Abstract

The cosmetic industry has witnessed significant growth in recent years. Conventional hand-held skin cameras allow for 2D inspection of the skin surface. This paper proposes a new model for full-color 3D imaging of the skin tissue using fiber-based optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared to laser or LD sources, RGB LED was found more suitable and thus chosen in the low-coherence interferometry due to its wider bandwidth. A floating objective lens was used to confocalize the R, G and B imaging planes and to derive a full-color image of the capillary system in the skin tissue. The skin imaging system can be miniaturized to form a new hand-held model using an RGB integrated source, a micro-interferometer module and a high-speed beam steering device. Non-invasive, full-color and hand-held skin imaging contributes to advances in the fields of skin science, dermatology and cosmetology.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. C. J. R. Sheppard, and D. M. Shotton, Confocal laser scanning microscopy (Springer, New York, 1997).
  2. W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Gauderon, P. B. Lukins, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Three-dimensional second-harmonic generation imaging with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23(15), 1209–1211 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomography: an emerging technology for biomedical imaging and optical biopsy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 9–25 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kärtner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 111–113 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Spöler, M. Först, Y. Marquardt, D. Hoeller, H. Kurz, H. Merk, and F. Abuzahra, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography as a non-destructive monitoring tool for the engineering of skin equivalents,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(4), 261–267 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. W. Yang, L. M. Chan, and K. C. Wang, “The characteristics of three-dimensional skin imaging system by full-colored optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Rev. 16(3), 392–395 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Machida, Y. Sano, Y. Hamamoto, M. Muto, T. Kozu, H. Tajiri, and S. Yoshida, “Narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal mucosal lesions: a pilot study,” Endoscopy 36(12), 1094–1098 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Edison Opto Corporation, Taipei, Taiwan, http://www.edison-opto.com.tw/ .
  14. T. H. Shao, Engineering optics: optical design (Electronic Industry Press, Beijing, 2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of two layers in the human retina by low-coherence reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 1039–1041 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Edison Opto Corporation, Taipei, Taiwan, http://www.walsin.com/ .
  18. Walsin Lihwa, Taipei, Taiwan, http://www.kaai.com/ .
  19. Thorlabs, Inc., New Jersey, USA, http://www.thorlabs.us/ .
  20. Touch Micro-system Technology Corp, Taoyuan, Taiwan, http://www.tmt-mems.com/ .

2009 (1)

B. W. Yang, L. M. Chan, and K. C. Wang, “The characteristics of three-dimensional skin imaging system by full-colored optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Rev. 16(3), 392–395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Larghi, P. G. Lecca, and G. Costamagna, “High-resolution narrow band imaging endoscopy,” Gut 57(7), 976–986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

F. Spöler, M. Först, Y. Marquardt, D. Hoeller, H. Kurz, H. Merk, and F. Abuzahra, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography as a non-destructive monitoring tool for the engineering of skin equivalents,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(4), 261–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

H. Machida, Y. Sano, Y. Hamamoto, M. Muto, T. Kozu, H. Tajiri, and S. Yoshida, “Narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal mucosal lesions: a pilot study,” Endoscopy 36(12), 1094–1098 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomography: an emerging technology for biomedical imaging and optical biopsy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 9–25 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kärtner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 111–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

A. G. Podoleanu, G. M. Dobre, D. J. Webb, and D. A. Jackson, “Simultaneous en-face imaging of two layers in the human retina by low-coherence reflectometry,” Opt. Lett. 22(13), 1039–1041 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abuzahra, F.

F. Spöler, M. Först, Y. Marquardt, D. Hoeller, H. Kurz, H. Merk, and F. Abuzahra, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography as a non-destructive monitoring tool for the engineering of skin equivalents,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(4), 261–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Altmeyer, P.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birngruber, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomography: an emerging technology for biomedical imaging and optical biopsy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 9–25 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomography: an emerging technology for biomedical imaging and optical biopsy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 9–25 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, L. M.

