Abstract

The characterization results of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au nanorings (NRs) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) are first demonstrated. Then, the diffusion behaviors of Au NRs in mouse liver samples tracked with OCT are shown. For such research, aqueous solutions of Au NRs with two different localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelengths are prepared and characterized. Their LSPR-induced extinction cross sections at 1310 nm are estimated with OCT scanning of solution droplets on coverslip to show reasonably consistent results with the data at individual LSPR wavelengths and at 1310 nm obtained from transmission measurements of Au NR solutions and numerical simulations. The resonant and non-resonant Au NRs are delivered into mouse liver samples for tracking Au NR diffusion in the samples through continuous OCT scanning for one hour. With resonant Au NRs, the average A-mode scan profiles of OCT scanning at different delay times clearly demonstrate the extension of strong backscattering depth with time. The calculation of speckle variance among successive OCT scanning images, which is related to the local transport speed of Au NRs, leads to the illustrations of downward propagation and spreading of major Au NR motion spot with time.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (6)

C. Zhou, T. H. Tsai, D. C. Adler, H. C. Lee, D. W. Cohen, A. Mondelblatt, Y. Wang, J. L. Connolly, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography in ex vivo human breast tissues using gold nanoshells,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 700–702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cherukuri, E. S. Glazer, and S. A. Curley, “Targeted hyperthermia using metal nanoparticles,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 62(3), 339–345 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanoparticles: Optical properties and implementations in cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy,” J. Advert. Res. 1(1), 13–28 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Chithrani, M. Dunne, J. Stewart, C. Allen, and D. A. Jaffray, “Cellular uptake and transport of gold nanoparticles incorporated in a liposomal carrier,” Nanomedicine 6(1), 161–169 (2010).
[PubMed]

A. Mariampillai, M. K. K. Leung, M. Jarvi, B. A. Standish, K. Lee, B. C. Wilson, A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Optimized speckle variance OCT imaging of microvasculature,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1257–1259 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Tseng, C. K. Lee, S. Y. Wu, T. T. Chi, K. M. Yang, J. Y. Wang, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, M. T. Tsai, Y. C. Wu, H. Y. E. Chou, and C. P. Chiang, “Au nanorings for enhancing absorption and backscattering monitored with optical coherence tomography,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Lee, M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Sharma, K. Park, and M. Srinivasarao, “Shape separation of gold nanorods using centrifugation,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(13), 4981–4985 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Li, L. Wang, X. Y. Liu, Z. P. Zhang, H. C. Guo, W. M. Liu, and S. H. Tang, “In vitro cancer cell imaging and therapy using transferrin-conjugated gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 274(2), 319–326 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Faraji and P. Wipf, “Nanoparticles in cellular drug delivery,” Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17(8), 2950–2962 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Li, L. Wang, X. Y. Liu, Z. P. Zhang, H. C. Guo, W. M. Liu, and S. H. Tang, “In vitro cancer cell imaging and therapy using transferrin-conjugated gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 274(2), 319–326 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Kim, P. Wilder-Smith, Y. C. Ahn, L. H. L. Liaw, Z. Chen, and Y. J. Kwon, “Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kirillin, M. Shirmanova, M. Sirotkina, M. Bugrova, B. Khlebtsov, and E. Zagaynova, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoshells and titanium dioxide nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography imaging of skin: Monte Carlo simulations and in vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 021017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (13)

