Abstract

We investigate the effects of blood flow and extravascular tissue shearing on diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS) signals from deep tissue, using an ex vivo porcine kidney model perfused artificially at controlled arterial pressure and flow. Temporal autocorrelation functions g (1)(τ) of the multiply scattered light field show a decay which is described by diffusion for constant flow, with a diffusion coefficient scaling linearly with volume flow rate. Replacing blood by a non-scattering fluid reveals a flow-independent background dynamics of the extravascular tissue. For a sinusoidally driven perfusion, field autocorrelation functions g (1)(τ, t′) depend on the phase t′ within the pulsation cycle and are approximately described by diffusion. The effective diffusion coefficient D eff(t′) is modulated at the driving frequency in the presence of blood, showing coupling with flow rate; in the absence of blood, D eff(t′) is modulated at twice the driving frequency, indicating shearing of extravascular tissue as the origin of the DWS signal. For both constant and pulsatile flow the contribution of extravascular tissue shearing to the DWS signal is small.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

L. Koban, M. Ninck, J. Li, T. Gisler, and J. Kissler, “Processing of emotional words measured simultaneously with steady-state visually evoked potentials and near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” BMC Neurosci. 11(1), 85 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Carp, G. P. Dai, D. A. Boas, M. A. Franceschini, and Y. R. Kim, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements of rodent cerebral blood flow with simultaneous arterial spin labeling MRI; towards MRI-optical continuous cerebral metabolic monitoring,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(2), 553–565 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

F. Jaillon, S. E. Skipetrov, J. Li, G. Dietsche, G. Maret, and T. Gisler, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy from head-like tissue phantoms: influence of a non-scattering layer,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10181–10194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Müller, and M. Meinke, “Determination of optical properties of human blood in the spectral range 250 to 1100 nm using Monte Carlo simulations with hematocrit-dependent effective scattering phase functions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Non-invasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

1994

1992

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

1988

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(12), 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, “Multiple light scattering from disordered media: The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers,” Z. Phys. B Condens. Matter 65(4), 409–413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1979

H. L. Goldsmith and J. C. Marlow, “Flow behavior of erythrocytes. II. Particle motions in concentrated suspensions of ghost cells,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 71(2), 383–407 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Arnfield, M. R.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, W. B.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Belau, M.

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Bolin, F. P.

Buckley, E. M.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burnett, M. G.

Carp, S. A.

Chaikin, P. M.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(12), 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, R.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Contini, D.

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, G. P.

Detre, J. A.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietsche, G.

Durduran, T.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durning, S. M.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edlow, B. L.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elbert, T.

J. Li, M. Ninck, L. Koban, T. Elbert, J. Kissler, and T. Gisler, “Transient functional blood flow change in the human brain measured noninvasively by diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2233–2235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Non-invasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eucker, S. A.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, T.-C.

Ference, R. J.

Floyd, T. F.

Franceschini, M. A.

Frangos, S.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friebel, M.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Müller, and M. Meinke, “Determination of optical properties of human blood in the spectral range 250 to 1100 nm using Monte Carlo simulations with hematocrit-dependent effective scattering phase functions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friess, S. H.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaynor, J. W.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gisler, T.

L. Koban, M. Ninck, J. Li, T. Gisler, and J. Kissler, “Processing of emotional words measured simultaneously with steady-state visually evoked potentials and near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” BMC Neurosci. 11(1), 85 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, M. Ninck, L. Koban, T. Elbert, J. Kissler, and T. Gisler, “Transient functional blood flow change in the human brain measured noninvasively by diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2233–2235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dietsche, M. Ninck, C. Ortolf, J. Li, F. Jaillon, and T. Gisler, “Fiber-based multispeckle detection for time-resolved diffusing-wave spectroscopy: characterization and application to blood flow detection in deep tissue,” Appl. Opt. 46(35), 8506–8514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Jaillon, S. E. Skipetrov, J. Li, G. Dietsche, G. Maret, and T. Gisler, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy from head-like tissue phantoms: influence of a non-scattering layer,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10181–10194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Non-invasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, H. L.