B. W. Yang, L. M. Chan, and K. C. Wang, “The characteristics of three-dimensional skin imaging system by full-colored optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Rev. 16(3), 392–395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Costamagna, G.

A. Larghi, P. G. Lecca, and G. Costamagna, “High-resolution narrow band imaging endoscopy,” Gut 57(7), 976–986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobre, G. M.

Drexler, W.

Engelhardt, R.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Först, M.

F. Spöler, M. Först, Y. Marquardt, D. Hoeller, H. Kurz, H. Merk, and F. Abuzahra, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography as a non-destructive monitoring tool for the engineering of skin equivalents,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(4), 261–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomography: an emerging technology for biomedical imaging and optical biopsy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 9–25 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kärtner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 111–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gambichler, T.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauderon, R.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamamoto, Y.

H. Machida, Y. Sano, Y. Hamamoto, M. Muto, T. Kozu, H. Tajiri, and S. Yoshida, “Narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal mucosal lesions: a pilot study,” Endoscopy 36(12), 1094–1098 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoeller, D.

F. Spöler, M. Först, Y. Marquardt, D. Hoeller, H. Kurz, H. Merk, and F. Abuzahra, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography as a non-destructive monitoring tool for the engineering of skin equivalents,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(4), 261–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, K.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Jackson, D. A.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kozu, T.

H. Machida, Y. Sano, Y. Hamamoto, M. Muto, T. Kozu, H. Tajiri, and S. Yoshida, “Narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal mucosal lesions: a pilot study,” Endoscopy 36(12), 1094–1098 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurz, H.

F. Spöler, M. Först, Y. Marquardt, D. Hoeller, H. Kurz, H. Merk, and F. Abuzahra, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography as a non-destructive monitoring tool for the engineering of skin equivalents,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(4), 261–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lankenau, E.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larghi, A.

A. Larghi, P. G. Lecca, and G. Costamagna, “High-resolution narrow band imaging endoscopy,” Gut 57(7), 976–986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lecca, P. G.

A. Larghi, P. G. Lecca, and G. Costamagna, “High-resolution narrow band imaging endoscopy,” Gut 57(7), 976–986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukins, P. B.

Machida, H.

H. Machida, Y. Sano, Y. Hamamoto, M. Muto, T. Kozu, H. Tajiri, and S. Yoshida, “Narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal mucosal lesions: a pilot study,” Endoscopy 36(12), 1094–1098 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquardt, Y.

F. Spöler, M. Först, Y. Marquardt, D. Hoeller, H. Kurz, H. Merk, and F. Abuzahra, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography as a non-destructive monitoring tool for the engineering of skin equivalents,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(4), 261–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merk, H.

F. Spöler, M. Först, Y. Marquardt, D. Hoeller, H. Kurz, H. Merk, and F. Abuzahra, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography as a non-destructive monitoring tool for the engineering of skin equivalents,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(4), 261–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

Moussa, G.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muto, M.

H. Machida, Y. Sano, Y. Hamamoto, M. Muto, T. Kozu, H. Tajiri, and S. Yoshida, “Narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal mucosal lesions: a pilot study,” Endoscopy 36(12), 1094–1098 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomography: an emerging technology for biomedical imaging and optical biopsy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 9–25 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Morgner, W. Drexler, F. X. Kärtner, X. D. Li, C. Pitris, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 25(2), 111–113 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sand, D.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sand, M.

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sano, Y.

H. Machida, Y. Sano, Y. Hamamoto, M. Muto, T. Kozu, H. Tajiri, and S. Yoshida, “Narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal mucosal lesions: a pilot study,” Endoscopy 36(12), 1094–1098 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Spöler, F.

F. Spöler, M. Först, Y. Marquardt, D. Hoeller, H. Kurz, H. Merk, and F. Abuzahra, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography as a non-destructive monitoring tool for the engineering of skin equivalents,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(4), 261–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajiri, H.

