Abstract

The feasibility of photoacoustic tomography (PAT) for noninvasive imaging of prostate cancer was explored through the study on a canine model in vivo. Imaging of blood-rich lesions mimicking prostate tumors was achieved using a commercial medical ultrasound (US) system without affecting its original imaging functions. Based on the optical contrast between hemoglobin and other tissues, PAT has demonstrated good sensitivity and high contrast-to-noise ratio in visualizing deep lesions; while US has presented the morphological features including the boundary and the urethral of the prostate. PAT of prostate cancer may facilitate improved tumor localization, staging of disease, and detection of recurrences.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (5)

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. J. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tao and X. J. Liu, “Reconstruction of high quality photoacoustic tomography with a limited-view scanning,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2760–2766 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

B. Turkbey, P. A. Pinto, P. L. Choyke, and Medscape, “Imaging techniques for prostate cancer: implications for focal therapy,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 6(4), 191–203 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

2007 (2)

D. W. Yang, D. Xing, S. H. Yang, and L. Z. Xiang, “Fast full-view photoacoustic imaging by combined scanning with a linear transducer array,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15566–15575 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hricak, P. L. Choyke, S. C. Eberhardt, S. A. Leibel, and P. T. Scardino, “Imaging prostate cancer: a multidisciplinary perspective,” Radiology 243(1), 28–53 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

R. Ross and M. Harisinghani, “New clinical imaging modalities in prostate cancer,” Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am. 20(4), 811–830 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Ku, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “Noninvasive imaging of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in the rat brain using high-resolution photoacoustic tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

Y. Xu, L. V. Wang, G. Ambartsoumian, and P. Kuchment, “Reconstructions in limited-view thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 31(4), 724–733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wijkstra, M. H. Wink, and J. J. de la Rosette, “Contrast specific imaging in the detection and localization of prostate cancer,” World J. Urol. 22(5), 346–350 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(5), 491–497 (2004).
[PubMed]

2003 (3)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Analytic explanation of spatial resolution related to bandwidth and detector aperture size in thermoacoustic or photoacoustic reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(5), 056605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1739–1741 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

T. C. Potdevin, A. P. Moskalik, J. B. Fowlkes, R. O. Bude, and P. L. Carson, “Doppler quantitative measures by region to discriminate prostate cancer,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27(10), 1305–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time optical coherence tomography for minimally invasive imaging of prostate ablation,” Comput. Aided Surg. 6(2), 94–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. V. D’Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland,” Urology 55(5), 783–787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

M. L. Lefevre, “Prostate cancer screening: more harm than good?” Am. Fam. Physician 58(2), 432–438 (1998).
[PubMed]

1997 (1)

M. Norberg, L. Egevad, L. Holmberg, P. Sparén, B. J. Norlén, and C. Busch, “The sextant protocol for ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate underestimates the presence of cancer,” Urology 50(4), 562–566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achilefu, S.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akers, W. J.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(5), 491–497 (2004).
[PubMed]

Ali, J. H.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(5), 491–497 (2004).
[PubMed]

Ambartsoumian, G.

Y. Xu, L. V. Wang, G. Ambartsoumian, and P. Kuchment, “Reconstructions in limited-view thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 31(4), 724–733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, K. E.

Bell, B. A.

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

S. A. Boppart, J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time optical coherence tomography for minimally invasive imaging of prostate ablation,” Comput. Aided Surg. 6(2), 94–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brands, P. J.

R. G. M. Kolkman, P. J. Brands, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Real-time in vivo photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brecht, H. P.

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

S. A. Boppart, J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time optical coherence tomography for minimally invasive imaging of prostate ablation,” Comput. Aided Surg. 6(2), 94–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bude, R. O.

T. C. Potdevin, A. P. Moskalik, J. B. Fowlkes, R. O. Bude, and P. L. Carson, “Doppler quantitative measures by region to discriminate prostate cancer,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27(10), 1305–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunting, C. F.

Busch, C.

M. Norberg, L. Egevad, L. Holmberg, P. Sparén, B. J. Norlén, and C. Busch, “The sextant protocol for ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate underestimates the presence of cancer,” Urology 50(4), 562–566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carson, P. L.

T. C. Potdevin, A. P. Moskalik, J. B. Fowlkes, R. O. Bude, and P. L. Carson, “Doppler quantitative measures by region to discriminate prostate cancer,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27(10), 1305–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choyke, P. L.

