Abstract

Low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy is a light scattering technique which uses partial spatial coherence broadband illumination to interrogate the optical properties at sub-diffusion length scales. In this work, we present a post-processing technique which isolates the hemoglobin concentration at different depths within a sample using a single spectroscopic LEBS measurement with a fixed spatial coherence of illumination. We verify the method with scattering (spectralon reflectance standard and polystyrene microspheres) and absorbing (hemoglobin) phantoms. We then demonstrate the relevance of this method for quantifying hemoglobin content as a function of depth within biological tissue using the azoxymethane treated animal model of colorectal cancer.

© 2010 OSA

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2010

V. Turzhitsky, J. D. Rogers, N. N. Mutyal, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Characterization of Light Transport in Scattering Media at Subdiffusion Length Scales with Low-Coherence Enhanced Backscattering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 619–626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. D. Rogers, I. R. Capoğlu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu, “Low-coherence enhanced backscattering beyond diffusion,” Opt. Lett. 33(11), 1246–1248 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, Y. Kim, and V. Backman, “Penetration depth of low-coherence enhanced backscattering of light in sub-diffusion regime,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75(041914), 1–9 (2007).

2006

C. Schwartz and A. Dogariu, “Enhanced backscattering of vortex waves from volume scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 263(2), 135–140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: a new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

2003

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

1999

1998

A. Banerjee and P. Quirke, “Experimental models of colorectal cancer,” Dis. Colon Rectum 41(4), 490–505 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

1992

1990

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A Review of the Optical-Properties of Biological Tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

M. Albada and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692–2695 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akkermans, E.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albada, M.

M. Albada and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692–2695 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

V. Turzhitsky, J. D. Rogers, N. N. Mutyal, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Characterization of Light Transport in Scattering Media at Subdiffusion Length Scales with Low-Coherence Enhanced Backscattering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 619–626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, I. R. Capoğlu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, Y. Kim, and V. Backman, “Penetration depth of low-coherence enhanced backscattering of light in sub-diffusion regime,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75(041914), 1–9 (2007).

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: a new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1906–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V. M.

Badizadegan, K.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: a new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banerjee, A.

A. Banerjee and P. Quirke, “Experimental models of colorectal cancer,” Dis. Colon Rectum 41(4), 490–505 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bianchi, L. K.

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bodmer, W. F.

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Bogojevic, A.

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boone, C. W.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: a new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, R. E.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brittan, M.

M. Brittan and N. A. Wright, “Stem cell in gastrointestinal structure and neoplastic development,” Gut 53(6), 899–910 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capoglu, I. R.

Chan, A. O. O.

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A Review of the Optical-Properties of Biological Tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

C. Schwartz and A. Dogariu, “Enhanced backscattering of vortex waves from volume scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 263(2), 135–140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Elia, G.

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: a new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. M. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finlay, J. C.

Fitzmaurice, M.

Foster, T. H.

Goldberg, M. J.

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, A.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, A. J.

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goodlad, R. A.

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Gopal, V.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: a new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasabou, N.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, M.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: a new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

Jameel, M.

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeffery, R.

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Kalashnikov, M.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: a new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, Y. Kim, and V. Backman, “Penetration depth of low-coherence enhanced backscattering of light in sub-diffusion regime,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75(041914), 1–9 (2007).

Kim, Y. L.

Koetsier, J. L.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kromine, A.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunte, D. P.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lagendijk, A.

M. Albada and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692–2695 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Mandir, N.

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

Maynard, R.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishchenko, M. I.

Mutyal, N. N.

V. Turzhitsky, J. D. Rogers, N. N. Mutyal, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Characterization of Light Transport in Scattering Media at Subdiffusion Length Scales with Low-Coherence Enhanced Backscattering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 619–626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Novelli, M.

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

Popescu, G.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: a new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulsom, R.

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Pradhan, P.

H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, Y. Kim, and V. Backman, “Penetration depth of low-coherence enhanced backscattering of light in sub-diffusion regime,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75(041914), 1–9 (2007).

Prahl, S. A.

Preston, S. L.

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Quirke, P.

A. Banerjee and P. Quirke, “Experimental models of colorectal cancer,” Dis. Colon Rectum 41(4), 490–505 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

Rogers, J.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. D.

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Turzhitsky, J. D. Rogers, N. N. Mutyal, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Characterization of Light Transport in Scattering Media at Subdiffusion Length Scales with Low-Coherence Enhanced Backscattering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 619–626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, I. R. Capoğlu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, H. K.

V. Turzhitsky, J. D. Rogers, N. N. Mutyal, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Characterization of Light Transport in Scattering Media at Subdiffusion Length Scales with Low-Coherence Enhanced Backscattering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 619–626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1906–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruderman, S.

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, C.

C. Schwartz and A. Dogariu, “Enhanced backscattering of vortex waves from volume scattering media,” Opt. Commun. 263(2), 135–140 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoner, G. D.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: a new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoyneva, V.

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramanian, H.

H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, Y. Kim, and V. Backman, “Penetration depth of low-coherence enhanced backscattering of light in sub-diffusion regime,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 75(041914), 1–9 (2007).

Tomlinson, I. P.

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Turzhitsky, V.

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Turzhitsky, J. D. Rogers, N. N. Mutyal, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Characterization of Light Transport in Scattering Media at Subdiffusion Length Scales with Low-Coherence Enhanced Backscattering,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(3), 619–626 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turzhitsky, V. M.

