Abstract

We demonstrate that the unique characteristics of random lasing in bone can be used to assess nanoscale structural alterations as a mechanical or structural biosensor, given that bone is a partially disordered biological nanostructure. In this proof-of-concept study, we conduct photoluminescence experiments on cortical bone specimens that are loaded in tension under mechanical testing. The ultra-high sensitivity, the large detection area, and the simple detection scheme of random lasers allow us to detect prefailure damage in bone at very small strains before any microscale damage occurs. Random laser-based biosensors could potentially open a new possibility for highly sensitive detection of nanoscale structural and mechanical alterations prior to overt microscale changes in hard tissue and biomaterials.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J.Phys. A Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, “Localization of light in coherently amplifying random media,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(13), 9644–9647 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in pi-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of pi-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Vanneste, P. Sebbah, and H. Cao, “Lasing with resonant feedback in weakly scattering random systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143902 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Organic random lasers in the weak-scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 045205 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Q. Song, S. Xiao, Z. Xu, J. Liu, X. Sun, V. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, O. Akkus, and Y. L. Kim, “Random lasing in bone tissue,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1425–1427 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, “Plasticity and toughness in bone,” Phys. Today 62(6), 41–47 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Song, S. Xiao, Z. Xu, V. M. Shalaev, and Y. L. Kim, “Random laser spectroscopy for nanoscale perturbation sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2624–2626 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. X. H. Sun, J. Hoon Jeon, J. Blendell, and O. Akkus, “Visualization of a phantom post-yield deformation process in cortical bone,” J. Biomech. 43(10), 1989–1996 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. S. Gupta, W. Wagermaier, G. A. Zickler, D. Raz-Ben Aroush, S. S. Funari, P. Roschger, H. D. Wagner, and P. Fratzl, “Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2108–2111 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. O. Akkus, “Elastic deformation of mineralized collagen fibrils: an equivalent inclusion based composite model,” J. Biomech. Eng. 127(3), 383–390 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of pi-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Sun, J. Hoon Jeon, J. Blendell, and O. Akkus, “Visualization of a phantom post-yield deformation process in cortical bone,” J. Biomech. 43(10), 1989–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Song, S. Xiao, Z. Xu, J. Liu, X. Sun, V. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, O. Akkus, and Y. L. Kim, “Random lasing in bone tissue,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1425–1427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Song, S. Xiao, Z. Xu, V. M. Shalaev, and Y. L. Kim, “Random laser spectroscopy for nanoscale perturbation sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2624–2626 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, “Plasticity and toughness in bone,” Phys. Today 62(6), 41–47 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Vanneste, P. Sebbah, and H. Cao, “Lasing with resonant feedback in weakly scattering random systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J.Phys. A Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Organic random lasers in the weak-scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Gupta, W. Wagermaier, G. A. Zickler, D. Raz-Ben Aroush, S. S. Funari, P. Roschger, H. D. Wagner, and P. Fratzl, “Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2108–2111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Akkus, “Elastic deformation of mineralized collagen fibrils: an equivalent inclusion based composite model,” J. Biomech. Eng. 127(3), 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in pi-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, “Localization of light in coherently amplifying random media,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(13), 9644–9647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akkus, O.

X. H. Sun, J. Hoon Jeon, J. Blendell, and O. Akkus, “Visualization of a phantom post-yield deformation process in cortical bone,” J. Biomech. 43(10), 1989–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Song, S. Xiao, Z. Xu, J. Liu, X. Sun, V. Drachev, V. M. Shalaev, O. Akkus, and Y. L. Kim, “Random lasing in bone tissue,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1425–1427 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Akkus, “Elastic deformation of mineralized collagen fibrils: an equivalent inclusion based composite model,” J. Biomech. Eng. 127(3), 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asatryan, A. A.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blendell, J.

X. H. Sun, J. Hoon Jeon, J. Blendell, and O. Akkus, “Visualization of a phantom post-yield deformation process in cortical bone,” J. Biomech. 43(10), 1989–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Botten, L. C.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buehler, M. J.

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, “Plasticity and toughness in bone,” Phys. Today 62(6), 41–47 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

C. Vanneste, P. Sebbah, and H. Cao, “Lasing with resonant feedback in weakly scattering random systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J.Phys. A Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chabanov, A. A.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chipouline, A.

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in pi-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Drachev, V.

Fang, W.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fratzl, P.

H. S. Gupta, W. Wagermaier, G. A. Zickler, D. Raz-Ben Aroush, S. S. Funari, P. Roschger, H. D. Wagner, and P. Fratzl, “Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2108–2111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Funari, S. S.

H. S. Gupta, W. Wagermaier, G. A. Zickler, D. Raz-Ben Aroush, S. S. Funari, P. Roschger, H. D. Wagner, and P. Fratzl, “Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2108–2111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ge, L.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, H. S.

H. S. Gupta, W. Wagermaier, G. A. Zickler, D. Raz-Ben Aroush, S. S. Funari, P. Roschger, H. D. Wagner, and P. Fratzl, “Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2108–2111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansma, P.

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, “Plasticity and toughness in bone,” Phys. Today 62(6), 41–47 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoon Jeon, J.

X. H. Sun, J. Hoon Jeon, J. Blendell, and O. Akkus, “Visualization of a phantom post-yield deformation process in cortical bone,” J. Biomech. 43(10), 1989–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. L.

Kumar, N.

P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, “Localization of light in coherently amplifying random media,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(13), 9644–9647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagendijk, A.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J.

Mosk, A. P.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mujumdar, S.

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polson, R. C.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of pi-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Organic random lasers in the weak-scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in pi-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, P.

