Abstract

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common form of arthritis caused by cartilage degeneration. In this paper, we investigate the potential use of terahertz (THz) pulsed imaging to quantitatively measure the early symptoms of OA in an animal model. THz images of excised rabbit femoral condyles were taken. We observe THz waves reflected off different layers within samples and demonstrate that the optical delay between reflections can give a quantitative measure of the thicknesses of particular tissues within cartilage.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 648–654 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. Ugryumova, J. Jacobs, M. Bonesi, and S. J. Matcher, “Novel optical imaging technique to determine the 3-D orientation of collagen fibers in cartilage: variable-incidence angle polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17(1), 33–42 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
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  17. E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41(1), 49–55 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  30. L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, K. M. H. Yip, and K. M. Chan, “Articular cartilage lesions of the knee following immobilisation or destabilisation for 6 or 12 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 17(3), 227–233 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, and K. M. Chan, “Intra-articular hyaluronic acid following knee immobilisation for 6 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 20(2), 98–103 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2009

N. Ugryumova, J. Jacobs, M. Bonesi, and S. J. Matcher, “Novel optical imaging technique to determine the 3-D orientation of collagen fibers in cartilage: variable-incidence angle polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17(1), 33–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. B. Ji, E. S. Lee, S. H. Kim, J. H. Son, and T. I. Jeon, “A miniaturized fiber-coupled terahertz endoscope system,” Opt. Express 17(19), 17082–17087 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sun, B. M. Fischer, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Effects of formalin fixing on the terahertz properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Atakaramians, S. Afshar V, B. M. Fischer, D. Abbott, and T. M. Monro, “Porous fibers: a novel approach to low loss THz waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(12), 8845–8854 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xie, Y. Xia, S. Guo, P. Hoover, Z. Chen, and G. M. Peavy, “Topographical variations in the polarization sensitivity of articular cartilage as determined by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and polarized light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Lu, J. L. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, L. S. Liang, and X. Y. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(10), 103104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95(11), 2486–2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5205–5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. L. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 648–654 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Woolf and B. Pfleger, “Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions,” Bull. World Health Organ. 81(9), 646–656 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. Rogowska, C. M. Bryant, and M. E. Brezinski, “Cartilage thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(2), 357–367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, and K. M. Chan, “Intra-articular hyaluronic acid following knee immobilisation for 6 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 20(2), 98–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, K. M. H. Yip, and K. M. Chan, “Articular cartilage lesions of the knee following immobilisation or destabilisation for 6 or 12 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 17(3), 227–233 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1971

H. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiell, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. 2. correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone and Joint Surgery 53, 523–537 (1971).

Abbott, D.

Adachi, N.

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Afshar V, S.

Ali, S.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atakaramians, S.

Berg, R. W.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95(11), 2486–2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bobrow, L.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonesi, M.

N. Ugryumova, J. Jacobs, M. Bonesi, and S. J. Matcher, “Novel optical imaging technique to determine the 3-D orientation of collagen fibers in cartilage: variable-incidence angle polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17(1), 33–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rogowska, C. M. Bryant, and M. E. Brezinski, “Cartilage thickness measurements from optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(2), 357–367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, C. M.

Chan, K. M.

L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, and K. M. Chan, “Intra-articular hyaluronic acid following knee immobilisation for 6 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 20(2), 98–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, K. M. H. Yip, and K. M. Chan, “Articular cartilage lesions of the knee following immobilisation or destabilisation for 6 or 12 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 17(3), 227–233 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

T. Xie, Y. Xia, S. Guo, P. Hoover, Z. Chen, and G. M. Peavy, “Topographical variations in the polarization sensitivity of articular cartilage as determined by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and polarized light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, C. R.

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 648–654 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cole, B. E.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donhuijsen, K.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorfman, H.

H. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiell, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. 2. correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone and Joint Surgery 53, 523–537 (1971).

Drexler, W.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferretti, M.

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, B. M.

Fitzgerald, A. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, F. H.

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, L. L. K.

L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, and K. M. Chan, “Intra-articular hyaluronic acid following knee immobilisation for 6 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 20(2), 98–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, K. M. H. Yip, and K. M. Chan, “Articular cartilage lesions of the knee following immobilisation or destabilisation for 6 or 12 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 17(3), 227–233 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghanta, R.

X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, K. C.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95(11), 2486–2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

T. Xie, Y. Xia, S. Guo, P. Hoover, Z. Chen, and G. M. Peavy, “Topographical variations in the polarization sensitivity of articular cartilage as determined by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and polarized light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, C. W.

