Abstract

This prospective pilot study evaluates the potential of high-resolution fiber optic microscopy (HRFM) to identify lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients. 43 lymph nodes were collected from 14 consenting breast cancer patients. Proflavine dye was topically applied to lymph nodes ex vivo to allow visualization of nuclei. 242 images were collected at 105 sites with confirmed histopathologic diagnosis. Quantitative statistical features were calculated from images, assessed with one-way ANOVA, and were used to develop a classification algorithm with the goal of objectively discriminating between normal and metastatic tissue. A classification algorithm using mean image intensity and skewness achieved sensitivity of 79% (27/34) and specificity of 77% (55/71). This study demonstrates the technical feasibility and diagnostic potential of HRFM with fluorescent contrast in the ex vivo evaluation of lymph nodes from breast cancer patients.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (3)

M. de Boer, J. A. van Dijck, P. Bult, G. F. Borm, and V. C. Tjan-Heijnen, “Breast cancer prognosis and occult lymph node metastases, isolated tumor cells, and micrometastases,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 102(6), 410–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gimbergues, M. M. Dauplat, X. Durando, C. Abrial, G. Bouedec, M. A. Mouret-Reynier, F. Cachin, F. Kwiatkowski, A. Tchirkov, J. Dauplat, and F. Penault-Llorca, “Intraoperative imprint cytology examination of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(8), 2132–2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Boughey, J. P. Moriarty, A. C. Degnim, M. S. Gregg, J. S. Egginton, and K. H. Long, “Cost modeling of preoperative axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration to guide surgery for invasive breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(4), 953–958 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

S. Alvarez, E. Añorbe, P. Alcorta, F. López, I. Alonso, and J. Cortés, “Role of sonography in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer: a systematic review,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 186(5), 1342–1348 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

F. Crippa, A. Gerali, A. Alessi, R. Agresti, and E. Bombardieri, “FDG-PET for axillary lymph node staging in primary breast cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 31(0Suppl 1), S97–S102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. Engel, J. Kerr, A. Schlesinger-Raab, H. Sauer, and D. Hölzel, “Axilla surgery severely affects quality of life: results of a 5-year prospective study in breast cancer patients,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 79(1), 47–57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

W. Kwan, J. Jackson, L. M. Weir, C. Dingee, G. McGregor, and I. A. Olivotto, “Chronic arm morbidity after curative breast cancer treatment: prevalence and impact on quality of life,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(20), 4242–4248 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lee, S. Krishnamurthy, A. Sahin, W. F. Symmans, K. Hunt, and N. Sneige, “Intraoperative touch imprint of sentinel lymph nodes in breast carcinoma patients,” Cancer 96(4), 225–231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Duff, A. D. Hill, G. McGreal, S. Walsh, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Prospective evaluation of the morbidity of axillary clearance for breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 88(1), 114–117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Kennedy, J. Bradley, R. W. Parks, and S. J. Kirk, “Prospective evaluation of the morbidity of axillary clearance for breast cancer (Br J Surg 2001; 88: 114-7),” Br. J. Surg. 88(6), 891 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. K. Orr, J. L. Hoehn, and N. F. Col, “The learning curve for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: practical considerations,” Arch. Surg. 134(7), 764–767 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. McMasters, A. E. Giuliano, M. I. Ross, D. S. Reintgen, K. K. Hunt, D. R. Byrd, V. S. Klimberg, P. W. Whitworth, L. C. Tafra, and M. J. Edwards, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer--not yet the standard of care,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 990–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

L. R. Ferguson and W. A. Denny, “The genetic toxicology of acridines,” Mutat. Res. 258(2), 123–160 (1991).
[PubMed]

1973 (1)

D. W. Edlow and D. Carter, “Heterotopic epithelium in axillary lymph nodes: report of a case and review of the literature,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 59(5), 666–673 (1973).
[PubMed]

Abrial, C.

P. Gimbergues, M. M. Dauplat, X. Durando, C. Abrial, G. Bouedec, M. A. Mouret-Reynier, F. Cachin, F. Kwiatkowski, A. Tchirkov, J. Dauplat, and F. Penault-Llorca, “Intraoperative imprint cytology examination of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(8), 2132–2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agresti, R.

F. Crippa, A. Gerali, A. Alessi, R. Agresti, and E. Bombardieri, “FDG-PET for axillary lymph node staging in primary breast cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 31(0Suppl 1), S97–S102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akins, J. S.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albertini, J. J.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alcorta, P.

