Abstract

A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based photoacoustic imaging system is reported for the first time. In this system, the MEMS-based light scanning subsystem and a ring-shaped polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) transducer are integrated into a miniaturized probe that is capable of three-dimensional (3D) photoacoustic imaging. It is demonstrated that the imaging system is able to image small objects embedded in phantom materials and in chicken and to in vivo visualize blood vessels under the skin of a human hand.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, and F. K. Tittel, “Laser based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” Proc. SPIE 2134A, 122–128 (1994).
  2. A. A. Oraevsky, and A. A. Karabutov, “Optoacoustic tomography,” Chapter 34 in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T. Vo-Dinh, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2003), Vol. PM125, pp. 34/1–34/34.
  3. A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, and S. V. Solomatin, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–11 (2001).
  4. S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope: system overview and performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2543–2557 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Sun, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064002 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

Z. Xie, S. Jiao, H. F. Zhang, and C. A. Puliafito, “Laser-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1771–1773 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. B. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, “In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(4), 1035–1046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: phantom studies in a spherical scanning geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 5457–5467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wu and H. Xie, “A large vertical displacement electrothermal bimorph microactuator with very small lateral shift,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 371–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope: system overview and performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2543–2557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yin, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. Zeng, Y. Tan, and Q. Chen, “Fast photoacoustic imaging system based on 320-element linear transducer array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1339–1346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, and S. V. Solomatin, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–11 (2001).

1994 (1)

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, and F. K. Tittel, “Laser based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” Proc. SPIE 2134A, 122–128 (1994).

Aguirre, A. D.

Au, G.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beard, P. C.

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. B. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, “In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(4), 1035–1046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

Carney, P. R.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

B. Yin, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. Zeng, Y. Tan, and Q. Chen, “Fast photoacoustic imaging system based on 320-element linear transducer array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1339–1346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

P. H. Tran, D. S. Mukai, M. Brenner, and Z. Chen, “In vivo endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1236–1238 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, S.-W.

Esenaliev, R. O.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, and F. K. Tittel, “Laser based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” Proc. SPIE 2134A, 122–128 (1994).

Fan, L.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Guo, S.

Hertz, P. R.

Izatt, J. A.

Jacques, S. L.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, and F. K. Tittel, “Laser based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” Proc. SPIE 2134A, 122–128 (1994).

Jiang, H.

Y. Sun, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: phantom studies in a spherical scanning geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 5457–5467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

Karabutov, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, and S. V. Solomatin, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–11 (2001).

Kharine, A.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope: system overview and performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2543–2557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laufer, J. G.

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. B. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, “In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(4), 1035–1046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Liu, Z.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manohar, S.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope: system overview and performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2543–2557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukai, D. S.

Nelson, J. S.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, and S. V. Solomatin, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–11 (2001).

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, and F. K. Tittel, “Laser based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” Proc. SPIE 2134A, 122–128 (1994).

Paltauf, G.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedley, R. B.

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. B. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, “In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(4), 1035–1046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piyawattanametha, W.

Prahl, S. A.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

Rao, K. D.

Ren, H.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roper, S. N.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, S. W.

Sobel, E.

Y. Sun, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomatin, S. V.

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, and S. V. Solomatin, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–11 (2001).

Sorg, B. S.

Steenbergen, W.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope: system overview and performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2543–2557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: phantom studies in a spherical scanning geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 5457–5467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, Y.

B. Yin, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. Zeng, Y. Tan, and Q. Chen, “Fast photoacoustic imaging system based on 320-element linear transducer array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1339–1346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittel, F. K.

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, and F. K. Tittel, “Laser based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” Proc. SPIE 2134A, 122–128 (1994).

Tran, P. H.

van Hespen, J. C. G.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope: system overview and performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2543–2557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope: system overview and performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2543–2557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viator, J. A.

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

B. Yin, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. Zeng, Y. Tan, and Q. Chen, “Fast photoacoustic imaging system based on 320-element linear transducer array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1339–1346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L.