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harman, M.

X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hein, G.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, H.

Hoffmann, M.

Hoffmann, S.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, M.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoover, P.

T. Xie, Y. Xia, S. Guo, P. Hoover, Z. Chen, and G. M. Peavy, “Topographical variations in the polarization sensitivity of articular cartilage as determined by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and polarized light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huard, J.

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irrgang, J. J.

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izzo, N. J.

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobs, J.

N. Ugryumova, J. Jacobs, M. Bonesi, and S. J. Matcher, “Novel optical imaging technique to determine the 3-D orientation of collagen fibers in cartilage: variable-incidence angle polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17(1), 33–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobsen, R. H.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, T. I.

Jepsen, P. U.

Jesser, C.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Ji, Y. B.

Jimenez-Linan, M.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. H.

Klein, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5205–5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knobloch, P.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, M.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[PubMed]

Koch, M.

B. M. Fischer, M. Hoffmann, H. Helm, R. Wilk, F. Rutz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, and P. U. Jepsen, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging of artificial RNA,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5205–5215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kojima, T.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[PubMed]

L. Krinsky, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lancaster, R. W.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95(11), 2486–2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laverty, S.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[PubMed]

Lee, E. S.

Li, N.

M. H. Lu, J. L. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, L. S. Liang, and X. Y. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(10), 103104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Li, X. D.

X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 648–654 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, L. S.

M. H. Lu, J. L. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, L. S. Liang, and X. Y. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(10), 103104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippiell, L.

H. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiell, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. 2. correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone and Joint Surgery 53, 523–537 (1971).

Lodge, M. B.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Longbottom, C.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, M. H.

M. H. Lu, J. L. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, L. S. Liang, and X. Y. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(10), 103104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, R. J. M.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maffulli, N.

L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, and K. M. Chan, “Intra-articular hyaluronic acid following knee immobilisation for 6 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 20(2), 98–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, K. M. H. Yip, and K. M. Chan, “Articular cartilage lesions of the knee following immobilisation or destabilisation for 6 or 12 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 17(3), 227–233 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mankin, H.

H. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiell, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. 2. correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone and Joint Surgery 53, 523–537 (1971).

Martin, S.

X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Mashimo, H.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matcher, S. J.

N. Ugryumova, J. Jacobs, M. Bonesi, and S. J. Matcher, “Novel optical imaging technique to determine the 3-D orientation of collagen fibers in cartilage: variable-incidence angle polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17(1), 33–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mittleman, D. M.

K. L. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

Mutinga, M.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mwale, F.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[PubMed]

Newnham, D. A.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95(11), 2486–2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nuss, M. C.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Y.

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 648–654 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peavy, G. M.

T. Xie, Y. Xia, S. Guo, P. Hoover, Z. Chen, and G. M. Peavy, “Topographical variations in the polarization sensitivity of articular cartilage as determined by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and polarized light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pepper, M.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95(11), 2486–2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfleger, B.

A. D. Woolf and B. Pfleger, “Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions,” Bull. World Health Organ. 81(9), 646–656 (2003).
[PubMed]

Pickwell, E.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pickwell-MacPherson, E.

Y. Sun, B. M. Fischer, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Effects of formalin fixing on the terahertz properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierz, K.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poole, A. R.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[PubMed]

Purushotham, A. D.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rades, T.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95(11), 2486–2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rehberg, E.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogowska, J.

Rutz, F.

Saunders, K.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Schildknecht, C.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, J. L.

M. H. Lu, J. L. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, L. S. Liang, and X. Y. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(10), 103104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

Sperling, M.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamper, D.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Stamper, D. L.

X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strachan, C. J.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95(11), 2486–2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Studer, R. K.

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, B. M. Fischer, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Effects of formalin fixing on the terahertz properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taday, P. F.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95(11), 2486–2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Threlfall, T. L.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95(11), 2486–2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ugryumova, N.

N. Ugryumova, J. Jacobs, M. Bonesi, and S. J. Matcher, “Novel optical imaging technique to determine the 3-D orientation of collagen fibers in cartilage: variable-incidence angle polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17(1), 33–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usas, A.

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, V. P.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K. L.

K. L. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilk, R.

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woolf, A. D.

A. D. Woolf and B. Pfleger, “Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions,” Bull. World Health Organ. 81(9), 646–656 (2003).
[PubMed]

Xia, Y.