S. Alvarez, E. Añorbe, P. Alcorta, F. López, I. Alonso, and J. Cortés, “Role of sonography in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer: a systematic review,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 186(5), 1342–1348 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alessi, A.

F. Crippa, A. Gerali, A. Alessi, R. Agresti, and E. Bombardieri, “FDG-PET for axillary lymph node staging in primary breast cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 31(0Suppl 1), S97–S102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alonso, I.

S. Alvarez, E. Añorbe, P. Alcorta, F. López, I. Alonso, and J. Cortés, “Role of sonography in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer: a systematic review,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 186(5), 1342–1348 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarez, S.

S. Alvarez, E. Añorbe, P. Alcorta, F. López, I. Alonso, and J. Cortés, “Role of sonography in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer: a systematic review,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 186(5), 1342–1348 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ames, F. C.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anandasabapathy, S.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Añorbe, E.

S. Alvarez, E. Añorbe, P. Alcorta, F. López, I. Alonso, and J. Cortés, “Role of sonography in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer: a systematic review,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 186(5), 1342–1348 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashikaga, T.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aziz, D.

Babiera, G.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balducci, L.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedoni, M.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beitsch, P.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berman, C.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bombardieri, E.

F. Crippa, A. Gerali, A. Alessi, R. Agresti, and E. Bombardieri, “FDG-PET for axillary lymph node staging in primary breast cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 31(0Suppl 1), S97–S102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borm, G. F.

M. de Boer, J. A. van Dijck, P. Bult, G. F. Borm, and V. C. Tjan-Heijnen, “Breast cancer prognosis and occult lymph node metastases, isolated tumor cells, and micrometastases,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 102(6), 410–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouedec, G.

P. Gimbergues, M. M. Dauplat, X. Durando, C. Abrial, G. Bouedec, M. A. Mouret-Reynier, F. Cachin, F. Kwiatkowski, A. Tchirkov, J. Dauplat, and F. Penault-Llorca, “Intraoperative imprint cytology examination of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(8), 2132–2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boughey, J. C.

J. C. Boughey, J. P. Moriarty, A. C. Degnim, M. S. Gregg, J. S. Egginton, and K. H. Long, “Cost modeling of preoperative axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration to guide surgery for invasive breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(4), 953–958 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bradley, J.

R. J. Kennedy, J. Bradley, R. W. Parks, and S. J. Kirk, “Prospective evaluation of the morbidity of axillary clearance for breast cancer (Br J Surg 2001; 88: 114-7),” Br. J. Surg. 88(6), 891 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bult, P.

M. de Boer, J. A. van Dijck, P. Bult, G. F. Borm, and V. C. Tjan-Heijnen, “Breast cancer prognosis and occult lymph node metastases, isolated tumor cells, and micrometastases,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 102(6), 410–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byrd, D. R.

K. M. McMasters, A. E. Giuliano, M. I. Ross, D. S. Reintgen, K. K. Hunt, D. R. Byrd, V. S. Klimberg, P. W. Whitworth, L. C. Tafra, and M. J. Edwards, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer--not yet the standard of care,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 990–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cachin, F.

P. Gimbergues, M. M. Dauplat, X. Durando, C. Abrial, G. Bouedec, M. A. Mouret-Reynier, F. Cachin, F. Kwiatkowski, A. Tchirkov, J. Dauplat, and F. Penault-Llorca, “Intraoperative imprint cytology examination of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(8), 2132–2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cantor, A.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, D.

D. W. Edlow and D. Carter, “Heterotopic epithelium in axillary lymph nodes: report of a case and review of the literature,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 59(5), 666–673 (1973).
[PubMed]

Cheung, E. L.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, R.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cocker, E. D.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Col, N. F.

R. K. Orr, J. L. Hoehn, and N. F. Col, “The learning curve for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: practical considerations,” Arch. Surg. 134(7), 764–767 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cortés, J.

S. Alvarez, E. Añorbe, P. Alcorta, F. López, I. Alonso, and J. Cortés, “Role of sonography in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer: a systematic review,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 186(5), 1342–1348 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costa, A.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, C.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crippa, F.

F. Crippa, A. Gerali, A. Alessi, R. Agresti, and E. Bombardieri, “FDG-PET for axillary lymph node staging in primary breast cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 31(0Suppl 1), S97–S102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dauplat, J.