J. Sun, S. Guo, L. Wu, L. Liu, S.-W. Choe, B. S. Sorg, and H. Xie, “3D in vivo optical coherence tomography based on a low-voltage, large-scan-range 2D MEMS mirror,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12065–12075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wu and H. Xie, “A large vertical displacement electrothermal bimorph microactuator with very small lateral shift,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 371–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

Xie, H.

J. Sun, S. Guo, L. Wu, L. Liu, S.-W. Choe, B. S. Sorg, and H. Xie, “3D in vivo optical coherence tomography based on a low-voltage, large-scan-range 2D MEMS mirror,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12065–12075 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wu and H. Xie, “A large vertical displacement electrothermal bimorph microactuator with very small lateral shift,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 371–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

Xing, D.

B. Yin, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. Zeng, Y. Tan, and Q. Chen, “Fast photoacoustic imaging system based on 320-element linear transducer array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1339–1346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

Yin, B.

B. Yin, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. Zeng, Y. Tan, and Q. Chen, “Fast photoacoustic imaging system based on 320-element linear transducer array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1339–1346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Z.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zara, J. M.

Zeng, Y.

B. Yin, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. Zeng, Y. Tan, and Q. Chen, “Fast photoacoustic imaging system based on 320-element linear transducer array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1339–1346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, E. Z.

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. B. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, “In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(4), 1035–1046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

Zhang, Q.

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Photoacoustic mammography laboratory prototype: imaging of breast tissue phantoms,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1172–1181 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, E. Sobel, and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: an in vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064002 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

J. A. Viator, G. Au, G. Paltauf, S. L. Jacques, S. A. Prahl, H. Ren, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Clinical testing of a photoacoustic probe for port wine stain depth determination,” Lasers Surg. Med. 30(2), 141–148 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (5)

B. Yin, D. Xing, Y. Wang, Y. Zeng, Y. Tan, and Q. Chen, “Fast photoacoustic imaging system based on 320-element linear transducer array,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1339–1346 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Z. Zhang, J. G. Laufer, R. B. Pedley, and P. C. Beard, “In vivo high-resolution 3D photoacoustic imaging of superficial vascular anatomy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(4), 1035–1046 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun and H. Jiang, “Quantitative three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography of the finger joints: phantom studies in a spherical scanning geometry,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 5457–5467 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Zhang, Z. Liu, P. R. Carney, Z. Yuan, H. Chen, S. N. Roper, and H. Jiang, “Non-invasive imaging of epileptic seizures in vivo using photoacoustic tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(7), 1921–1931 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Manohar, A. Kharine, J. C. G. van Hespen, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope: system overview and performance,” Phys. Med. Biol. 50(11), 2543–2557 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. A. Oraevsky, A. A. Karabutov, and S. V. Solomatin, “Laser optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer in vivo,” Proc. SPIE 4256, 6–11 (2001).

A. A. Oraevsky, S. L. Jacques, R. O. Esenaliev, and F. K. Tittel, “Laser based optoacoustic imaging in biological tissues,” Proc. SPIE 2134A, 122–128 (1994).

Sens. Actuators A Phys. (1)

L. Wu and H. Xie, “A large vertical displacement electrothermal bimorph microactuator with very small lateral shift,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 145–146, 371–379 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. A. Oraevsky, and A. A. Karabutov, “Optoacoustic tomography,” Chapter 34 in Biomedical Photonics Handbook, T. Vo-Dinh, ed. (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2003), Vol. PM125, pp. 34/1–34/34.

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of our photoacoustic imaging system. 3D rendering (b) and photograph (c) of the scanning probe. (d), (e) Photograph of the MEMS mirror (Media 1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph of a phantom containing a single object. (b) A typical raw signal (blue) and signal after the Hilbert transform (red). (c) The recovered 2D image.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of a phantom containing multiple objects (a) and the recovered 2D image (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Photograph of the chicken with an embedded object. (b)-(d): coronal, sagittal and cross-section views of the recovered 3D image. (e): the 3D rendering of the recovered image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Photograph of the hand with highlighted imaging area. (b) 3D rendering of the recovered blood vessels.

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