T. Xie, Y. Xia, S. Guo, P. Hoover, Z. Chen, and G. M. Peavy, “Topographical variations in the polarization sensitivity of articular cartilage as determined by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and polarized light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, T.

T. Xie, Y. Xia, S. Guo, P. Hoover, Z. Chen, and G. M. Peavy, “Topographical variations in the polarization sensitivity of articular cartilage as determined by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and polarized light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 648–654 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X. Y.

M. H. Lu, J. L. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, L. S. Liang, and X. Y. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(10), 103104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, T.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[PubMed]

Yip, K. M. H.

L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, K. M. H. Yip, and K. M. Chan, “Articular cartilage lesions of the knee following immobilisation or destabilisation for 6 or 12 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 17(3), 227–233 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zarins, A.

H. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiell, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. 2. correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone and Joint Surgery 53, 523–537 (1971).

Zeitler, J. A.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95(11), 2486–2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, C. L.

M. H. Lu, J. L. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, L. S. Liang, and X. Y. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(10), 103104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

M. H. Lu, J. L. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, L. S. Liang, and X. Y. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(10), 103104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Arthritis Res. Ther.

X. D. Li, S. Martin, C. Pitris, R. Ghanta, D. L. Stamper, M. Harman, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “High-resolution optical coherence tomographic imaging of osteoarthritic cartilage during open knee surgery,” Arthritis Res. Ther. 7(2), R318–R323 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bull. World Health Organ.

A. D. Woolf and B. Pfleger, “Burden of major musculoskeletal conditions,” Bull. World Health Organ. 81(9), 646–656 (2003).
[PubMed]

Caries Res.

E. Pickwell, V. P. Wallace, B. E. Cole, S. Ali, C. Longbottom, R. J. M. Lynch, and M. Pepper, “A comparison of terahertz pulsed imaging with transmission microradiography for depth measurement of enamel demineralisation in vitro,” Caries Res. 41(1), 49–55 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.

A. R. Poole, T. Kojima, T. Yasuda, F. Mwale, M. Kobayashi, and S. Laverty, “Composition and structure of articular cartilage: a template for tissue repair,” Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (391Suppl), S26–S33 (2001).
[PubMed]

Clin. Rheumatol.

L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, K. M. H. Yip, and K. M. Chan, “Articular cartilage lesions of the knee following immobilisation or destabilisation for 6 or 12 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 17(3), 227–233 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. L. K. Fu, N. Maffulli, and K. M. Chan, “Intra-articular hyaluronic acid following knee immobilisation for 6 weeks in rabbits,” Clin. Rheumatol. 20(2), 98–103 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Endoscopy

X. D. Li, S. A. Boppart, J. Van Dam, H. Mashimo, M. Mutinga, W. Drexler, M. Klein, C. Pitris, M. L. Krinsky, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Technology for the Endoscopic Imaging of Barrett’s Esophagus,” Endoscopy 32(12), 921–930 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M. H. Lu, J. L. Shen, N. Li, Y. Zhang, C. L. Zhang, L. S. Liang, and X. Y. Xu, “Detection and identification of illicit drugs using terahertz imaging,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(10), 103104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Phys.

R. M. Woodward, V. P. Wallace, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of skin cancer in the time and frequency domain,” J. Biol. Phys. 29(2/3), 257–259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

Y. Sun, B. M. Fischer, and E. Pickwell-MacPherson, “Effects of formalin fixing on the terahertz properties of biological tissues,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064017 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Xie, Y. Xia, S. Guo, P. Hoover, Z. Chen, and G. M. Peavy, “Topographical variations in the polarization sensitivity of articular cartilage as determined by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and polarized light microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054034 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pan, Z. Li, T. Xie, and C. R. Chu, “Hand-held arthroscopic optical coherence tomography for in vivo high-resolution imaging of articular cartilage,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(4), 648–654 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Chu, N. J. Izzo, J. J. Irrgang, M. Ferretti, and R. K. Studer, “Clinical diagnosis of potentially treatable early articular cartilage degeneration using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051703 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bone and Joint Surgery

H. Mankin, H. Dorfman, L. Lippiell, and A. Zarins, “Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteo-arthritic human hips. 2. correlation of morphology with biochemical and metabolic data,” J. Bone and Joint Surgery 53, 523–537 (1971).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Pharm. Sci.