P. Gimbergues, M. M. Dauplat, X. Durando, C. Abrial, G. Bouedec, M. A. Mouret-Reynier, F. Cachin, F. Kwiatkowski, A. Tchirkov, J. Dauplat, and F. Penault-Llorca, “Intraoperative imprint cytology examination of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(8), 2132–2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dauplat, M. M.

P. Gimbergues, M. M. Dauplat, X. Durando, C. Abrial, G. Bouedec, M. A. Mouret-Reynier, F. Cachin, F. Kwiatkowski, A. Tchirkov, J. Dauplat, and F. Penault-Llorca, “Intraoperative imprint cytology examination of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(8), 2132–2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, M.

M. de Boer, J. A. van Dijck, P. Bult, G. F. Borm, and V. C. Tjan-Heijnen, “Breast cancer prognosis and occult lymph node metastases, isolated tumor cells, and micrometastases,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 102(6), 410–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Cicco, C.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Degnim, A. C.

J. C. Boughey, J. P. Moriarty, A. C. Degnim, M. S. Gregg, J. S. Egginton, and K. H. Long, “Cost modeling of preoperative axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration to guide surgery for invasive breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(4), 953–958 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demichele, A.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denny, W. A.

L. R. Ferguson and W. A. Denny, “The genetic toxicology of acridines,” Mutat. Res. 258(2), 123–160 (1991).
[PubMed]

Dingee, C.

W. Kwan, J. Jackson, L. M. Weir, C. Dingee, G. McGregor, and I. A. Olivotto, “Chronic arm morbidity after curative breast cancer treatment: prevalence and impact on quality of life,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(20), 4242–4248 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dowlatshahi, K.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duff, M.

M. Duff, A. D. Hill, G. McGreal, S. Walsh, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Prospective evaluation of the morbidity of axillary clearance for breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 88(1), 114–117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durando, X.

P. Gimbergues, M. M. Dauplat, X. Durando, C. Abrial, G. Bouedec, M. A. Mouret-Reynier, F. Cachin, F. Kwiatkowski, A. Tchirkov, J. Dauplat, and F. Penault-Llorca, “Intraoperative imprint cytology examination of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(8), 2132–2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edlow, D. W.

D. W. Edlow and D. Carter, “Heterotopic epithelium in axillary lymph nodes: report of a case and review of the literature,” Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 59(5), 666–673 (1973).
[PubMed]

Edwards, M. J.

K. M. McMasters, A. E. Giuliano, M. I. Ross, D. S. Reintgen, K. K. Hunt, D. R. Byrd, V. S. Klimberg, P. W. Whitworth, L. C. Tafra, and M. J. Edwards, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer--not yet the standard of care,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 990–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Egginton, J. S.

J. C. Boughey, J. P. Moriarty, A. C. Degnim, M. S. Gregg, J. S. Egginton, and K. H. Long, “Cost modeling of preoperative axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration to guide surgery for invasive breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(4), 953–958 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engel, J.

J. Engel, J. Kerr, A. Schlesinger-Raab, H. Sauer, and D. Hölzel, “Axilla surgery severely affects quality of life: results of a 5-year prospective study in breast cancer patients,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 79(1), 47–57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feig, B.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldman, S.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, L. R.

L. R. Ferguson and W. A. Denny, “The genetic toxicology of acridines,” Mutat. Res. 258(2), 123–160 (1991).
[PubMed]

Flusberg, B. A.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, R.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gadd, M.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galimberti, V.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geraghty, J. G.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerali, A.

F. Crippa, A. Gerali, A. Alessi, R. Agresti, and E. Bombardieri, “FDG-PET for axillary lymph node staging in primary breast cancer,” Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging 31(0Suppl 1), S97–S102 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

Gimbergues, P.

P. Gimbergues, M. M. Dauplat, X. Durando, C. Abrial, G. Bouedec, M. A. Mouret-Reynier, F. Cachin, F. Kwiatkowski, A. Tchirkov, J. Dauplat, and F. Penault-Llorca, “Intraoperative imprint cytology examination of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(8), 2132–2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giuliano, A. E.

K. M. McMasters, A. E. Giuliano, M. I. Ross, D. S. Reintgen, K. K. Hunt, D. R. Byrd, V. S. Klimberg, P. W. Whitworth, L. C. Tafra, and M. J. Edwards, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer--not yet the standard of care,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 990–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmitro, A. F.