H. L. Goldsmith and J. C. Marlow, “Flow behavior of erythrocytes. II. Particle motions in concentrated suspensions of ghost cells,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 71(2), 383–407 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Grady, M. S.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, J. H.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haskell, R. C.

Herbolzheimer, E.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(12), 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hering, G.

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichord, R. N.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftime, D.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Non-invasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaillon, F.

Kim, M. N.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. R.

Kissler, J.

L. Koban, M. Ninck, J. Li, T. Gisler, and J. Kissler, “Processing of emotional words measured simultaneously with steady-state visually evoked potentials and near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” BMC Neurosci. 11(1), 85 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, M. Ninck, L. Koban, T. Elbert, J. Kissler, and T. Gisler, “Transient functional blood flow change in the human brain measured noninvasively by diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2233–2235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koban, L.

L. Koban, M. Ninck, J. Li, T. Gisler, and J. Kissler, “Processing of emotional words measured simultaneously with steady-state visually evoked potentials and near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” BMC Neurosci. 11(1), 85 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, M. Ninck, L. Koban, T. Elbert, J. Kissler, and T. Gisler, “Transient functional blood flow change in the human brain measured noninvasively by diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2233–2235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kofke, W. A.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levine, J. M.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Licht, D. J.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maloney-Wilensky, E.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maret, G.

F. Jaillon, S. E. Skipetrov, J. Li, G. Dietsche, G. Maret, and T. Gisler, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy from head-like tissue phantoms: influence of a non-scattering layer,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10181–10194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Non-invasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, “Multiple light scattering from disordered media: The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers,” Z. Phys. B Condens. Matter 65(4), 409–413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Margulies, S. S.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marlow, J. C.

H. L. Goldsmith and J. C. Marlow, “Flow behavior of erythrocytes. II. Particle motions in concentrated suspensions of ghost cells,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 71(2), 383–407 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Mason, S. E.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathew, R. P.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAdams, M. S.

McPhee, M. S.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meinke, M.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Müller, and M. Meinke, “Determination of optical properties of human blood in the spectral range 250 to 1100 nm using Monte Carlo simulations with hematocrit-dependent effective scattering phase functions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montenegro, L. M.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, H. E.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, G.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Müller, and M. Meinke, “Determination of optical properties of human blood in the spectral range 250 to 1100 nm using Monte Carlo simulations with hematocrit-dependent effective scattering phase functions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolson, S. C.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ninck, M.

L. Koban, M. Ninck, J. Li, T. Gisler, and J. Kissler, “Processing of emotional words measured simultaneously with steady-state visually evoked potentials and near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” BMC Neurosci. 11(1), 85 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, M. Ninck, L. Koban, T. Elbert, J. Kissler, and T. Gisler, “Transient functional blood flow change in the human brain measured noninvasively by diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2233–2235 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dietsche, M. Ninck, C. Ortolf, J. Li, F. Jaillon, and T. Gisler, “Fiber-based multispeckle detection for time-resolved diffusing-wave spectroscopy: characterization and application to blood flow detection in deep tissue,” Appl. Opt. 46(35), 8506–8514 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortolf, C.

Pine, D. J.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(12), 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preuss, L. E.

Putt, M. E.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ralston, J.

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockstroh, B.

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Non-invasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roggan, A.

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Müller, and M. Meinke, “Determination of optical properties of human blood in the spectral range 250 to 1100 nm using Monte Carlo simulations with hematocrit-dependent effective scattering phase functions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skipetrov, S. E.

F. Jaillon, S. E. Skipetrov, J. Li, G. Dietsche, G. Maret, and T. Gisler, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy from head-like tissue phantoms: influence of a non-scattering layer,” Opt. Express 14(22), 10181–10194 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Non-invasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, L.

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spray, T. L.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

Taylor, R. C.

Torricelli, A.

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

Tsay, T.-T.

Tulip, J.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitz, D. A.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(12), 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, P. E.

