Abstract

We present a new near infrared optical probe for the sentinel lymph node detection, based on the recording of scattered photons. A two wavelengths setup was developed to improve the detection threshold of an injected dye: the Patent Blue V dye. The method used consists in modulating each laser diode at a given frequency. A Fast Fourier Transform of the recorded signal separates both components. The signal amplitudes are used to compute relative Patent Blue V concentration. Results on the probe using phantoms model and small animal experimentation exhibit a sensitivity threshold of 3.2 µmol/L, which is thirty fold better than the eye visible threshold.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (7)

M. Garcia-Manero, B. Olartecoechea, and P. Royo, “Different injection sites of radionuclide for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer: single institution experience,” Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 06.024 (2010).
[PubMed]

T. Buckle, A. C. van Leeuwen, P. T. K. Chin, H. Janssen, S. H. Muller, J. Jonkers, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, “A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, H. H. Kim, Y. S. Park, H. S. Lee, W. W. Lee, H.-J. Lee, and H.-K. Yang, “Simultaneous indocyanine green and 99mTc-Antimoony sulfur colloid-guided laparoscopic sentinel basin dissection for gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, S. Ghosh, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Near infrared photoacoustic detection of sentinel lymph nodes with gold nanobeacons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4088–4093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, S. Wang, J. Xiao, X. Tan, Y. Zhu, Y. Su, T. Cheng, and C. Shi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping by a near-infrared fluorescent heptamethine dye,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1911–1917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hojo, T. Nagao, M. Kikuyama, S. Akashi, and T. Kinoshita, “Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer,” Breast 19(3), 210–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hirche, D. Murawa, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, and M. Hünerbein, “ICG fluorescence-guided sentinel node biopsy for axillary nodal staging in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 121(2), 373–378 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Chu and Y. Wan, “Sentinel lymph node mapping using near-infrared fluorescent methylene blue,” J. Biosci. Bioeng. 107(4), 455–459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. P. Schijven, A. J. J. M. Vingerhoets, H. J. T. Rutten, G. A. P. Nieuwenhuijzen, R. M. H. Roumen, M. E. van Bussel, and A. C. Voogd, “Comparison of morbidity between axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel node biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 29(4), 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wunderbaldinger, K. Turetschek, and C. Bremer, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lymph nodes using a new enzyme sensing activatable macromolecular optical probe,” Eur. Radiol. 13(9), 2206–2211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. 220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol. 2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med. 24(2), 325–334 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

D. W. Newton, P. J. Breen, D. E. Brown, J. F. Mackie, and R. B. Kluza, “Physicochemical characteristics of patent blue violet dye,” J. Pharm. Sci. 70(2), 122–127 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

C. E. Metz, “Basic principles of ROC analysis,” Semin. Nucl. Med. 8(4), 283–298 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

R. M. Cabanas, “An approach for the treatment of penile carcinoma,” Cancer 39(2), 456–466 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

N. L. Tilney, “Patterns of lymphatic drainage in the adult laboratory rat,” J. Anat. 109(Pt 3), 369–383 (1971).
[PubMed]

1960 (1)

E. A. Gould, T. Winship, P. H. Philbin, and H. H. Kerr, “Observations on a “sentinel node” in cancer of the parotid,” Cancer 13(1), 77–78 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akashi, S.

T. Hojo, T. Nagao, M. Kikuyama, S. Akashi, and T. Kinoshita, “Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer,” Breast 19(3), 210–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alex, J. C.

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol. 2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armspach, J. P.

I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med. 24(2), 325–334 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breen, P. J.

D. W. Newton, P. J. Breen, D. E. Brown, J. F. Mackie, and R. B. Kluza, “Physicochemical characteristics of patent blue violet dye,” J. Pharm. Sci. 70(2), 122–127 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bremer, C.

P. Wunderbaldinger, K. Turetschek, and C. Bremer, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lymph nodes using a new enzyme sensing activatable macromolecular optical probe,” Eur. Radiol. 13(9), 2206–2211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. E.

D. W. Newton, P. J. Breen, D. E. Brown, J. F. Mackie, and R. B. Kluza, “Physicochemical characteristics of patent blue violet dye,” J. Pharm. Sci. 70(2), 122–127 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckle, T.

T. Buckle, A. C. van Leeuwen, P. T. K. Chin, H. Janssen, S. H. Muller, J. Jonkers, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, “A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabanas, R. M.