Green, D.

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, H.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregg, M. S.

J. C. Boughey, J. P. Moriarty, A. C. Degnim, M. S. Gregg, J. S. Egginton, and K. H. Long, “Cost modeling of preoperative axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration to guide surgery for invasive breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(4), 953–958 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harlow, S.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, A. D.

M. Duff, A. D. Hill, G. McGreal, S. Walsh, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Prospective evaluation of the morbidity of axillary clearance for breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 88(1), 114–117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoehn, J. L.

R. K. Orr, J. L. Hoehn, and N. F. Col, “The learning curve for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: practical considerations,” Arch. Surg. 134(7), 764–767 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hölzel, D.

J. Engel, J. Kerr, A. Schlesinger-Raab, H. Sauer, and D. Hölzel, “Axilla surgery severely affects quality of life: results of a 5-year prospective study in breast cancer patients,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 79(1), 47–57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horton, J.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunt, K.

A. Lee, S. Krishnamurthy, A. Sahin, W. F. Symmans, K. Hunt, and N. Sneige, “Intraoperative touch imprint of sentinel lymph nodes in breast carcinoma patients,” Cancer 96(4), 225–231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunt, K. K.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. McMasters, A. E. Giuliano, M. I. Ross, D. S. Reintgen, K. K. Hunt, D. R. Byrd, V. S. Klimberg, P. W. Whitworth, L. C. Tafra, and M. J. Edwards, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer--not yet the standard of care,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 990–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hwang, R. F.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Intra, M.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, J.

W. Kwan, J. Jackson, L. M. Weir, C. Dingee, G. McGregor, and I. A. Olivotto, “Chronic arm morbidity after curative breast cancer treatment: prevalence and impact on quality of life,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(20), 4242–4248 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J. C.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kallan, M. J.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kennedy, R. J.

R. J. Kennedy, J. Bradley, R. W. Parks, and S. J. Kirk, “Prospective evaluation of the morbidity of axillary clearance for breast cancer (Br J Surg 2001; 88: 114-7),” Br. J. Surg. 88(6), 891 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerr, J.

J. Engel, J. Kerr, A. Schlesinger-Raab, H. Sauer, and D. Hölzel, “Axilla surgery severely affects quality of life: results of a 5-year prospective study in breast cancer patients,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 79(1), 47–57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirk, S. J.

R. J. Kennedy, J. Bradley, R. W. Parks, and S. J. Kirk, “Prospective evaluation of the morbidity of axillary clearance for breast cancer (Br J Surg 2001; 88: 114-7),” Br. J. Surg. 88(6), 891 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klimberg, V. S.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. McMasters, A. E. Giuliano, M. I. Ross, D. S. Reintgen, K. K. Hunt, D. R. Byrd, V. S. Klimberg, P. W. Whitworth, L. C. Tafra, and M. J. Edwards, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer--not yet the standard of care,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 990–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krag, D.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnamurthy, S.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lee, S. Krishnamurthy, A. Sahin, W. F. Symmans, K. Hunt, and N. Sneige, “Intraoperative touch imprint of sentinel lymph nodes in breast carcinoma patients,” Cancer 96(4), 225–231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, N.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuerer, H. M.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhn, J.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kusminsky, R.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwan, W.

W. Kwan, J. Jackson, L. M. Weir, C. Dingee, G. McGregor, and I. A. Olivotto, “Chronic arm morbidity after curative breast cancer treatment: prevalence and impact on quality of life,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(20), 4242–4248 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwiatkowski, F.

P. Gimbergues, M. M. Dauplat, X. Durando, C. Abrial, G. Bouedec, M. A. Mouret-Reynier, F. Cachin, F. Kwiatkowski, A. Tchirkov, J. Dauplat, and F. Penault-Llorca, “Intraoperative imprint cytology examination of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(8), 2132–2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, A.

A. Lee, S. Krishnamurthy, A. Sahin, W. F. Symmans, K. Hunt, and N. Sneige, “Intraoperative touch imprint of sentinel lymph nodes in breast carcinoma patients,” Cancer 96(4), 225–231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Localio, A. R.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Long, K. H.

J. C. Boughey, J. P. Moriarty, A. C. Degnim, M. S. Gregg, J. S. Egginton, and K. H. Long, “Cost modeling of preoperative axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration to guide surgery for invasive breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(4), 953–958 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López, F.