B. Turkbey, P. A. Pinto, P. L. Choyke, and Medscape, “Imaging techniques for prostate cancer: implications for focal therapy,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 6(4), 191–203 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hricak, P. L. Choyke, S. C. Eberhardt, S. A. Leibel, and P. T. Scardino, “Imaging prostate cancer: a multidisciplinary perspective,” Radiology 243(1), 28–53 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conjusteau, A.

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Amico, A. V.

A. V. D’Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland,” Urology 55(5), 783–787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de la Rosette, J. J.

H. Wijkstra, M. H. Wink, and J. J. de la Rosette, “Contrast specific imaging in the detection and localization of prostate cancer,” World J. Urol. 22(5), 346–350 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

Eberhardt, S. C.

H. Hricak, P. L. Choyke, S. C. Eberhardt, S. A. Leibel, and P. T. Scardino, “Imaging prostate cancer: a multidisciplinary perspective,” Radiology 243(1), 28–53 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egevad, L.

M. Norberg, L. Egevad, L. Holmberg, P. Sparén, B. J. Norlén, and C. Busch, “The sextant protocol for ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate underestimates the presence of cancer,” Urology 50(4), 562–566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ermilov, S. A.

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erpelding, T. N.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. J. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fowlkes, J. B.

T. C. Potdevin, A. P. Moskalik, J. B. Fowlkes, R. O. Bude, and P. L. Carson, “Doppler quantitative measures by region to discriminate prostate cancer,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27(10), 1305–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fronheiser, M.

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J.

A. V. D’Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland,” Urology 55(5), 783–787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. A. Boppart, J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time optical coherence tomography for minimally invasive imaging of prostate ablation,” Comput. Aided Surg. 6(2), 94–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Z. J.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. J. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harisinghani, M.

R. Ross and M. Harisinghani, “New clinical imaging modalities in prostate cancer,” Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am. 20(4), 811–830 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J. M.

S. A. Boppart, J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time optical coherence tomography for minimally invasive imaging of prostate ablation,” Comput. Aided Surg. 6(2), 94–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmberg, L.

M. Norberg, L. Egevad, L. Holmberg, P. Sparén, B. J. Norlén, and C. Busch, “The sextant protocol for ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate underestimates the presence of cancer,” Urology 50(4), 562–566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holyoak, G. R.

Hricak, H.

H. Hricak, P. L. Choyke, S. C. Eberhardt, S. A. Leibel, and P. T. Scardino, “Imaging prostate cancer: a multidisciplinary perspective,” Radiology 243(1), 28–53 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jankovic, L.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. J. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Z.

Kim, C.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. J. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolkman, R. G. M.

R. G. M. Kolkman, P. J. Brands, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Real-time in vivo photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krasinski, J. S.

Ku, G.

X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Ku, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “Noninvasive imaging of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in the rat brain using high-resolution photoacoustic tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Imaging of tumor angiogenesis in rat brains in vivo by photoacoustic tomography,” Appl. Opt. 44(5), 770–775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1739–1741 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuchment, P.

Y. Xu, L. V. Wang, G. Ambartsoumian, and P. Kuchment, “Reconstructions in limited-view thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 31(4), 724–733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lefevre, M. L.

M. L. Lefevre, “Prostate cancer screening: more harm than good?” Am. Fam. Physician 58(2), 432–438 (1998).
[PubMed]

Leibel, S. A.

H. Hricak, P. L. Choyke, S. C. Eberhardt, S. A. Leibel, and P. T. Scardino, “Imaging prostate cancer: a multidisciplinary perspective,” Radiology 243(1), 28–53 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

A. V. D’Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland,” Urology 55(5), 783–787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. J.

Margenthaler, J. A.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. J. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. J. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moskalik, A. P.

T. C. Potdevin, A. P. Moskalik, J. B. Fowlkes, R. O. Bude, and P. L. Carson, “Doppler quantitative measures by region to discriminate prostate cancer,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27(10), 1305–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motamedi, M.

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Musgrove, C. H.

Norberg, M.

M. Norberg, L. Egevad, L. Holmberg, P. Sparén, B. J. Norlén, and C. Busch, “The sextant protocol for ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate underestimates the presence of cancer,” Urology 50(4), 562–566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norlén, B. J.

