three spectra differ mainly in the main absorption (so called white line) region due to 1s to 4p transitions. The energies of E1 = 4.0533keV and E2 = 4.0553keV correspond to the 1s to 4p1/2 (marked ▲) and 1s to 4p3/2 (marked ♦) dipole transitions, respectively. In orientation 1, polarization is parallel to the c-HAP crystal c-axis and the 4p3/2 orbital where the probability of 1s to 4p3/2 transition is higher. In orientation 2 and 3, polarization is perpendicular to the crystals c-axis, where the probability of 1s to 4p1/2 transitions is higher.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Three μXRF maps (a), (b) and (c) collected over the same region (enamel, dentine) at three different energies: a) E1 = 4.0553 keV, b) E2 = 4.0533 keV, and c) E3 = 4.2 keV, respectively. Figure d) is a backscattered SEM image of the same region, where contrast is proportional to the atomic density. The images show enamel (on the left side), a large vertical crack (indicated with an x) due to sample preparation and a small section of dentine (on the right). Enamel and dentine are typically attached at the DEJ (marked as X). At E1 and E2 (a, b) XRF-PIC reveals alternating crystalline texture of the c-HAP crystals with variations observed between adjacent prism groups (e.g. a, white arrows), similar to optically-formed Hunter Schreger bands. These effects are not visible at the higher excitation energy E3, further away from the 1s to 4p electron transition (c), where only electron density differences between enamel and dentine are observable. These are due to different Ca densities, as evidenced also by d) - backscattered electrons (SEM) of the same area as a)-c).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 High resolution High resolution polarization sensitive μXRF maps of enamel and dentine. Maps collected at (a) E1 = 4.0533 keV and (b) E2 = 4.0553 keV reveal polarization contrast of the micro/nano crystal arrangements. Prism texture in enamel is clearly visible in the maps. Following rotation of the sample by 90° with respect to the polarization vector, the contrast between different crystal families in enamel vanishes, compare (c) at E1 = 4.0533 keV and (d) at E2 = 4.0553 keV. In dentine, spherulite curves (marked as *) are seen at E1 = 4.0533 keV (e) and peritubular dentine traces (white lines) become visible at E2 = 4.0553 keV (f).

Equations (1)

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σ( ε ^ )= σ sin 2  θ+ σ     cos 2  θ