S. Alvarez, E. Añorbe, P. Alcorta, F. López, I. Alonso, and J. Cortés, “Role of sonography in the diagnosis of axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer: a systematic review,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 186(5), 1342–1348 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luini, A.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyman, G. H.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maru, D.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDermott, E. W.

M. Duff, A. D. Hill, G. McGreal, S. Walsh, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Prospective evaluation of the morbidity of axillary clearance for breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 88(1), 114–117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGreal, G.

M. Duff, A. D. Hill, G. McGreal, S. Walsh, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Prospective evaluation of the morbidity of axillary clearance for breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 88(1), 114–117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGregor, G.

W. Kwan, J. Jackson, L. M. Weir, C. Dingee, G. McGregor, and I. A. Olivotto, “Chronic arm morbidity after curative breast cancer treatment: prevalence and impact on quality of life,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(20), 4242–4248 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMasters, K. M.

K. M. McMasters, A. E. Giuliano, M. I. Ross, D. S. Reintgen, K. K. Hunt, D. R. Byrd, V. S. Klimberg, P. W. Whitworth, L. C. Tafra, and M. J. Edwards, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer--not yet the standard of care,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 990–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meric, F.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, L. T.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirza, N.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moffat, F.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moriarty, J. P.

J. C. Boughey, J. P. Moriarty, A. C. Degnim, M. S. Gregg, J. S. Egginton, and K. H. Long, “Cost modeling of preoperative axillary ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration to guide surgery for invasive breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(4), 953–958 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mouret-Reynier, M. A.

P. Gimbergues, M. M. Dauplat, X. Durando, C. Abrial, G. Bouedec, M. A. Mouret-Reynier, F. Cachin, F. Kwiatkowski, A. Tchirkov, J. Dauplat, and F. Penault-Llorca, “Intraoperative imprint cytology examination of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(8), 2132–2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muldoon, T. J.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, M. C. Pierce, D. L. Nida, M. D. Williams, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Subcellular-resolution molecular imaging within living tissue by fiber microendoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16413–16423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neely, J.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicosia, S.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nida, D. L.

Norman, S. A.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Higgins, N. J.

M. Duff, A. D. Hill, G. McGreal, S. Walsh, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Prospective evaluation of the morbidity of axillary clearance for breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 88(1), 114–117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olivotto, I. A.

W. Kwan, J. Jackson, L. M. Weir, C. Dingee, G. McGregor, and I. A. Olivotto, “Chronic arm morbidity after curative breast cancer treatment: prevalence and impact on quality of life,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(20), 4242–4248 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orr, R. K.

R. K. Orr, J. L. Hoehn, and N. F. Col, “The learning curve for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: practical considerations,” Arch. Surg. 134(7), 764–767 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orvieto, E.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paganelli, G.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parks, R. W.

R. J. Kennedy, J. Bradley, R. W. Parks, and S. J. Kirk, “Prospective evaluation of the morbidity of axillary clearance for breast cancer (Br J Surg 2001; 88: 114-7),” Br. J. Surg. 88(6), 891 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Penault-Llorca, F.

P. Gimbergues, M. M. Dauplat, X. Durando, C. Abrial, G. Bouedec, M. A. Mouret-Reynier, F. Cachin, F. Kwiatkowski, A. Tchirkov, J. Dauplat, and F. Penault-Llorca, “Intraoperative imprint cytology examination of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(8), 2132–2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Piyawattanametha, W.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potashnik, S. L.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pramanik, M.

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rapaport, D.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reintgen, D. S.

K. M. McMasters, A. E. Giuliano, M. I. Ross, D. S. Reintgen, K. K. Hunt, D. R. Byrd, V. S. Klimberg, P. W. Whitworth, L. C. Tafra, and M. J. Edwards, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer--not yet the standard of care,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 990–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Muldoon, M. C. Pierce, D. L. Nida, M. D. Williams, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Subcellular-resolution molecular imaging within living tissue by fiber microendoscopy,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16413–16423 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robertson, C.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, M. I.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. McMasters, A. E. Giuliano, M. I. Ross, D. S. Reintgen, K. K. Hunt, D. R. Byrd, V. S. Klimberg, P. W. Whitworth, L. C. Tafra, and M. J. Edwards, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer--not yet the standard of care,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 990–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sacchini, V.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahin, A.