M. Norberg, L. Egevad, L. Holmberg, P. Sparén, B. J. Norlén, and C. Busch, “The sextant protocol for ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate underestimates the presence of cancer,” Urology 50(4), 562–566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1739–1741 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pashley, M. D.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. J. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piao, D.

Pinto, P. A.

B. Turkbey, P. A. Pinto, P. L. Choyke, and Medscape, “Imaging techniques for prostate cancer: implications for focal therapy,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 6(4), 191–203 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

S. A. Boppart, J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time optical coherence tomography for minimally invasive imaging of prostate ablation,” Comput. Aided Surg. 6(2), 94–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potdevin, T. C.

T. C. Potdevin, A. P. Moskalik, J. B. Fowlkes, R. O. Bude, and P. L. Carson, “Doppler quantitative measures by region to discriminate prostate cancer,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 27(10), 1305–1310 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pramanik, M.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. J. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richie, J. P.

A. V. D’Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland,” Urology 55(5), 783–787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritchey, J. W.

Ross, R.

R. Ross and M. Harisinghani, “New clinical imaging modalities in prostate cancer,” Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am. 20(4), 811–830 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scardino, P. T.

H. Hricak, P. L. Choyke, S. C. Eberhardt, S. A. Leibel, and P. T. Scardino, “Imaging prostate cancer: a multidisciplinary perspective,” Radiology 243(1), 28–53 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slobodov, G.

Song, L.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sparén, P.

M. Norberg, L. Egevad, L. Holmberg, P. Sparén, B. J. Norlén, and C. Busch, “The sextant protocol for ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate underestimates the presence of cancer,” Urology 50(4), 562–566 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamper, D. L.

S. A. Boppart, J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time optical coherence tomography for minimally invasive imaging of prostate ablation,” Comput. Aided Surg. 6(2), 94–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steenbergen, W.

R. G. M. Kolkman, P. J. Brands, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Real-time in vivo photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoica, G.

X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Ku, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “Noninvasive imaging of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in the rat brain using high-resolution photoacoustic tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Imaging of tumor angiogenesis in rat brains in vivo by photoacoustic tomography,” Appl. Opt. 44(5), 770–775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1739–1741 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, R.

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, C.

Turkbey, B.

B. Turkbey, P. A. Pinto, P. L. Choyke, and Medscape, “Imaging techniques for prostate cancer: implications for focal therapy,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 6(4), 191–203 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

R. G. M. Kolkman, P. J. Brands, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Real-time in vivo photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. J. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Ku, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “Noninvasive imaging of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in the rat brain using high-resolution photoacoustic tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Imaging of tumor angiogenesis in rat brains in vivo by photoacoustic tomography,” Appl. Opt. 44(5), 770–775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xu, L. V. Wang, G. Ambartsoumian, and P. Kuchment, “Reconstructions in limited-view thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 31(4), 724–733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Analytic explanation of spatial resolution related to bandwidth and detector aperture size in thermoacoustic or photoacoustic reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(5), 056605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1739–1741 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, W. B.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(5), 491–497 (2004).
[PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Ku, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “Noninvasive imaging of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in the rat brain using high-resolution photoacoustic tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Imaging of tumor angiogenesis in rat brains in vivo by photoacoustic tomography,” Appl. Opt. 44(5), 770–775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Three-dimensional laser-induced photoacoustic tomography of mouse brain with the skin and skull intact,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1739–1741 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Weinstein, M.

A. V. D’Amico, M. Weinstein, X. Li, J. P. Richie, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography as a method for identifying benign and malignant microscopic structures in the prostate gland,” Urology 55(5), 783–787 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wijkstra, H.

H. Wijkstra, M. H. Wink, and J. J. de la Rosette, “Contrast specific imaging in the detection and localization of prostate cancer,” World J. Urol. 22(5), 346–350 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wink, M. H.

H. Wijkstra, M. H. Wink, and J. J. de la Rosette, “Contrast specific imaging in the detection and localization of prostate cancer,” World J. Urol. 22(5), 346–350 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiang, L. Z.

Xie, X.

X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Ku, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “Noninvasive imaging of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in the rat brain using high-resolution photoacoustic tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ku, X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Imaging of tumor angiogenesis in rat brains in vivo by photoacoustic tomography,” Appl. Opt. 44(5), 770–775 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xing, D.

Xu, G.

Xu, M.