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, “Multiple light scattering from disordered media: The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers,” Z. Phys. B Condens. Matter 65(4), 409–413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, R. L.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, G.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, C.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, T. F. Floyd, T. Durduran, C. Zhou, J. Wang, J. A. Detre, and A. G. Yodh, “Validation of diffuse correlation spectroscopy for muscle blood flow with concurrent arterial spin labeled perfusion MRI,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1064–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Durduran, G. Yu, M. G. Burnett, J. A. Detre, J. H. Greenberg, J. Wang, C. Zhou, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical measurement of blood flow, blood oxygenation, and metabolism in a human brain during sensorimotor cortex activation,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1766–1768 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmerman, R. A.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

BMC Neurosci.

L. Koban, M. Ninck, J. Li, T. Gisler, and J. Kissler, “Processing of emotional words measured simultaneously with steady-state visually evoked potentials and near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” BMC Neurosci. 11(1), 85 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

T. Durduran, C. Zhou, E. M. Buckley, M. N. Kim, G. Yu, R. Choe, J. W. Gaynor, T. L. Spray, S. M. Durning, S. E. Mason, L. M. Montenegro, S. C. Nicolson, R. A. Zimmerman, M. E. Putt, J. Wang, J. H. Greenberg, J. A. Detre, A. G. Yodh, and D. J. Licht, “Optical measurement of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism in neonates with congenital heart defects,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(3), 037004 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, G. Dietsche, D. Iftime, S. E. Skipetrov, G. Maret, T. Elbert, B. Rockstroh, and T. Gisler, “Non-invasive detection of functional brain activity with near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(4), 044002 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhou, S. A. Eucker, T. Durduran, G. Yu, J. Ralston, S. H. Friess, R. N. Ichord, S. S. Margulies, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical monitoring of hemodynamic changes in piglet brain with closed head injury,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034015 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Friebel, A. Roggan, G. Müller, and M. Meinke, “Determination of optical properties of human blood in the spectral range 250 to 1100 nm using Monte Carlo simulations with hematocrit-dependent effective scattering phase functions,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(3), 034021 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Belau, M. Ninck, G. Hering, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, and T. Gisler, “Noninvasive observation of skeletal muscle contraction using near-infrared time-resolved reflectance and diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(5), 057007 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

H. L. Goldsmith and J. C. Marlow, “Flow behavior of erythrocytes. II. Particle motions in concentrated suspensions of ghost cells,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 71(2), 383–407 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Neurocrit. Care

M. N. Kim, T. Durduran, S. Frangos, B. L. Edlow, E. M. Buckley, H. E. Moss, C. Zhou, G. Yu, R. Choe, E. Maloney-Wilensky, R. L. Wolf, M. S. Grady, J. H. Greenberg, J. M. Levine, A. G. Yodh, J. A. Detre, and W. A. Kofke, “Noninvasive measurement of cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation using near-infrared and diffuse correlation spectroscopies in critically brain-injured adults,” Neurocrit. Care 12(2), 173–180 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Med. Biol.

M. R. Arnfield, R. P. Mathew, J. Tulip, and M. S. McPhee, “Analysis of tissue optical coefficients using an approximate equation valid for comparable absorption and scattering,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37(6), 1219–1230 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. J. Pine, D. A. Weitz, P. M. Chaikin, and E. Herbolzheimer, “Diffusing wave spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60(12), 1134–1137 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

T. Durduran, R. Choe, W. B. Baker, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optics for tissue monitoring and tomography,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 73(7), 076701 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. B Condens. Matter

G. Maret and P. E. Wolf, “Multiple light scattering from disordered media: The effect of Brownian motion of scatterers,” Z. Phys. B Condens. Matter 65(4), 409–413 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. A. Boas, “Diffuse photon probes of structural and dynamical properties of turbid media: Theory and biomedical applications,” Ph. D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 1996).

C. Zhou, “In vivo optical imaging and spectroscopy of cerebral hemodynamics,” Ph. D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, 2007).