P. Pradhan and N. Kumar, “Localization of light in coherently amplifying random media,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 50(13), 9644–9647 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raz-Ben Aroush, D.

H. S. Gupta, W. Wagermaier, G. A. Zickler, D. Raz-Ben Aroush, S. S. Funari, P. Roschger, H. D. Wagner, and P. Fratzl, “Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2108–2111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ricci, M.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritchie, R. O.

R. O. Ritchie, M. J. Buehler, and P. Hansma, “Plasticity and toughness in bone,” Phys. Today 62(6), 41–47 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roschger, P.

H. S. Gupta, W. Wagermaier, G. A. Zickler, D. Raz-Ben Aroush, S. S. Funari, P. Roschger, H. D. Wagner, and P. Fratzl, “Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2108–2111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rotter, S.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sebbah, P.

C. Vanneste, P. Sebbah, and H. Cao, “Lasing with resonant feedback in weakly scattering random systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Song, Q.

Stone, A. D.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

Sun, X. H.

X. H. Sun, J. Hoon Jeon, J. Blendell, and O. Akkus, “Visualization of a phantom post-yield deformation process in cortical bone,” J. Biomech. 43(10), 1989–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tjerkstra, R. W.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torre, R.

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tulek, A.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of pi-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Turck, V.

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Türeci, H. E.

H. E. Türeci, L. Ge, S. Rotter, and A. D. Stone, “Strong interactions in multimode random lasers,” Science 320(5876), 643–646 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Molen, K. L.

K. L. van der Molen, R. W. Tjerkstra, A. P. Mosk, and A. Lagendijk, “Spatial extent of random laser modes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanneste, C.

C. Vanneste, P. Sebbah, and H. Cao, “Lasing with resonant feedback in weakly scattering random systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(14), 143902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vardeny, Z. V.

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of pi-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Organic random lasers in the weak-scattering regime,” Phys. Rev. B 71(4), 045205 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in pi-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wagermaier, W.

H. S. Gupta, W. Wagermaier, G. A. Zickler, D. Raz-Ben Aroush, S. S. Funari, P. Roschger, H. D. Wagner, and P. Fratzl, “Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2108–2111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, H. D.

H. S. Gupta, W. Wagermaier, G. A. Zickler, D. Raz-Ben Aroush, S. S. Funari, P. Roschger, H. D. Wagner, and P. Fratzl, “Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2108–2111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

Xu, Z.

Yamilov, A.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zickler, G. A.

H. S. Gupta, W. Wagermaier, G. A. Zickler, D. Raz-Ben Aroush, S. S. Funari, P. Roschger, H. D. Wagner, and P. Fratzl, “Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2108–2111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. C. Polson, A. Chipouline, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in pi-conjugated films and infiltrated opals,” Adv. Mater. 13(10), 760–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Random lasing in human tissues,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289–1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomech. (1)

X. H. Sun, J. Hoon Jeon, J. Blendell, and O. Akkus, “Visualization of a phantom post-yield deformation process in cortical bone,” J. Biomech. 43(10), 1989–1996 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomech. Eng. (1)

O. Akkus, “Elastic deformation of mineralized collagen fibrils: an equivalent inclusion based composite model,” J. Biomech. Eng. 127(3), 383–390 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.Phys. A Math. Gen. (1)

H. Cao, “Review on latest developments in random lasers with coherent feedback,” J.Phys. A Math. Gen. 38(49), 10497–10535 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. S. Gupta, W. Wagermaier, G. A. Zickler, D. Raz-Ben Aroush, S. S. Funari, P. Roschger, H. D. Wagner, and P. Fratzl, “Nanoscale deformation mechanisms in bone,” Nano Lett. 5(10), 2108–2111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (2)

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Tulek, R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Naturally occurring resonators in random lasing of pi-conjugated polymer films,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 303–310 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

S. Mujumdar, V. Turck, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Chaotic behavior of a random laser with static disorder,” Phys. Rev. A 76(3), 033807 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of bone specimen preparation. (b) Representative SEM image of the bone specimen. The collagen fibrils with the diameter of ~100 nm are relatively well-aligned.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photoluminescence experiment setup. A narrow strip of the Ti:sapphire laser illumination is normally focused onto the surface of bone tissue along the transverse orientation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the quasi-1D multilayer structure. Each brown bar represents each collagen layer. Our numerical sample consists of 300 layers with a small titled angle to mimic the partially disordered bone structure under our experimental conditions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Representative emission spectrum measured from the side of the bone specimen infiltrated with Rhodamine 800 before loading. The pump intensity was kept at 80 mW. (b) The output emission intensity as a function of pumping power. A clear laser threshold can be seen at ~45 mW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Lasing emission spectra recorded before loading (black solid line), under peak loading (red solid line), and after removal of loading (blue solid line). A clear shift of ~0.55 nm in all of the emission peaks can be observed under the peak loading (i.e. 2.0 lbs). After removal of the loading, the laser peaks restored to the original peak positions. The vertical gray lines are plotted to clearly visualize the wavelength shift. The spectra are shifted vertically for the clear visualization of each emission spectrum in the vertical axis.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Representative eigenvalues of the system. The blue circles are the eigenvalues of the original structure, while the red circles are the eigenvalues after reducing the thickness of each collagen fibril layers by 0.2%. (b1) Electric field intensity distribution at κ = 8.992 - 1.060*10−2*i [1/μm] (the blue solid dot in (a)) (b2) Electric field intensity distribution at κ = 8.993 - 1.060*10−2*i [1/μm] (the red solid dot in (a)).

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