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Analytic explanation of spatial resolution related to bandwidth and detector aperture size in thermoacoustic or photoacoustic reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(5), 056605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, L. V. Wang, G. Ambartsoumian, and P. Kuchment, “Reconstructions in limited-view thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 31(4), 724–733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, D. W.

Yang, S. H.

Yaseen, M. A.

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zevallos, M.

J. H. Ali, W. B. Wang, M. Zevallos, and R. R. Alfano, “Near infrared spectroscopy and imaging to probe differences in water content in normal and cancer human prostate tissues,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(5), 491–497 (2004).
[PubMed]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, H. F.

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. Fam. Physician (1)

M. L. Lefevre, “Prostate cancer screening: more harm than good?” Am. Fam. Physician 58(2), 432–438 (1998).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Aided Surg. (1)

S. A. Boppart, J. M. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Real-time optical coherence tomography for minimally invasive imaging of prostate ablation,” Comput. Aided Surg. 6(2), 94–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am. (1)

R. Ross and M. Harisinghani, “New clinical imaging modalities in prostate cancer,” Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am. 20(4), 811–830 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

X. Wang, X. Xie, G. Ku, L. V. Wang, and G. Stoica, “Noninvasive imaging of hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in the rat brain using high-resolution photoacoustic tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 024015 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. M. Kolkman, P. J. Brands, W. Steenbergen, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Real-time in vivo photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 050510 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046010 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Yaseen, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, R. Su, A. Conjusteau, M. Fronheiser, B. A. Bell, M. Motamedi, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Optoacoustic imaging of the prostate: development toward image-guided biopsy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021310 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Phys. (1)

Y. Xu, L. V. Wang, G. Ambartsoumian, and P. Kuchment, “Reconstructions in limited-view thermoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 31(4), 724–733 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (2)

X. Wang, Y. Pang, G. Ku, X. Xie, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive laser-induced photoacoustic tomography for structural and functional in vivo imaging of the brain,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(7), 803–806 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Zhang, K. Maslov, G. Stoica, and L. V. Wang, “Functional photoacoustic microscopy for high-resolution and noninvasive in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 24(7), 848–851 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Urol. (1)

B. Turkbey, P. A. Pinto, P. L. Choyke, and Medscape, “Imaging techniques for prostate cancer: implications for focal therapy,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 6(4), 191–203 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

M. Xu and L. V. Wang, “Analytic explanation of spatial resolution related to bandwidth and detector aperture size in thermoacoustic or photoacoustic reconstruction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 67(5), 056605 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (2)

H. Hricak, P. L. Choyke, S. C. Eberhardt, S. A. Leibel, and P. T. Scardino, “Imaging prostate cancer: a multidisciplinary perspective,” Radiology 243(1), 28–53 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. J. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental system for PAT and US imaging of a canine prostate in vivo.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) 128-channel I/Q data from a point object. (B) Reconstructed 2D PAT image of the point object. (C) System axial resolution. (D) System lateral resolution. (E) Photograph of a gel phantom with two artificial vessels embedded. (F) 2D gray scale US image of the phantom (G) 2D PAT image of the phantom along the same plane as in US image in (F).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo PAT and US dual-modality imaging of a canine prostate with a subsurface lesion induced. Gray scale US images of the prostate acquired (A) before and (B) after the generation of the lesion (0.1 mL of injected blood). The red arrow indicates the plastic canula inserted into the prostate for the injection of blood. The yellow indicates the urethra. (C) Anatomical photograph of the imaged cross-section in the prostate with the lesion marked. PAT images of the prostate right lobe acquired (D) before and (E) after the generation of the lesion (0.1 mL of injected blood), where the image intensities are demonstrated with an image color bar. The PAT imaging plane is the same as that in US images, where the reconstructed area is indicated with the dashed rectangles in the US images in (A) and (B). In (F)-(I), PAT images are superimposed on the US image in (B). (F) was acquired before the generation of the lesion; (G), (H) and (I) were acquired after three injections of blood, where the total blood volumes in the lesion were 0.025 mL, 0.05 mL and 0.1 mL, respectively. The area of the lesion is marked with a dotted rectangle in each image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ex vivo 2D PAT of a canine prostate. (A) Anatomical photograph of the imaged cross-section. (B)-(F) Tomographic images acquired with detection view angles of 360, 180, 90, 60 and 30 degrees, respectively.

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