D. A. Weitz, and D. J. Pine, “Diffusing-wave spectroscopy,” in “Dynamic Light Scattering. The method and some applications,”, W. Brown, ed. (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993), pp. 652–720.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic experimental setup. The kidney, which is fixed in a rigid construction in order to minimize motion artefacts, is perfused by a computer-controlled perfusor consisting of a syringe driven by a linear motor at controlled velocity. The DWS sensor is placed on the Extremitas inferior and probes approximately the banana-shaped volume marked in pink. Injected fluid is drained through the vena renalis (not shown).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Field autocorrelation functions g (1)(τ) as a function of lag time τ measured at the Extremitas inferior of the porcine kidney during constant perfusion with diluted blood for flow rates Q = 0.6mℓ/s (□), 1.2mℓ/s (◦), 1.8mℓ/s (△), 2.4mℓ/s (▽) and 3.1mℓ/s (◊). Source-receiver distance is ρ = 18mm. For better visibility of the flow dependence, data for lag times τ > 1ms are suppressed. Data are averages over 1908 autocorrelation functions each measured with an acquisition time of 26.2 ms, corresponding to a total experiment duration of 50s for each flow rate. Standard deviations of g (1)(τ) are smaller than 2×10−3.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mean square phase fluctuation 〈Δφ 2(τ)〉 and mean square displacement 〈Δr 2(τ)〉 in porcine kidney perfused with 9% blood as a function of lag time τ, for flow rates Q = 0.6mℓ/s (□), 1.2mℓ/s (◦), 1.8mℓ/s (△), 2.4mℓ/s (▽) and 3.1mℓ/s (◊). Linear leastsquares fits of the function a 0 + a 1 τ to the data for lag times 10−5 s ≤ τ ≤ 10−4 s are shown as lines.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Particle diffusion coefficient D of the blood-perfused kidney as a function of volume flow rate Q. The full line is a linear least-squares fit to the data. Values for intercept and slope are (6.5±3.3)×10−14m2/s and (3.5±0.16)×10−13m2/mℓ, respectively. Error bars denote the standard deviation of the residuals of the fit to 〈Δφ 2(τ)〉.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Field autocorrelation functions g (1)(τ) as a function of lag time τ measured on the kidney during constant perfusion with saline solution for flow rates Q = 0.6mℓ/s (□), 1.2mℓ/s (◦), 1.8mℓ/s (△), 2.4mℓ/s (▽) and 3.1mℓ/s (◊). g (1)(τ) was calculated from measured g (2)(τ) using coherence factors β ≈ 0.45 determined from a fit of g (2)(τ)−1 to β + a 1 τ + a 2 τ 2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Arterial pressure p a(t′) and (b) flow rate Q(t′) as a function of phase t′ within the pulsation cycle. Circles: diluted blood; squares: saline solution. Data are averages over 31 and 16 measurements for diluted blood and for saline solutions, respectively, each with an integration time of 26.2 ms.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Mean square phase fluctuation 〈Δφ 2(τ, t′)〉 of the blood-perfused kidney as a function of lag time τ measured at different phases t′ in the pulsation cycle. Average flow rate Q = 1.2mℓ/s. The dashed line denotes, for comparison, the diffusive scaling 〈Δφ 2(τ)〉 ~ τ observed for constant flow. Data are averages over 31 measurements each with an integration time of 26.2 ms.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Effective diffusion coefficient D eff(t′) as a function of phase t′ within the pulsation cycle. Circles: diluted blood at average arterial pressure 14.6 kPa and average flow rate 1.25mℓ/s. Squares: saline solution at average arterial pressure 16 kPa and average flow rate 1.86mℓ/s.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Real part of the spectrum of the effective diffusion coefficient D eff(t) for the kidney perfused with blood (red) and with saline buffer (black), as a function of frequency f. Note the strong peak at the pulsation frequency f 0 = 1Hz and the marked second harmonic at 2Hz for the saline-perfused kidney indicating the contributions of extravascular tissue shearing.

Equations (1)

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g ( 1 ) ( τ ) = 1 R ( ρ ) [ exp ( α ( τ ) r 1 ) r 1 exp ( α ( τ ) r 2 ) r 2 ]

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