Vakil, P.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

van Gemert, M. J. C.

Wali, R. K.

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Coherent backscattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1906–1908 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. H.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

M. Hunter, V. Backman, G. Popescu, M. Kalashnikov, C. W. Boone, A. Wax, V. Gopal, K. Badizadegan, G. D. Stoner, and M. S. Feld, “Tissue self-affinity and polarized light scattering in the born approximation: a new model for precancer detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(13), 138102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, A. J.

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid mediaby using the adding-doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32(4), 559–568 (1993).
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W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A Review of the Optical-Properties of Biological Tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, P. E.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, W. M.

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Wright, N. A.

M. Brittan and N. A. Wright, “Stem cell in gastrointestinal structure and neoplastic development,” Gut 53(6), 899–910 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Xu, M.

Yen, E.

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, K. L.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, L. Q.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zonios, G.

Appl. Opt.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila)

H. K. Roy, A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, L. K. Bianchi, M. J. Goldberg, V. Stoyneva, J. D. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, E. Yen, M. Jameel, A. Bogojevic, and V. Backman, “Optical measurement of rectal microvasculature as an adjunct to flexible sigmoidosocopy: gender-specific implications,” Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 3(7), 844–851 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Res.

S. L. Preston, W. M. Wong, A. O. O. Chan, R. Poulsom, R. Jeffery, R. A. Goodlad, N. Mandir, G. Elia, M. Novelli, W. F. Bodmer, I. P. Tomlinson, and N. A. Wright, “Bottom-up histogenesis of colorectal adenomas: origin in the monocryptal adenoma and initial expansion by crypt fission,” Cancer Res. 63(13), 3819–3825 (2003).
[PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comput. Methods Programs Biomed.

L. H. Wang, S. L. Jacques, and L. Q. Zheng, “MCML--Monte Carlo modeling of light transport in multi-layered tissues,” Comput. Methods Programs Biomed. 47(2), 131–146 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dis. Colon Rectum

A. Banerjee and P. Quirke, “Experimental models of colorectal cancer,” Dis. Colon Rectum 41(4), 490–505 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gut

R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, J. L. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, V. Turzhitsky, and V. Backman, “Increased microvascular blood content is an early event in colon carcinogenesis,” Gut 54(5), 654–660 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Brittan and N. A. Wright, “Stem cell in gastrointestinal structure and neoplastic development,” Gut 53(6), 899–910 (2004).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

[a] Schematic of the LEBS instrumentation. S: Broadband Xenon illumination source, C: condenser, L1-L3: lenses, AW: aperture wheel, P1-P2: polarizers, M: mirror, A: iris aperture, B: beamsplitter, SS: sample, LCTF: liquid crystal tunable filter. Aperture AW contains 6 different tungsten apertures which determine the spatial coherence of illumination, P1 and P2 act as a polarizer and analyzer, respectively. [b] Comparison of the shape of the experimentally measured c(r) versus those predicted by the van Cittert-Zernike theorem for 3 different example Lsc .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Example of the radially averaged and maximum-normalized experimentally measured p(r) [red] as well as the c(r) [blue] used for its recovery from the LEBS peak. The light blue lines represent the c(r) with smaller Lsc that can be used to reconstruct the LEBS peak.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Demonstration of the accuracy of the reconstruction technique for recovering the LEBS peak shape at different Lsc using the spectralon reflectance standard. [a,b] shows the comparison between the reconstructed and experimentally measured LEBS peaks. [c] shows the standard deviation between 10 measurements at different reconstructed Lsc .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Demonstration of the accuracy of the reconstruction technique for recovering the LEBS peak shape at different Lsc using a tissue simulating phantom composed of polystyrene microspheres. [a,b] shows the comparison between the reconstructed and experimentally measured LEBS peaks. [c] shows the standard deviation between 10 measurements at different reconstructed Lsc .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

[a] shows the reconstructed absorption spectra normalized by the value at 600 nm. The arrows indicate increasing Lsc . [b] shows the comparison between the experimentally measured and reconstructed values of α for both OHb and DHb.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

[a] shows the reconstructed αOHb values across Lsc for different concentrations of hemoglobin in the physiological range. [b] shows the comparison between the αOHb values measured from the calibration curves constructed for 4 different examples of Lsc .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

[a] shows the normalized αOHb values across different Lsc for two layer phantoms with a superficial scattering layer of 25, 50, and 75 μm. [b] shows an example of the spectrum isolated from the purely scattering top layer by reconstructing the spectrum at 44 μm Lsc [blue] as well as the spectrum from a larger Lsc of 128 µm [red] which penetrates into the second scattering and absorbing layer. Both spectra were reconstructed from a single experimental measurement.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

[a] shows the measured total hemoglobin α values for the AOM and saline treated rat specimens across Lsc . [b] shows the measured total hemoglobin concentration as a function of penetration depth. The difference between these two concentration measurements (AOM – Saline) is plotted in [c] and indicates the location of the increase in mucosal blood supply.

Equations (8)

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I L E B S ( θ ) = F T [ p ( r ) c ( r ) ]
c ( r ) = 2J 1 ( r / L s c ) r / L s c
L s c = f k a
E = c μ s * L s c
p ( r ) = F T 1 [ I L E B S ( θ ) ] c ( r )
E ( λ ) = E s c a t t e r i n g ( λ ) exp ( μ e f f ( λ ) )
μ e f f ( λ ) = i α i A i ( λ )
E s c a t t e r i n g ( λ ) λ 2m 3

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