M. C. Skala, M. J. Crow, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Photothermal optical coherence tomography of epidermal growth factor receptor in live cells using immunotargeted gold nanospheres,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3461–3467 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Adler, S. W. Huang, R. Huber, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Photothermal detection of gold nanoparticles using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4376–4393 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-7-4376 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Zagaynova, M. V. Shirmanova, M. Y. Kirillin, B. N. Khlebtsov, A. G. Orlova, I. V. Balalaeva, M. A. Sirotkina, M. L. Bugrova, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography: phantom, in vivo studies and Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 4995–5009 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Au, D. Zheng, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “A quantitative study on the photothermal effect of immuno gold nanocages targeted to breast cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(8), 1645–1652 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) using gold nanoparticles,” Lasers Med. Sci. 23(3), 217–228 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Dickerson, E. C. Dreaden, X. Huang, I. H. El-Sayed, H. Chu, S. Pushpanketh, J. F. McDonald, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanorod assisted near-infrared plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) of squamous cell carcinoma in mice,” Cancer Lett. 269(1), 57–66 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Hauck, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Assessing the effect of surface chemistry on gold nanorod uptake, toxicity, and gene expression in mammalian cells,” Small 4(1), 153–159 (2008).
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P. Ghosh, G. Han, M. De, C. K. Kim, and V. M. Rotello, “Gold nanoparticles in delivery applications,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 60(11), 1307–1315 (2008).
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Z. J. Zhu, P. S. Ghosh, O. R. Miranda, R. W. Vachet, and V. M. Rotello, “Multiplexed screening of cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles using laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(43), 14139–14143 (2008).
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T. S. Troutman, J. K. Barton, and M. Romanowski, “Biodegradable Plasmon Resonant Nanoshells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(13), 2604–2608 (2008).
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A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, E. H. Moriyama, M. Khurana, N. R. Munce, M. K. K. Leung, J. Jiang, A. Cable, B. C. Wilson, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Speckle variance detection of microvasculature using swept-source optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1530–1532 (2008).
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F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding Light on Dark Plasmons in Gold Nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4-6), 262–266 (2008).
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C. C. Yang, M.-T. Tsai, H.-C. Lee, C.-K. Lee, C.-H. Yu, H.-M. Chen, C.-P. Chiang, C.-C. Chang, Y.-M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Effective indicators for diagnosis of oral cancer using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15847–15862 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-20-15847 .
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2007 (12)

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. S. Troutman, J. K. Barton, and M. Romanowski, “Optical coherence tomography with plasmon resonant nanorods of gold,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1438–1440 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, D. Wang, J. Xi, L. Au, A. Siekkinen, A. Warsen, Z. Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Xia, and X. Li, “Immuno gold nanocages with tailored optical properties for targeted photothermal destruction of cancer cells,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1318–1322 (2007).
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D. A. Giljohann, D. S. Seferos, P. C. Patel, J. E. Millstone, N. L. Rosi, and C. A. Mirkin, “Oligonucleotide loading determines cellular uptake of DNA-modified gold nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 7(12), 3818–3821 (2007).
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K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
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T. B. Huff, M. N. Hansen, Y. Zhao, J. X. Cheng, and A. Wei, “Controlling the cellular uptake of gold nanorods,” Langmuir 23(4), 1596–1599 (2007).
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J. A. Ryan, K. W. Overton, M. E. Speight, C. N. Oldenburg, L. N. Loo, W. Robarge, S. Franzen, and D. L. Feldheim, “Cellular uptake of gold nanoparticles passivated with BSA-SV40 large T antigen conjugates,” Anal. Chem. 79(23), 9150–9159 (2007).
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B. D. Chithrani and W. C. W. Chan, “Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and removal of protein-coated gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1542–1550 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ji, R. Shao, A. M. Elliott, R. J. Stafford, E. Esparza-Coss, J. A. Bankson, G. Liang, Z.-P. Luo, K. Park, J. T. Markert, and C. Li, “Bifunctional Gold Nanoshells with a Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-Silica Core Suitable for Both MR Imaging and Photothermal Therapy,” Nano Lett. 111(17), 6245–6251 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Gu, R. Karnik, A. Wang, F. Alexis, E. Levynissenbaum, S. Hong, R. Langer, and O. Farokhzad, “Targeted nanoparticles for cancer therapy,” Nano Today 2(3), 14–21 (2007).
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S. J. Son, X. Bai, and S. B. Lee, “Inorganic hollow nanoparticles and nanotubes in nanomedicine Part 2: Imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications,” Drug Discov. Today 12(15-16), 657–663 (2007).
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A. M. Gobin, M. H. Lee, N. J. Halas, W. D. James, R. A. Drezek, and J. L. West, “Near-infrared resonant nanoshells for combined optical imaging and photothermal cancer therapy,” Nano Lett. 7(7), 1929–1934 (2007).
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2006 (5)

