Abstract

Three compact and efficient designs are proposed to deliver an average irradiance of 50 mW/cm2 with spatial uniformity well above 90% over a 25 mm2 target area for photodynamic therapy of the oral cavity. The main goal is to produce uniform illumination on the target while limiting irradiation of healthy tissue, thus overcoming the need of shielding the whole oral cavity and greatly simplifying the treatment protocol. The first design proposed consists of a cylindrical diffusing fiber placed in a tailored reflector derived from the edge-ray theorem with dimensions 5.5 × 7.2 × 10 mm3; the second device combines a fiber illuminator and a lightpipe with dimensions 6.8 × 6.8 × 50 mm3; the third design, inspired by the tailored reflector, is based on a cylindrical diffusing fiber and a cylinder reflector with dimensions 5 × 10 × 11 mm3. A prototype for the cylinder reflector was built that provided the required illumination for photodynamic therapy of the oral cavity, producing a spatial uniformity on the target above 94% and an average irradiance of 51 mW/cm2 for an input power of 70 mW.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86(8), 694–707 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
    [PubMed]
  6. J. Chaves, Introduction to nonimaging optics, CRC Press (Boca Raton, FL 2008).
  7. W. Cassarly, “Nonimaging optics: concentration and illumination” in Handbook of Optics, vol. II, McGraw-Hill, Inc. (New York, NY 2009).
  8. C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, T. H. Foster, and J. Rolland, “Design of illumination devices for delivery of photodynamic therapy in the oral cavity”, Proc. SPIE, 76520Y (2010).

2009 (1)

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86(8), 694–707 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biel, M. A.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, E. A.

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, S. B.

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, M.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dougherty, T.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goslinski, T.

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86(8), 694–707 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant, W. E.

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henderson, B.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopper, C.

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konopka, K.

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86(8), 694–707 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loree, T. R.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCaw, D. L.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Payne, J. T.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Popat, S. R.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, E. R.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Rigual, N. R.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speight, P. M.

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, M. A.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tate, D.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Thankappan, K.

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tompson, R. V.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Walker, I.

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, M. K.

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. (1)

N. R. Rigual, K. Thankappan, M. Cooper, M. A. Sullivan, T. Dougherty, S. R. Popat, T. R. Loree, M. A. Biel, and B. Henderson, “Photodynamic therapy for head and neck dysplasia and cancer,” Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 135(8), 784–788 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Cancer (1)

D. L. McCaw, E. R. Pope, J. T. Payne, M. K. West, R. V. Tompson, and D. Tate, “Treatment of canine oral squamous cell carcinomas with photodynamic therapy,” Br. J. Cancer 82(7), 1297–1299 (2000).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

W. E. Grant, P. M. Speight, C. Hopper, and S. G. Bown, “Photodynamic therapy: an effective, but non-selective treatment for superficial cancers of the oral cavity,” Int. J. Cancer 71(6), 937–942 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dent. Res. (1)

K. Konopka and T. Goslinski, “Photodynamic therapy in dentistry,” J. Dent. Res. 86(8), 694–707 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancet Oncol. (1)

S. B. Brown, E. A. Brown, and I. Walker, “The present and future role of photodynamic therapy in cancer treatment,” Lancet Oncol. 5(8), 497–508 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. Chaves, Introduction to nonimaging optics, CRC Press (Boca Raton, FL 2008).

W. Cassarly, “Nonimaging optics: concentration and illumination” in Handbook of Optics, vol. II, McGraw-Hill, Inc. (New York, NY 2009).

C. Canavesi, F. Fournier, T. H. Foster, and J. Rolland, “Design of illumination devices for delivery of photodynamic therapy in the oral cavity”, Proc. SPIE, 76520Y (2010).

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