R. M. Cabanas, “An approach for the treatment of penile carcinoma,” Cancer 39(2), 456–466 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chambron, J.

I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med. 24(2), 325–334 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, T.

C. Zhang, S. Wang, J. Xiao, X. Tan, Y. Zhu, Y. Su, T. Cheng, and C. Shi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping by a near-infrared fluorescent heptamethine dye,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1911–1917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, P. T. K.

T. Buckle, A. C. van Leeuwen, P. T. K. Chin, H. Janssen, S. H. Muller, J. Jonkers, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, “A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, M.

M. Chu and Y. Wan, “Sentinel lymph node mapping using near-infrared fluorescent methylene blue,” J. Biosci. Bioeng. 107(4), 455–459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contini, D.

Fairbank, J. T.

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol. 2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Manero, M.

M. Garcia-Manero, B. Olartecoechea, and P. Royo, “Different injection sites of radionuclide for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer: single institution experience,” Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 06.024 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, S. Ghosh, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Near infrared photoacoustic detection of sentinel lymph nodes with gold nanobeacons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4088–4093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giuliano, A. E.

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. 220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, E. A.

E. A. Gould, T. Winship, P. H. Philbin, and H. H. Kerr, “Observations on a “sentinel node” in cancer of the parotid,” Cancer 13(1), 77–78 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenther, J. M.

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. 220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirche, C.

C. Hirche, D. Murawa, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, and M. Hünerbein, “ICG fluorescence-guided sentinel node biopsy for axillary nodal staging in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 121(2), 373–378 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hojo, T.

T. Hojo, T. Nagao, M. Kikuyama, S. Akashi, and T. Kinoshita, “Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer,” Breast 19(3), 210–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hünerbein, M.

C. Hirche, D. Murawa, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, and M. Hünerbein, “ICG fluorescence-guided sentinel node biopsy for axillary nodal staging in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 121(2), 373–378 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janssen, H.

T. Buckle, A. C. van Leeuwen, P. T. K. Chin, H. Janssen, S. H. Muller, J. Jonkers, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, “A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonkers, J.

T. Buckle, A. C. van Leeuwen, P. T. K. Chin, H. Janssen, S. H. Muller, J. Jonkers, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, “A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerr, H. H.

E. A. Gould, T. Winship, P. H. Philbin, and H. H. Kerr, “Observations on a “sentinel node” in cancer of the parotid,” Cancer 13(1), 77–78 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuyama, M.

T. Hojo, T. Nagao, M. Kikuyama, S. Akashi, and T. Kinoshita, “Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer,” Breast 19(3), 210–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H. H.

D. J. Park, H. H. Kim, Y. S. Park, H. S. Lee, W. W. Lee, H.-J. Lee, and H.-K. Yang, “Simultaneous indocyanine green and 99mTc-Antimoony sulfur colloid-guided laparoscopic sentinel basin dissection for gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinoshita, T.

T. Hojo, T. Nagao, M. Kikuyama, S. Akashi, and T. Kinoshita, “Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer,” Breast 19(3), 210–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirgan, D. M.

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. 220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kluza, R. B.

D. W. Newton, P. J. Breen, D. E. Brown, J. F. Mackie, and R. B. Kluza, “Physicochemical characteristics of patent blue violet dye,” J. Pharm. Sci. 70(2), 122–127 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kneif, S.

C. Hirche, D. Murawa, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, and M. Hünerbein, “ICG fluorescence-guided sentinel node biopsy for axillary nodal staging in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 121(2), 373–378 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krag, D. N.

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol. 2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lanza, G. M.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, S. Ghosh, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Near infrared photoacoustic detection of sentinel lymph nodes with gold nanobeacons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4088–4093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. S.

D. J. Park, H. H. Kim, Y. S. Park, H. S. Lee, W. W. Lee, H.-J. Lee, and H.-K. Yang, “Simultaneous indocyanine green and 99mTc-Antimoony sulfur colloid-guided laparoscopic sentinel basin dissection for gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.-J.

D. J. Park, H. H. Kim, Y. S. Park, H. S. Lee, W. W. Lee, H.-J. Lee, and H.-K. Yang, “Simultaneous indocyanine green and 99mTc-Antimoony sulfur colloid-guided laparoscopic sentinel basin dissection for gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, W. W.