A. L. Oldenburg, M. N. Hansen, D. A. Zweifel, A. Wei, and S. A. Boppart, “Plasmon-resonant gold nanorods as low backscattering albedo contrast agents for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6724–6738 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-15-6724 .
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B. Khlebtsov, V. Zharov, A. Melnikov, V. Tuchin, and N. Khlebtsov, “Optical amplification of photothermal therapy with gold nanoparticles and nanoclusters,” Nanotechnology 17(20), 5167–5179 (2006).
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I. H. El-Sayed, X. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 129–135 (2006).
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V. P. Zharov, K. E. Mercer, E. N. Galitovskaya, and M. S. Smeltzer, “Photothermal nanotherapeutics and nanodiagnostics for selective killing of bacteria targeted with gold nanoparticles,” Biophys. J. 90(2), 619–627 (2006).
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B. D. Chithrani, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Determining the size and shape dependence of gold nanoparticle uptake into mammalian cells,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 662–668 (2006).
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2005 (8)

A. W. H. Lin, N. A. Lewinski, J. L. West, N. J. Halas, and R. A. Drezek, “Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(6), 064035 (2005).
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E. E. Connor, J. Mwamuka, A. Gole, C. J. Murphy, and M. D. Wyatt, “Gold nanoparticles are taken up by human cells but do not cause acute cytotoxicity,” Small 1(3), 325–327 (2005).
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J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z. Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages: Engineering Their Structure for Biomedical Applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(18), 2255–2261 (2005).
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C. J. Murphy, T. K. Sau, A. M. Gole, C. J. Orendorff, J. Gao, L. Gou, S. E. Hunyadi, and T. Li, “Anisotropic metal nanoparticles: Synthesis, assembly, and optical applications,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(29), 13857–13870 (2005).
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J. Chen, F. Saeki, B. J. Wiley, H. Cang, M. J. Cobb, Z. Y. Li, L. Au, H. Zhang, M. B. Kimmey, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages: bioconjugation and their potential use as optical imaging contrast agents,” Nano Lett. 5(3), 473–477 (2005).
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H. Cang, T. Sun, Z. Y. Li, J. Chen, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and X. Li, “Gold nanocages as contrast agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(22), 3048–3050 (2005).
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P. H. Yang, X. Sun, J. F. Chiu, H. Sun, and Q. Y. He, “Transferrin-mediated gold nanoparticle cellular uptake,” Bioconjug. Chem. 16(3), 494–496 (2005).
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C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 709–711 (2005).
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2004 (7)

A. G. Tkachenko, H. Xie, Y. Liu, D. Coleman, J. Ryan, W. R. Glomm, M. K. Shipton, S. Franzen, and D. L. Feldheim, “Cellular trajectories of peptide-modified gold particle complexes: comparison of nuclear localization signals and peptide transduction domains,” Bioconjug. Chem. 15(3), 482–490 (2004).
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X. H. N. Xu, W. J. Brownlow, S. V. Kyriacou, Q. Wan, and J. J. Viola, “Real-time probing of membrane transport in living microbial cells using single nanoparticle optics and living cell imaging,” Biochemistry 43(32), 10400–10413 (2004).
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D. P. O’Neal, L. R. Hirsch, N. J. Halas, J. D. Payne, and J. L. West, “Photo-thermal tumor ablation in mice using near infrared-absorbing nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 209(2), 171–176 (2004).
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J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marza’n, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, “Electric Field Directed Growth of Gold Nanorods in Aqueous Surfactant Solutions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(6), 571–579 (2004).
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M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293–346 (2004).
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C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
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D. J. Faber, F. J. van der Meer, M. C. G. Aalders, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Quantitative measurement of attenuation coefficients of weakly scattering media using optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4353–4365 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-19-4353 .
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2003 (3)