J. A. Zeitler, D. A. Newnham, P. F. Taday, T. L. Threlfall, R. W. Lancaster, R. W. Berg, C. J. Strachan, M. Pepper, K. C. Gordon, and T. Rades, “Characterization of temperature-induced phase transitions in five polymorphic forms of sulfathiazole by terahertz pulsed spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry,” J. Pharm. Sci. 95(11), 2486–2498 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rheumatol.

W. Drexler, D. Stamper, C. Jesser, X. Li, C. Pitris, K. Saunders, S. Martin, M. B. Lodge, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, “Correlation of collagen organization with polarization sensitive imaging of in vitro cartilage: implications for osteoarthritis,” J. Rheumatol. 28(6), 1311–1318 (2001).
[PubMed]

Nature

K. L. Wang and D. M. Mittleman, “Metal wires for terahertz wave guiding,” Nature 432(7015), 376–379 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Osteoarthritis Cartilage

N. Ugryumova, J. Jacobs, M. Bonesi, and S. J. Matcher, “Novel optical imaging technique to determine the 3-D orientation of collagen fibers in cartilage: variable-incidence angle polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 17(1), 33–42 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Han, C. R. Chu, N. Adachi, A. Usas, F. H. Fu, J. Huard, and Y. Pan, “Analysis of rabbit articular cartilage repair after chondrocyte implantation using optical coherence tomography,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 11(2), 111–121 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

P. Knobloch, C. Schildknecht, T. Kleine-Ostmann, M. Koch, S. Hoffmann, M. Hofmann, E. Rehberg, M. Sperling, K. Donhuijsen, G. Hein, and K. Pierz, “Medical THz imaging: an investigation of histo-pathological samples,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3875–3884 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Pickwell, B. E. Cole, A. J. Fitzgerald, M. Pepper, and V. P. Wallace, “In vivo study of human skin using pulsed terahertz radiation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(9), 1595–1607 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology

A. J. Fitzgerald, V. P. Wallace, M. Jimenez-Linan, L. Bobrow, R. J. Pye, A. D. Purushotham, and D. D. Arnone, “Terahertz pulsed imaging of human breast tumors,” Radiology 239(2), 533–540 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

“Osteoarthritis,” (NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases), http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/osteoarthritis.html .

W. C. Kan, W. S. Lee, W. H. Cheung and E. Macpherson, “Terahertz Pulsed Imaging of Osteoarthritis,” in BSN workshop (2008).

E. Jung, H. Park, J. Kim, Y. Han, H. Han, S. Kim, I. Park, J. Cui, B. Min, and H. Lim, “THz pulse imaging of human articular cartilage,” in Infrared Millimeter Waves and 14th International Conference on Teraherz Electronics 2006, IRMMW-THz 2006, Joint 31st International Conference (2006), p. 550.

E. Pickwell-Macpherson, W. C. Kan, W. S. Lee, V. P. Wallace, and W. H. Cheung, “Application of Terahertz Imaging to Osteoarthritis,” Microwave Symposium Digest 2008, IEEE MTT-S International (2008), p. 1533–1536.

W. C. Kan, W. S. Lee, W. H. Cheung, and E. Pickwell-Macpherson, “A pilot study of terahertz pulsed imaging of osteoarthritis,” in Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, 2008. IRMMW-THz 2008, 33rd International Conference(2008), pp. 1–2.

Arthritis Research UK, http://www.arthritisresearchuk.org/research/data_on_arthritis/data_on_oa/data_on_knee_osteoarthritis.aspx

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Histology of a femoral condyle with pronounced OA symptoms and (b) The dashed blue box indicates the measured region and the cartilage layer thicknesses of interest.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The processed data from a pixel in the image of a typical (a) left sample and (b) right sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) B-scan of a right sample (IM86R), a cross-section view with y-axis showing the depth profile. The arrow points to the interface formed by the reflected trough. So the space between two dark lines indicates the hyaline thickness if the trough is reflected off the cartilage/calcified cartilage interface. (b) It is important that the sample makes good contact with the quartz window. This graph illustrates how the waveforms for a sample are affected by the sample contact made with the quartz window.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Color map of a left sample (IM88L) with contrast representing the (a) peak-to-peak optical delay. The darker the blue represents a shorter peak-to-peak optical delay; and (b) the peak-to-trough optical delay.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The histology from animal 2 (IM86) of the (a) left sample and (b) right sample. The total cartilage thickness varies much more in the left sample (279-474 µm) compared to the right sample (398-443 µm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A graph of the mean peak-to-trough THz optical delay against the mean total cartilage thickness from histology.

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