D. J. Park, H. H. Kim, Y. S. Park, H. S. Lee, W. W. Lee, H.-J. Lee, and H.-K. Yang, “Simultaneous indocyanine green and 99mTc-Antimoony sulfur colloid-guided laparoscopic sentinel basin dissection for gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackie, J. F.

D. W. Newton, P. J. Breen, D. E. Brown, J. F. Mackie, and R. B. Kluza, “Physicochemical characteristics of patent blue violet dye,” J. Pharm. Sci. 70(2), 122–127 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martelli, F.

Maslov, K.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mauss, Y.

I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med. 24(2), 325–334 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metz, C. E.

C. E. Metz, “Basic principles of ROC analysis,” Semin. Nucl. Med. 8(4), 283–298 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohr, Z.

C. Hirche, D. Murawa, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, and M. Hünerbein, “ICG fluorescence-guided sentinel node biopsy for axillary nodal staging in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 121(2), 373–378 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morton, D. L.

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. 220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, S. H.

T. Buckle, A. C. van Leeuwen, P. T. K. Chin, H. Janssen, S. H. Muller, J. Jonkers, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, “A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murawa, D.

C. Hirche, D. Murawa, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, and M. Hünerbein, “ICG fluorescence-guided sentinel node biopsy for axillary nodal staging in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 121(2), 373–378 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagao, T.

T. Hojo, T. Nagao, M. Kikuyama, S. Akashi, and T. Kinoshita, “Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer,” Breast 19(3), 210–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namaer, I. J.

I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med. 24(2), 325–334 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newton, D. W.

D. W. Newton, P. J. Breen, D. E. Brown, J. F. Mackie, and R. B. Kluza, “Physicochemical characteristics of patent blue violet dye,” J. Pharm. Sci. 70(2), 122–127 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nieuwenhuijzen, G. A. P.

M. P. Schijven, A. J. J. M. Vingerhoets, H. J. T. Rutten, G. A. P. Nieuwenhuijzen, R. M. H. Roumen, M. E. van Bussel, and A. C. Voogd, “Comparison of morbidity between axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel node biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 29(4), 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olartecoechea, B.

M. Garcia-Manero, B. Olartecoechea, and P. Royo, “Different injection sites of radionuclide for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer: single institution experience,” Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 06.024 (2010).
[PubMed]

Pan, D.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, S. Ghosh, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Near infrared photoacoustic detection of sentinel lymph nodes with gold nanobeacons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4088–4093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, D. J.

D. J. Park, H. H. Kim, Y. S. Park, H. S. Lee, W. W. Lee, H.-J. Lee, and H.-K. Yang, “Simultaneous indocyanine green and 99mTc-Antimoony sulfur colloid-guided laparoscopic sentinel basin dissection for gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y. S.

D. J. Park, H. H. Kim, Y. S. Park, H. S. Lee, W. W. Lee, H.-J. Lee, and H.-K. Yang, “Simultaneous indocyanine green and 99mTc-Antimoony sulfur colloid-guided laparoscopic sentinel basin dissection for gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philbin, P. H.

E. A. Gould, T. Winship, P. H. Philbin, and H. H. Kerr, “Observations on a “sentinel node” in cancer of the parotid,” Cancer 13(1), 77–78 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poulet, P.

I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med. 24(2), 325–334 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pramanik, M.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, S. Ghosh, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Near infrared photoacoustic detection of sentinel lymph nodes with gold nanobeacons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4088–4093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roumen, R. M. H.

M. P. Schijven, A. J. J. M. Vingerhoets, H. J. T. Rutten, G. A. P. Nieuwenhuijzen, R. M. H. Roumen, M. E. van Bussel, and A. C. Voogd, “Comparison of morbidity between axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel node biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 29(4), 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royo, P.

M. Garcia-Manero, B. Olartecoechea, and P. Royo, “Different injection sites of radionuclide for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer: single institution experience,” Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 06.024 (2010).
[PubMed]

Rutten, H. J. T.

M. P. Schijven, A. J. J. M. Vingerhoets, H. J. T. Rutten, G. A. P. Nieuwenhuijzen, R. M. H. Roumen, M. E. van Bussel, and A. C. Voogd, “Comparison of morbidity between axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel node biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 29(4), 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schijven, M. P.

M. P. Schijven, A. J. J. M. Vingerhoets, H. J. T. Rutten, G. A. P. Nieuwenhuijzen, R. M. H. Roumen, M. E. van Bussel, and A. C. Voogd, “Comparison of morbidity between axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel node biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 29(4), 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senpan, A.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, S. Ghosh, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Near infrared photoacoustic detection of sentinel lymph nodes with gold nanobeacons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4088–4093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, C.