J. Gao, C. M. Bender, and C. J. Murphy, “Dependence of the Gold Nanorod Aspect Ratio on the Nature of the Directing Surfactant in Aqueous Solution,” Langmuir 19(21), 9065–9070 (2003).
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J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
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T. Yamada, Y. Iwasaki, H. Tada, H. Iwabuki, M. K. Chuah, T. VandenDriessche, H. Fukuda, A. Kondo, M. Ueda, M. Seno, K. Tanizawa, and S. Kuroda, “Nanoparticles for the delivery of genes and drugs to human hepatocytes,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(8), 885–890 (2003).
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2002 (2)

X. H. N. Xu, J. Chen, R. B. Jeffers, and S. V. Kyriacou, “Direct Measurement of Sizes and Dynamics of Single Living Membrane Transporters Using Nano-Optics,” Nano Lett. 2(3), 175–182 (2002).
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J. P. Richard, K. Melikov, E. Vives, C. Ramos, B. Verbeure, M. J. Gait, L. V. Chernomordik, and B. Lebleu, “Cell-penetrating peptides. A reevaluation of the mechanism of cellular uptake,” J. Biol. Chem. 278(1), 585–590 (2002).
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1998 (1)

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288(2-4), 243–247 (1998).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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E. V. Zagaynova, M. V. Shirmanova, M. Y. Kirillin, B. N. Khlebtsov, A. G. Orlova, I. V. Balalaeva, M. A. Sirotkina, M. L. Bugrova, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography: phantom, in vivo studies and Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 4995–5009 (2008).
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Ahn, Y. C.

C. S. Kim, P. Wilder-Smith, Y. C. Ahn, L. H. L. Liaw, Z. Chen, and Y. J. Kwon, “Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034008 (2009).
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Aizpurua, J.

J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
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Alegret, J.

E. M. Larsson, J. Alegret, M. Käll, and D. S. Sutherland, “Sensing characteristics of NIR localized surface plasmon resonances in gold nanorings for application as ultrasensitive biosensors,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1256–1263 (2007).
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Alexis, F.

F. Gu, R. Karnik, A. Wang, F. Alexis, E. Levynissenbaum, S. Hong, R. Langer, and O. Farokhzad, “Targeted nanoparticles for cancer therapy,” Nano Today 2(3), 14–21 (2007).
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Ali, T. A.

F. Hao, E. M. Larsson, T. A. Ali, D. S. Sutherland, and P. Nordlander, “Shedding Light on Dark Plasmons in Gold Nanorings,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 458(4-6), 262–266 (2008).
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Allen, C.

D. B. Chithrani, M. Dunne, J. Stewart, C. Allen, and D. A. Jaffray, “Cellular uptake and transport of gold nanoparticles incorporated in a liposomal carrier,” Nanomedicine 6(1), 161–169 (2010).
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M. C. Daniel and D. Astruc, “Gold nanoparticles: assembly, supramolecular chemistry, quantum-size-related properties, and applications toward biology, catalysis, and nanotechnology,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 293–346 (2004).
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Au, L.

L. Au, D. Zheng, F. Zhou, Z. Y. Li, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “A quantitative study on the photothermal effect of immuno gold nanocages targeted to breast cancer cells,” ACS Nano 2(8), 1645–1652 (2008).
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J. Chen, D. Wang, J. Xi, L. Au, A. Siekkinen, A. Warsen, Z. Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Xia, and X. Li, “Immuno gold nanocages with tailored optical properties for targeted photothermal destruction of cancer cells,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1318–1322 (2007).
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J. Chen, F. Saeki, B. J. Wiley, H. Cang, M. J. Cobb, Z. Y. Li, L. Au, H. Zhang, M. B. Kimmey, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages: bioconjugation and their potential use as optical imaging contrast agents,” Nano Lett. 5(3), 473–477 (2005).
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J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z. Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages: Engineering Their Structure for Biomedical Applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(18), 2255–2261 (2005).
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Averitt, R. D.

