Abstract

Three compact and efficient designs are proposed to deliver an average irradiance of 50 mW/cm2 with spatial uniformity well above 90% over a 25 mm2 target area for photodynamic therapy of the oral cavity. The main goal is to produce uniform illumination on the target while limiting irradiation of healthy tissue, thus overcoming the need of shielding the whole oral cavity and greatly simplifying the treatment protocol. The first design proposed consists of a cylindrical diffusing fiber placed in a tailored reflector derived from the edge-ray theorem with dimensions 5.5 × 7.2 × 10 mm3; the second device combines a fiber illuminator and a lightpipe with dimensions 6.8 × 6.8 × 50 mm3; the third design, inspired by the tailored reflector, is based on a cylindrical diffusing fiber and a cylinder reflector with dimensions 5 × 10 × 11 mm3. A prototype for the cylinder reflector was built that provided the required illumination for photodynamic therapy of the oral cavity, producing a spatial uniformity on the target above 94% and an average irradiance of 51 mW/cm2 for an input power of 70 mW.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86(8), 694–707 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  6. J. Chaves, Introduction to nonimaging optics, CRC Press (Boca Raton, FL 2008).
  7. W. Cassarly, “Nonimaging optics: concentration and illumination” in Handbook of Optics, vol. II, McGraw-Hill, Inc. (New York, NY 2009).
  8. C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, T. H. Foster, and J. Rolland, “Design of illumination devices for delivery of photodynamic therapy in the oral cavity”, Proc. SPIE, 76520Y (2010).

2009

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86(8), 694–707 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

1997

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biel, M. A.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, E. A.

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, S. B.

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, M.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dougherty, T.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goslinski, T.

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86(8), 694–707 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, W. E.

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henderson, B.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopper, C.

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konopka, K.

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86(8), 694–707 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loree, T. R.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCaw, D. L.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Payne, J. T.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Popat, S. R.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, E. R.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Rigual, N. R.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speight, P. M.

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, M. A.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tate, D.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Thankappan, K.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tompson, R. V.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Walker, I.

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, M. K.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Cancer

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dent. Res.

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86(8), 694–707 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet Oncol.

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Chaves, Introduction to nonimaging optics, CRC Press (Boca Raton, FL 2008).

W. Cassarly, “Nonimaging optics: concentration and illumination” in Handbook of Optics, vol. II, McGraw-Hill, Inc. (New York, NY 2009).

C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, T. H. Foster, and J. Rolland, “Design of illumination devices for delivery of photodynamic therapy in the oral cavity”, Proc. SPIE, 76520Y (2010).

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Tailored reflector shape derived from the edge-ray theorem. The profile of the reflector was truncated at x = 4.6 mm, in correspondence of the dashed line, to reduce the overall size. We chose a gap of only 0.1 mm between the fiber (represented as a circle) and the reflector apex to reduce the size of the device needed to obtain good uniformity. Sample rays exiting the device with an angle of 24 degrees are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Tailored reflector derived from the edge-ray theorem and (b) resulting irradiance produced on the target area (delimited by the square outline) 1 mm away from the reflector. The simulation was run tracing 5 million rays, giving a peak statistical error of 3%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Average irradiance, (b) average deviation and (c) maximum deviation produced by the reflector of Fig. 4a for a window width varying from 5.1 to 20 mm and a fixed window height of 7.2 mm given by the dimension of the reflector. The goal of average deviation well below 10% drove the choice of an optimal window width of 6.5 mm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Tailored reflector with a central window with an optimal width of 6.5 mm and (b) the resulting irradiance produced on the target (indicated by the square outline). The simulation was run tracing 5 million rays, with a peak statistical error of 3%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Tailored reflector with a lateral window and (b) the resulting irradiance produced on the target (indicated by the square outline). The simulation was run tracing 5 million rays, with an error below 3%.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Solid PMMA lightpipe device with reflective coating and (b) resulting irradiance (the target outline is represented by a square). The simulation was run tracing 5 million rays, with a peak statistical error of 2%.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) 6 mm diameter half cylinder reflector with a cylindrically diffusing fiber source placed 0.1 mm from the cylinder surface. (b) Irradiance distribution produced by the reflector (the target is shown by the square outline). The simulation was performed tracing 5 million rays, with a peak statistical error of 1%.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Tailored reflector of Section 2.1 and the corresponding irradiance distribution. (b) Irradiance distribution produced by a half cylinder reflector of diameter 8 mm and 0.3 mm gap between the fiber and the reflector. The target is represented on the irradiance distributions by the square outline. The simulations were run tracing 5 million rays, with a peak statistical error of 3% and 1% respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) 8 mm diameter cylinder reflector with a 7 mm × 5.5 mm window and (b) resulting irradiance distribution (the square shows the outline of the target area). The simulation traced 5 million rays, with a peak statistical error of 3%.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) 8 mm diameter cylinder reflector with a 7 mm × 5.5 mm lateral window and (b) resulting irradiance distribution (the square shows the outline of the target area). The simulation was run tracing 5 million rays, with a peak statistical error of 3%.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Average irradiance and (b) average deviation produced by the reflector of Fig. 9 for a vertical or horizontal displacement of the fiber source. The average deviation is desired to be below 10%.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Cylinder reflector prototype fabricated in aluminum. The diffusing fiber is inserted in the reflector through holes in the sides of the cylinder. For ease of manufacturing and testing, the size of the prototype was 5 mm x 25 mm x 11 mm. The size of a final device based on this design would be only 5 mm x 10 mm x 11 mm, as indicated.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

(a) Simulated and (b) experimental normalized irradiances of the unshielded cylinder reflector. The measurements were made every 0.5 mm along the lateral direction and every 0.2 mm in the vertical direction.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Cross-sectional plots of the experimental and simulated normalized irradiances of the unshielded cylinder reflector.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Simulated and (b) experimental normalized irradiances of the shielded cylinder reflector. The measurements were made every 0.5 mm along the lateral and vertical directions. The square outlines represent the outline of the target area.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Cross-sectional plots of the experimental and simulated normalized irradiances of the shielded cylinder reflector.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of the designs

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