C. Zhang, S. Wang, J. Xiao, X. Tan, Y. Zhu, Y. Su, T. Cheng, and C. Shi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping by a near-infrared fluorescent heptamethine dye,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1911–1917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K. H.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steibel, J.

I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med. 24(2), 325–334 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, Y.

C. Zhang, S. Wang, J. Xiao, X. Tan, Y. Zhu, Y. Su, T. Cheng, and C. Shi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping by a near-infrared fluorescent heptamethine dye,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1911–1917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, X.

C. Zhang, S. Wang, J. Xiao, X. Tan, Y. Zhu, Y. Su, T. Cheng, and C. Shi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping by a near-infrared fluorescent heptamethine dye,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1911–1917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tilney, N. L.

N. L. Tilney, “Patterns of lymphatic drainage in the adult laboratory rat,” J. Anat. 109(Pt 3), 369–383 (1971).
[PubMed]

Turetschek, K.

P. Wunderbaldinger, K. Turetschek, and C. Bremer, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lymph nodes using a new enzyme sensing activatable macromolecular optical probe,” Eur. Radiol. 13(9), 2206–2211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Bussel, M. E.

M. P. Schijven, A. J. J. M. Vingerhoets, H. J. T. Rutten, G. A. P. Nieuwenhuijzen, R. M. H. Roumen, M. E. van Bussel, and A. C. Voogd, “Comparison of morbidity between axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel node biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 29(4), 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, A. C.

T. Buckle, A. C. van Leeuwen, P. T. K. Chin, H. Janssen, S. H. Muller, J. Jonkers, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, “A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, F. W. B.

T. Buckle, A. C. van Leeuwen, P. T. K. Chin, H. Janssen, S. H. Muller, J. Jonkers, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, “A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355101 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M.

M. P. Schijven, A. J. J. M. Vingerhoets, H. J. T. Rutten, G. A. P. Nieuwenhuijzen, R. M. H. Roumen, M. E. van Bussel, and A. C. Voogd, “Comparison of morbidity between axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel node biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 29(4), 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voogd, A. C.

M. P. Schijven, A. J. J. M. Vingerhoets, H. J. T. Rutten, G. A. P. Nieuwenhuijzen, R. M. H. Roumen, M. E. van Bussel, and A. C. Voogd, “Comparison of morbidity between axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel node biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 29(4), 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, Y.

M. Chu and Y. Wan, “Sentinel lymph node mapping using near-infrared fluorescent methylene blue,” J. Biosci. Bioeng. 107(4), 455–459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, S. Ghosh, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Near infrared photoacoustic detection of sentinel lymph nodes with gold nanobeacons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4088–4093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

C. Zhang, S. Wang, J. Xiao, X. Tan, Y. Zhu, Y. Su, T. Cheng, and C. Shi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping by a near-infrared fluorescent heptamethine dye,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1911–1917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weaver, D. L.

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol. 2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wickline, S. A.

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, S. Ghosh, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Near infrared photoacoustic detection of sentinel lymph nodes with gold nanobeacons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4088–4093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winship, T.

E. A. Gould, T. Winship, P. H. Philbin, and H. H. Kerr, “Observations on a “sentinel node” in cancer of the parotid,” Cancer 13(1), 77–78 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wunderbaldinger, P.

P. Wunderbaldinger, K. Turetschek, and C. Bremer, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lymph nodes using a new enzyme sensing activatable macromolecular optical probe,” Eur. Radiol. 13(9), 2206–2211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, J.

C. Zhang, S. Wang, J. Xiao, X. Tan, Y. Zhu, Y. Su, T. Cheng, and C. Shi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping by a near-infrared fluorescent heptamethine dye,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1911–1917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.-K.