S. J. Oldenburg, R. D. Averitt, S. L. Westcott, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoengineering of optical resonances,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 288(2-4), 243–247 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

S. J. Son, X. Bai, and S. B. Lee, “Inorganic hollow nanoparticles and nanotubes in nanomedicine Part 2: Imaging, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications,” Drug Discov. Today 12(15-16), 657–663 (2007).
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Balalaeva, I. V.

E. V. Zagaynova, M. V. Shirmanova, M. Y. Kirillin, B. N. Khlebtsov, A. G. Orlova, I. V. Balalaeva, M. A. Sirotkina, M. L. Bugrova, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography: phantom, in vivo studies and Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 4995–5009 (2008).
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X. Ji, R. Shao, A. M. Elliott, R. J. Stafford, E. Esparza-Coss, J. A. Bankson, G. Liang, Z.-P. Luo, K. Park, J. T. Markert, and C. Li, “Bifunctional Gold Nanoshells with a Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide-Silica Core Suitable for Both MR Imaging and Photothermal Therapy,” Nano Lett. 111(17), 6245–6251 (2007).
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Barton, J.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
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Barton, J. K.

T. S. Troutman, J. K. Barton, and M. Romanowski, “Biodegradable Plasmon Resonant Nanoshells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(13), 2604–2608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Troutman, J. K. Barton, and M. Romanowski, “Optical coherence tomography with plasmon resonant nanorods of gold,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1438–1440 (2007).
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Bender, C. M.

J. Gao, C. M. Bender, and C. J. Murphy, “Dependence of the Gold Nanorod Aspect Ratio on the Nature of the Directing Surfactant in Aqueous Solution,” Langmuir 19(21), 9065–9070 (2003).
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Boppart, S. A.

Browning, L. M.

K. J. Lee, P. D. Nallathamby, L. M. Browning, C. J. Osgood, and X. H. N. Xu, “In vivo imaging of transport and biocompatibility of single silver nanoparticles in early development of zebrafish embryos,” ACS Nano 1(2), 133–143 (2007).
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X. H. N. Xu, W. J. Brownlow, S. V. Kyriacou, Q. Wan, and J. J. Viola, “Real-time probing of membrane transport in living microbial cells using single nanoparticle optics and living cell imaging,” Biochemistry 43(32), 10400–10413 (2004).
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J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
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M. Kirillin, M. Shirmanova, M. Sirotkina, M. Bugrova, B. Khlebtsov, and E. Zagaynova, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoshells and titanium dioxide nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography imaging of skin: Monte Carlo simulations and in vivo study,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 021017 (2009).
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E. V. Zagaynova, M. V. Shirmanova, M. Y. Kirillin, B. N. Khlebtsov, A. G. Orlova, I. V. Balalaeva, M. A. Sirotkina, M. L. Bugrova, P. D. Agrba, and V. A. Kamensky, “Contrasting properties of gold nanoparticles for optical coherence tomography: phantom, in vivo studies and Monte Carlo simulation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 4995–5009 (2008).
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Cable, A.

Campbell, D.

J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z. Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages: Engineering Their Structure for Biomedical Applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(18), 2255–2261 (2005).
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J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z. Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages: Engineering Their Structure for Biomedical Applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(18), 2255–2261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Cang, T. Sun, Z. Y. Li, J. Chen, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and X. Li, “Gold nanocages as contrast agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(22), 3048–3050 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, F. Saeki, B. J. Wiley, H. Cang, M. J. Cobb, Z. Y. Li, L. Au, H. Zhang, M. B. Kimmey, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages: bioconjugation and their potential use as optical imaging contrast agents,” Nano Lett. 5(3), 473–477 (2005).
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J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marza’n, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, “Electric Field Directed Growth of Gold Nanorods in Aqueous Surfactant Solutions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(6), 571–579 (2004).
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J. Pérez-Juste, L. M. Liz-Marza’n, S. Carnie, D. Y. C. Chan, and P. Mulvaney, “Electric Field Directed Growth of Gold Nanorods in Aqueous Surfactant Solutions,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 14(6), 571–579 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. C. W.