H. Machida, Y. Sano, Y. Hamamoto, M. Muto, T. Kozu, H. Tajiri, and S. Yoshida, “Narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal mucosal lesions: a pilot study,” Endoscopy 36(12), 1094–1098 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K. C.

B. W. Yang, L. M. Chan, and K. C. Wang, “The characteristics of three-dimensional skin imaging system by full-colored optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Rev. 16(3), 392–395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Welzel, J.

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B. W.

B. W. Yang, L. M. Chan, and K. C. Wang, “The characteristics of three-dimensional skin imaging system by full-colored optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Rev. 16(3), 392–395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, S.

H. Machida, Y. Sano, Y. Hamamoto, M. Muto, T. Kozu, H. Tajiri, and S. Yoshida, “Narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal mucosal lesions: a pilot study,” Endoscopy 36(12), 1094–1098 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy (1)

H. Machida, Y. Sano, Y. Hamamoto, M. Muto, T. Kozu, H. Tajiri, and S. Yoshida, “Narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis of colorectal mucosal lesions: a pilot study,” Endoscopy 36(12), 1094–1098 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gut (1)

A. Larghi, P. G. Lecca, and G. Costamagna, “High-resolution narrow band imaging endoscopy,” Gut 57(7), 976–986 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1)

J. Welzel, E. Lankenau, R. Birngruber, and R. Engelhardt, “Optical coherence tomography of the human skin,” J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 37(6), 958–963 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dermatol. Sci. (1)

T. Gambichler, G. Moussa, M. Sand, D. Sand, P. Altmeyer, and K. Hoffmann, “Applications of optical coherence tomography in dermatology,” J. Dermatol. Sci. 40(2), 85–94 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neoplasia (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, C. Pitris, S. A. Boppart, and M. E. Brezinski, “Optical coherence tomography: an emerging technology for biomedical imaging and optical biopsy,” Neoplasia 2(1/2), 9–25 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Rev. (1)

B. W. Yang, L. M. Chan, and K. C. Wang, “The characteristics of three-dimensional skin imaging system by full-colored optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Rev. 16(3), 392–395 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skin Res. Technol. (1)

F. Spöler, M. Först, Y. Marquardt, D. Hoeller, H. Kurz, H. Merk, and F. Abuzahra, “High-resolution optical coherence tomography as a non-destructive monitoring tool for the engineering of skin equivalents,” Skin Res. Technol. 12(4), 261–267 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

C. J. R. Sheppard, and D. M. Shotton, Confocal laser scanning microscopy (Springer, New York, 1997).

Edison Opto Corporation, Taipei, Taiwan, http://www.edison-opto.com.tw/ .

T. H. Shao, Engineering optics: optical design (Electronic Industry Press, Beijing, 2003).

Edison Opto Corporation, Taipei, Taiwan, http://www.walsin.com/ .

Walsin Lihwa, Taipei, Taiwan, http://www.kaai.com/ .

Thorlabs, Inc., New Jersey, USA, http://www.thorlabs.us/ .

Touch Micro-system Technology Corp, Taoyuan, Taiwan, http://www.tmt-mems.com/ .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The OCT system for full-color imaging.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The LabVIEWTM program used to transform the interference signal into a real-time image and a completed R, G, or B image; (b) The LabVIEWTM program used to overlap the R, G, and B images to form a full-color RGB image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modeling using TraceProTM to derive the focusing depths of the B, G and R beams incident on sample skin.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The R, G and B images derived from the skin imaging system.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

A combined image of the capillary system in skin tissue.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A design of hand-held model for the full-color skin imaging system.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The penetration depth (A), lateral (B), and axial (C) resolutions of the R, G and B rays, respectively

Tables Icon

Table 2 The dependence of the focusing depths of the B, G and R rays (B1, B2 and B3) on the distance between the objective lens and the sample surface (A)

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