D. J. Park, H. H. Kim, Y. S. Park, H. S. Lee, W. W. Lee, H.-J. Lee, and H.-K. Yang, “Simultaneous indocyanine green and 99mTc-Antimoony sulfur colloid-guided laparoscopic sentinel basin dissection for gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, S. Wang, J. Xiao, X. Tan, Y. Zhu, Y. Su, T. Cheng, and C. Shi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping by a near-infrared fluorescent heptamethine dye,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1911–1917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

C. Zhang, S. Wang, J. Xiao, X. Tan, Y. Zhu, Y. Su, T. Cheng, and C. Shi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping by a near-infrared fluorescent heptamethine dye,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1911–1917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. (1)

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. 220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg. Oncol. (1)

D. J. Park, H. H. Kim, Y. S. Park, H. S. Lee, W. W. Lee, H.-J. Lee, and H.-K. Yang, “Simultaneous indocyanine green and 99mTc-Antimoony sulfur colloid-guided laparoscopic sentinel basin dissection for gastric cancer,” Ann. Surg. Oncol. (2010), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomaterials (2)

D. Pan, M. Pramanik, A. Senpan, S. Ghosh, S. A. Wickline, L. V. Wang, and G. M. Lanza, “Near infrared photoacoustic detection of sentinel lymph nodes with gold nanobeacons,” Biomaterials 31(14), 4088–4093 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhang, S. Wang, J. Xiao, X. Tan, Y. Zhu, Y. Su, T. Cheng, and C. Shi, “Sentinel lymph node mapping by a near-infrared fluorescent heptamethine dye,” Biomaterials 31(7), 1911–1917 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breast (1)

T. Hojo, T. Nagao, M. Kikuyama, S. Akashi, and T. Kinoshita, “Evaluation of sentinel node biopsy by combined fluorescent and dye method and lymph flow for breast cancer,” Breast 19(3), 210–213 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breast Cancer Res. Treat. (1)

C. Hirche, D. Murawa, Z. Mohr, S. Kneif, and M. Hünerbein, “ICG fluorescence-guided sentinel node biopsy for axillary nodal staging in breast cancer,” Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 121(2), 373–378 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (2)

E. A. Gould, T. Winship, P. H. Philbin, and H. H. Kerr, “Observations on a “sentinel node” in cancer of the parotid,” Cancer 13(1), 77–78 (1960).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Cabanas, “An approach for the treatment of penile carcinoma,” Cancer 39(2), 456–466 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (1)

M. Garcia-Manero, B. Olartecoechea, and P. Royo, “Different injection sites of radionuclide for sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer: single institution experience,” Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. 06.024 (2010).
[PubMed]

Eur. J. Radiol. (1)

K. H. Song, C. Kim, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes,” Eur. J. Radiol. 70(2), 227–231 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. (1)

M. P. Schijven, A. J. J. M. Vingerhoets, H. J. T. Rutten, G. A. P. Nieuwenhuijzen, R. M. H. Roumen, M. E. van Bussel, and A. C. Voogd, “Comparison of morbidity between axillary lymph node dissection and sentinel node biopsy,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 29(4), 341–350 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Radiol. (1)

P. Wunderbaldinger, K. Turetschek, and C. Bremer, “Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of lymph nodes using a new enzyme sensing activatable macromolecular optical probe,” Eur. Radiol. 13(9), 2206–2211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Anat. (1)

N. L. Tilney, “Patterns of lymphatic drainage in the adult laboratory rat,” J. Anat. 109(Pt 3), 369–383 (1971).
[PubMed]

J. Biosci. Bioeng. (1)

M. Chu and Y. Wan, “Sentinel lymph node mapping using near-infrared fluorescent methylene blue,” J. Biosci. Bioeng. 107(4), 455–459 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Pharm. Sci. (1)

D. W. Newton, P. J. Breen, D. E. Brown, J. F. Mackie, and R. B. Kluza, “Physicochemical characteristics of patent blue violet dye,” J. Pharm. Sci. 70(2), 122–127 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12(5), 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magn. Reson. Med. (1)

I. J. Namaer, J. Steibel, P. Poulet, J. P. Armspach, Y. Mauss, and J. Chambron, “In vivo dynamic MR imaging of MBP-induced acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rat,” Magn. Reson. Med. 24(2), 325–334 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

T. Buckle, A. C. van Leeuwen, P. T. K. Chin, H. Janssen, S. H. Muller, J. Jonkers, and F. W. B. van Leeuwen, “A self-assembled multimodal complex for combined pre- and intraoperative imaging of the sentinel lymph node,” Nanotechnology 21(35), 355101 (2010).
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Semin. Nucl. Med. (1)

C. E. Metz, “Basic principles of ROC analysis,” Semin. Nucl. Med. 8(4), 283–298 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surg. Oncol. (1)

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol. 2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. Moblay, and T. Vo-Dinh, Biomedical photonics handbook, (CRC Press, 2003), Chap. 2.

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