A. Lee, S. Krishnamurthy, A. Sahin, W. F. Symmans, K. Hunt, and N. Sneige, “Intraoperative touch imprint of sentinel lymph nodes in breast carcinoma patients,” Cancer 96(4), 225–231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauer, H.

J. Engel, J. Kerr, A. Schlesinger-Raab, H. Sauer, and D. Hölzel, “Axilla surgery severely affects quality of life: results of a 5-year prospective study in breast cancer patients,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 79(1), 47–57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scarpa, D.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlesinger-Raab, A.

J. Engel, J. Kerr, A. Schlesinger-Raab, H. Sauer, and D. Hölzel, “Axilla surgery severely affects quality of life: results of a 5-year prospective study in breast cancer patients,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 79(1), 47–57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

B. A. Flusberg, E. D. Cocker, W. Piyawattanametha, J. C. Jung, E. L. Cheung, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Fiber-optic fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 2(12), 941–950 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shivers, S.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shons, A.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shriver, C.

D. Krag, D. Weaver, T. Ashikaga, F. Moffat, V. S. Klimberg, C. Shriver, S. Feldman, R. Kusminsky, M. Gadd, J. Kuhn, S. Harlow, P. Beitsch, P. Whitworth, R. Foster, and K. Dowlatshahi, “The sentinel node in breast cancer--a multicenter validation study,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 941–946 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simoes Torpey, H. A.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Singletary, S. E.

R. F. Hwang, S. Krishnamurthy, K. K. Hunt, N. Mirza, F. C. Ames, B. Feig, H. M. Kuerer, S. E. Singletary, G. Babiera, F. Meric, J. S. Akins, J. Neely, and M. I. Ross, “Clinicopathologic factors predicting involvement of nonsentinel axillary nodes in women with breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 10(3), 248–254 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sitharaman, B.

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sneige, N.

A. Lee, S. Krishnamurthy, A. Sahin, W. F. Symmans, K. Hunt, and N. Sneige, “Intraoperative touch imprint of sentinel lymph nodes in breast carcinoma patients,” Cancer 96(4), 225–231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solin, L. J.

S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K. H.

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swierczewska, M.

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Symmans, W. F.

A. Lee, S. Krishnamurthy, A. Sahin, W. F. Symmans, K. Hunt, and N. Sneige, “Intraoperative touch imprint of sentinel lymph nodes in breast carcinoma patients,” Cancer 96(4), 225–231 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tafra, L. C.

K. M. McMasters, A. E. Giuliano, M. I. Ross, D. S. Reintgen, K. K. Hunt, D. R. Byrd, V. S. Klimberg, P. W. Whitworth, L. C. Tafra, and M. J. Edwards, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer--not yet the standard of care,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 990–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tchirkov, A.

P. Gimbergues, M. M. Dauplat, X. Durando, C. Abrial, G. Bouedec, M. A. Mouret-Reynier, F. Cachin, F. Kwiatkowski, A. Tchirkov, J. Dauplat, and F. Penault-Llorca, “Intraoperative imprint cytology examination of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. 17(8), 2132–2137 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tjan-Heijnen, V. C.

M. de Boer, J. A. van Dijck, P. Bult, G. F. Borm, and V. C. Tjan-Heijnen, “Breast cancer prognosis and occult lymph node metastases, isolated tumor cells, and micrometastases,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 102(6), 410–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tosi, G.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Dijck, J. A.

M. de Boer, J. A. van Dijck, P. Bult, G. F. Borm, and V. C. Tjan-Heijnen, “Breast cancer prognosis and occult lymph node metastases, isolated tumor cells, and micrometastases,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 102(6), 410–425 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veronesi, P.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veronesi, U.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Viale, G.

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsh, S.

M. Duff, A. D. Hill, G. McGreal, S. Walsh, E. W. McDermott, and N. J. O’Higgins, “Prospective evaluation of the morbidity of axillary clearance for breast cancer,” Br. J. Surg. 88(1), 114–117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weaver, D.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Kwan, J. Jackson, L. M. Weir, C. Dingee, G. McGregor, and I. A. Olivotto, “Chronic arm morbidity after curative breast cancer treatment: prevalence and impact on quality of life,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(20), 4242–4248 (2002).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. M. McMasters, A. E. Giuliano, M. I. Ross, D. S. Reintgen, K. K. Hunt, D. R. Byrd, V. S. Klimberg, P. W. Whitworth, L. C. Tafra, and M. J. Edwards, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer--not yet the standard of care,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 990–995 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
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U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, V. Galimberti, G. Viale, S. Zurrida, M. Bedoni, A. Costa, C. de Cicco, J. G. Geraghty, A. Luini, V. Sacchini, and P. Veronesi, “Sentinel-node biopsy to avoid axillary dissection in breast cancer with clinically negative lymph-nodes,” Lancet 349(9069), 1864–1867 (1997).
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Br. J. Surg. (2)