T. S. Hauck, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Assessing the effect of surface chemistry on gold nanorod uptake, toxicity, and gene expression in mammalian cells,” Small 4(1), 153–159 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Chithrani and W. C. W. Chan, “Elucidating the mechanism of cellular uptake and removal of protein-coated gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes,” Nano Lett. 7(6), 1542–1550 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Chithrani, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Determining the size and shape dependence of gold nanoparticle uptake into mammalian cells,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 662–668 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, C.-C.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Chen, H. M.

M. T. Tsai, C. K. Lee, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Differentiating oral lesions in different carcinogenesis stages with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044028 (2009).
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C. K. Lee, M. T. Tsai, H. C. Lee, H. M. Chen, C. P. Chiang, Y. M. Wang, and C. C. Yang, “Diagnosis of oral submucous fibrosis with optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(5), 054008 (2009).
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Chen, H.-M.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, D. Wang, J. Xi, L. Au, A. Siekkinen, A. Warsen, Z. Y. Li, H. Zhang, Y. Xia, and X. Li, “Immuno gold nanocages with tailored optical properties for targeted photothermal destruction of cancer cells,” Nano Lett. 7(5), 1318–1322 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, F. Saeki, B. J. Wiley, H. Cang, M. J. Cobb, Z. Y. Li, L. Au, H. Zhang, M. B. Kimmey, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “Gold nanocages: bioconjugation and their potential use as optical imaging contrast agents,” Nano Lett. 5(3), 473–477 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cang, T. Sun, Z. Y. Li, J. Chen, B. J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and X. Li, “Gold nanocages as contrast agents for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 30(22), 3048–3050 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, B. Wiley, Z. Y. Li, D. Campbell, F. Saeki, H. Cang, L. Au, J. Lee, X. Li, and Y. Xia, “Gold Nanocages: Engineering Their Structure for Biomedical Applications,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 17(18), 2255–2261 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. H. N. Xu, J. Chen, R. B. Jeffers, and S. V. Kyriacou, “Direct Measurement of Sizes and Dynamics of Single Living Membrane Transporters Using Nano-Optics,” Nano Lett. 2(3), 175–182 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

C. S. Kim, P. Wilder-Smith, Y. C. Ahn, L. H. L. Liaw, Z. Chen, and Y. J. Kwon, “Enhanced detection of early-stage oral cancer in vivo by optical coherence tomography using multimodal delivery of gold nanoparticles,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034008 (2009).
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T. B. Huff, M. N. Hansen, Y. Zhao, J. X. Cheng, and A. Wei, “Controlling the cellular uptake of gold nanorods,” Langmuir 23(4), 1596–1599 (2007).
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I. H. El-Sayed, X. Huang, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Selective laser photo-thermal therapy of epithelial carcinoma using anti-EGFR antibody conjugated gold nanoparticles,” Cancer Lett. 239(1), 129–135 (2006).
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T. S. Hauck, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Assessing the effect of surface chemistry on gold nanorod uptake, toxicity, and gene expression in mammalian cells,” Small 4(1), 153–159 (2008).
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B. D. Chithrani, A. A. Ghazani, and W. C. W. Chan, “Determining the size and shape dependence of gold nanoparticle uptake into mammalian cells,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 662–668 (2006).
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A. G. Tkachenko, H. Xie, Y. Liu, D. Coleman, J. Ryan, W. R. Glomm, M. K. Shipton, S. Franzen, and D. L. Feldheim, “Cellular trajectories of peptide-modified gold particle complexes: comparison of nuclear localization signals and peptide transduction domains,” Bioconjug. Chem. 15(3), 482–490 (2004).
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C. Loo, A. Lowery, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Immunotargeted nanoshells for integrated cancer imaging and therapy,” Nano Lett. 5(4), 709–711 (2005).
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J. Aizpurua, P. Hanarp, D. S. Sutherland, M. Käll, G. W. Bryant, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Optical properties of gold nanorings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(5), 057401 (2003).
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P. H. Yang, X. Sun, J. F. Chiu, H. Sun, and Q. Y. He, “Transferrin-mediated gold nanoparticle cellular uptake,” Bioconjug. Chem. 16(3), 494–496 (2005).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
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F. Gu, R. Karnik, A. Wang, F. Alexis, E. Levynissenbaum, S. Hong, R. Langer, and O. Farokhzad, “Targeted nanoparticles for cancer therapy,” Nano Today 2(3), 14–21 (2007).
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X. Huang and M. A. El-Sayed, “Gold nanoparticles: Optical properties and implementations in cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy,” J. Advert. Res. 1(1), 13–28 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Huang, P. K. Jain, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Plasmonic photothermal therapy (PPTT) using gold nanoparticles,” Lasers Med. Sci. 23(3), 217–228 (2008).
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J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPG (11716 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (9396 KB)     

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of the Au NRs on substrate in samples A (a) and B (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Close-up SEM images of the Au NRs after liftoff in samples A (a) and B (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral variations of extinction cross sections of the NRs in water in the two samples obtained from optical transmission measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT images of Au NR solution droplets on coverslip in samples A (a) and B (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average A-mode scan profiles multiplied by a fixed-focus effect function of the two samples.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulation results of the extinction (Ext), scattering (Sca), and absorption (Abs) cross sections as functions of wavelength of a single Au NR of samples A and B. The LSPR is excited with a plane wave incident along the ring axis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Media 1) OCT images of a mouse liver sample taken before (a), 0 (b), 30 (c), and 60 min (d) after the application of an Au NR solution droplet of sample A onto the sample surface.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Media 2) Speckle variance images of the mouse liver sample including Au NRs of sample A, evaluated based on the OCT images, at 15 (a), 22.5 (b), 30 (c), 45 (d), and 60 (e) min after the application of an Au NR solution droplet. To clearly demonstrate the images in parts (d) and (e), the speckle variance signal strengths in these two images are numerically enhanced by 50 times.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

OCT images of a mouse liver sample taken before (a), 0 (b), 30 (c), and 60 min (d) after the application of an Au NR solution droplet of sample B onto the sample surface.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Speckle variance images of the mouse liver sample including Au NRs of sample B, evaluated based on the images in Fig. 9, at 15 (a), 22.5 (b), and 30 (c) min after the application of an Au NR solution droplet. To clearly demonstrate the images, the speckle variance signal strengths in these images are numerically enhanced by four times.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Distance between the image top end and the sample surface at the center in the lateral dimension of an image as a function of delay time in the experiment with sample A (the red curve) and the fitting with a fifth-order polynomial (the black dashed curve) in the left ordinate. Sample shrinkage speed is also shown in the blue curve (in the right ordinate).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Average A-mode scan profiles (thick curves) of the OCT images taken before, 20, 30, and 60 min after the application of an Au NR solution droplet of sample A. The second-order polynomial thin curves are used to fit the average A-mode scan profiles for finding the depths of maximum intensities for the cases of 20, 30, and 60 min in delay time.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Center-of-mass depths of speckle variance distributions in the cases of samples A and B, and water delivery as functions of delay time.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Depth standard deviation of speckle variance distributions in the cases of samples A and B, and water delivery as functions of delay time.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Extinction cross sections of samples A and B obtained from different methods, including transmission, OCT scanning, and simulation

Equations (1)

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f = ( z z c f z R ) 2 + 1 ,

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