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Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

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Eur. J. Radiol. (1)

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

T. J. Muldoon, S. Anandasabapathy, D. Maru, and R. Richards-Kortum, “High-resolution imaging in Barrett’s esophagus: a novel, low-cost endoscopic microscope,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 68(4), 737–744 (2008).
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S. A. Norman, A. R. Localio, S. L. Potashnik, H. A. Simoes Torpey, M. J. Kallan, A. L. Weber, L. T. Miller, A. Demichele, and L. J. Solin, “Lymphedema in breast cancer survivors: incidence, degree, time course, treatment, and symptoms,” J. Clin. Oncol. 27(3), 390–397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Kwan, J. Jackson, L. M. Weir, C. Dingee, G. McGregor, and I. A. Olivotto, “Chronic arm morbidity after curative breast cancer treatment: prevalence and impact on quality of life,” J. Clin. Oncol. 20(20), 4242–4248 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2)

U. Veronesi, G. Paganelli, G. Viale, V. Galimberti, A. Luini, S. Zurrida, C. Robertson, V. Sacchini, P. Veronesi, E. Orvieto, C. De Cicco, M. Intra, G. Tosi, and D. Scarpa, “Sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary dissection in breast cancer: results in a large series,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91(4), 368–373 (1999).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. McMasters, A. E. Giuliano, M. I. Ross, D. S. Reintgen, K. K. Hunt, D. R. Byrd, V. S. Klimberg, P. W. Whitworth, L. C. Tafra, and M. J. Edwards, “Sentinel-lymph-node biopsy for breast cancer--not yet the standard of care,” N. Engl. J. Med. 339(14), 990–995 (1998).
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Opt. Express (1)

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M. Pramanik, K. H. Song, M. Swierczewska, D. Green, B. Sitharaman, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(11), 3291–3301 (2009).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical diagram of the high-resolution microendoscope (b) Photograph demonstrating the small size and portability of the battery-powered instrument.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) High-resolution fiber optic microscopy (HRFM) image taken with from a histologically normal lymph node in a region containing both adipocytes and lymphocytes after application of proflavine to highlight cell nuclei (b) Green channel of the image after cropping to remove adipocytes; quantitative features were calculated from this region (c) Corresponding histology at this site shows a normal lymph node. Capsule is thin and unremarkable. Fat surrounds the node. The node is populated with uniform, small, round lymphocytes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Photograph of three lymph nodes from a single patient with imaging sites marked in blue for correlation to pathology (b) HRFM images collected from sites 7 and 4 with cropped region of interest indicated: site 7 contains metastases while site 4 is normal lymphatic tissue (c) Corresponding H&E images for these sites: The image from site 7 shows that metastatic carcinoma has replaced part of the lymph node. Dense fibrosis surrounds the metastatic tumor cells. Insert shows high power magnification (40X) of tumor cells. The neoplastic cells are arranged in nests and have amphophilic, vacuolated cytoplasms and prominent nuclei. The image from site 4 shows a normal lymph node with sinus histiocytosis. The lymph node capsule is thin and the sub-capsular sinus contains reactive histiocytes. (d) Image histograms from each region of interest; site 7 is shown in red while site 4 is shown in blue. Calculated feature values for each image are also indicated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Box plots showing feature values for images separated by diagnostic category. Values from images containing normal lymphatic tissue are shown in blue, while values from images containing metastases are red. All values are normalized to the median value of the normal set in order to show all features on the same scale. P-values obtained from a one-way ANOVA test are listed for each feature.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Scatter plot by site of mean intensity and skewness: normal sites are shown as a blue ‘x’ while metastatic sites are shown as a red square. (b) ROC curve obtained from a classification algorithm using linear discriminant analysis with both mean intensity and skewness as features

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Distribution of Collected Data from 43 Axillary Lymph Nodes in 14 Breast Cancer Patients

Tables Icon

Table 2 Feature Performance

Metrics