Abstract

The measurement of blood-plasma absolute velocity distributions with high spatial and temporal resolution in vivo is important for the investigation of embryonic heart at its early stage of development. We introduce a novel method to measure absolute blood flow velocity based on high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) and apply it to measure velocities across the heart outflow tract (OFT) of a chicken embryo (stage HH18). First, we use the OCT system to acquire 4D [(x,y,z) + t] images of the OFT in vivo. Second, we reconstruct the 4D microstructural images and obtain the orientation of the OFT at its maximum expansion, from which the centerline of the OFT is calculated based on the OFT boundary segmentation. Assuming flow is parallel to the vessel orientation, the obtained centerline indicates the flow direction. Finally, the absolute flow velocity is evaluated based on the direction given by the centerline and the axial velocity obtained from Doppler OCT. Using this method, we compare flow velocity profiles at various positions along the chicken embryo OFT.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. A. Davis, J. Izatt, and F. Rothenberg, “Quantitative measurement of blood flow dynamics in embryonic vasculature using spectral Doppler velocimetry,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 292(3), 311–319 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Davis, J. Izatt, and F. Rothenberg, “Quantitative measurement of blood flow dynamics in embryonic vasculature using spectral Doppler velocimetry,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 292(3), 311–319 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. K. Wang, K. L. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, “Efficient postacquisition synchronization of 4-D nongated cardiac images obtained from optical coherence tomography: application to 4-D reconstruction of the chick embryonic heart,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Davis, F. G. Rothenberg, N. Shepherd, and J. A. Izatt, “In vivo spectral domain optical coherence tomography volumetric imaging and spectral Doppler velocimetry of early stage embryonic chicken heart development,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 25(12), 3134–3143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, N. R. Munce, C. Randall, G. Liu, J. Y. Jiang, A. E. Cable, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “Doppler optical cardiogram gated 2D color flow imaging at 1000 fps and 4D in vivo visualization of embryonic heart at 45 fps on a swept source OCT system,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1627–1638 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Ahn, W. Jung, and Z. Chen, “Quantification of a three-dimensional velocity vector using spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 32(11), 1587–1589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. McQuinn, M. Bratoeva, A. Dealmeida, M. Remond, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “High-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of avian cardiovascular development,” Dev. Dyn. 236(12), 3503–3513 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech. 39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and Z. Chen, “In vivo blood flow imaging by a swept laser source based Fourier domain optical Doppler tomography,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7449–7457 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Gittenberger-de Groot, M. M. Bartelings, M. C. Deruiter, and R. E. Poelmann, “Basics of cardiac development for the understanding of congenital heart malformations,” Pediatr. Res. 57(2), 169–176 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

N. T. Ursem, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, J. W. Wladimiroff, R. E. Poelmann, A. C. Gittenberger-de Groot, N. Hu, and E. B. Clark, “Ventricular diastolic filling characteristics in stage-24 chick embryos after extra-embryonic venous obstruction,” J. Exp. Biol. 207(9), 1487–1490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

2002 (4)

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106(22), 2771–2774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. K. Phoon, O. Aristizábal, and D. H. Turnbull, “Spatial velocity profile in mouse embryonic aorta and Doppler-derived volumetric flow: a preliminary model,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 283(3), H908–H916 (2002).
[PubMed]

K. Ruijtenbeek, J. G. R. De Mey, C. E. Blanco, and H. Ehmke, “The chicken embryo in developmental physiology of the cardiovascular system: a traditional model with new possibilities,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 283(2), R549–R550, author reply R550–R551 (2002).
[PubMed]

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

C. K. Phoon, O. Aristizabal, and D. H. Turnbull, “40 MHz Doppler characterization of umbilical and dorsal aortic blood flow in the early mouse embryo,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26(8), 1275–1283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (2)

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: Active Contour Models,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 1(4), 321–331 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Wang, “Laser Doppler velocimetry,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 40(3), 309–319 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

V. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton, “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” J. Morphol. 88(1), 49–92 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Acevedo-Bolton, G.

J. R. Hove, R. W. Köster, A. S. Forouhar, G. Acevedo-Bolton, S. E. Fraser, and M. Gharib, “Intracardiac fluid forces are an essential epigenetic factor for embryonic cardiogenesis,” Nature 421(6919), 172–177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adamson, S. L.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Ahn, Y. C.

Aristizabal, O.

C. K. Phoon, O. Aristizabal, and D. H. Turnbull, “40 MHz Doppler characterization of umbilical and dorsal aortic blood flow in the early mouse embryo,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 26(8), 1275–1283 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aristizábal, O.

C. K. Phoon, O. Aristizábal, and D. H. Turnbull, “Spatial velocity profile in mouse embryonic aorta and Doppler-derived volumetric flow: a preliminary model,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 283(3), H908–H916 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bartelings, M. M.

A. C. Gittenberger-de Groot, M. M. Bartelings, M. C. Deruiter, and R. E. Poelmann, “Basics of cardiac development for the understanding of congenital heart malformations,” Pediatr. Res. 57(2), 169–176 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basavanhally, A. N.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blanco, C. E.

K. Ruijtenbeek, J. G. R. De Mey, C. E. Blanco, and H. Ehmke, “The chicken embryo in developmental physiology of the cardiovascular system: a traditional model with new possibilities,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 283(2), R549–R550, author reply R550–R551 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

Bratoeva, M.

T. C. McQuinn, M. Bratoeva, A. Dealmeida, M. Remond, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “High-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of avian cardiovascular development,” Dev. Dyn. 236(12), 3503–3513 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Cherin, E.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

M. A. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106(22), 2771–2774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christoffels, V. M.

A. F. M. Moorman and V. M. Christoffels, “Cardiac chamber formation: development, genes, and evolution,” Physiol. Rev. 83(4), 1223–1267 (2003).
[PubMed]

Chughtai, O. Q.

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, E. B.

N. T. Ursem, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, J. W. Wladimiroff, R. E. Poelmann, A. C. Gittenberger-de Groot, N. Hu, and E. B. Clark, “Ventricular diastolic filling characteristics in stage-24 chick embryos after extra-embryonic venous obstruction,” J. Exp. Biol. 207(9), 1487–1490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, A.

A. Davis, J. Izatt, and F. Rothenberg, “Quantitative measurement of blood flow dynamics in embryonic vasculature using spectral Doppler velocimetry,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 292(3), 311–319 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, A. M.

de Boer, J. F.

De Mey, J. G. R.

K. Ruijtenbeek, J. G. R. De Mey, C. E. Blanco, and H. Ehmke, “The chicken embryo in developmental physiology of the cardiovascular system: a traditional model with new possibilities,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 283(2), R549–R550, author reply R550–R551 (2002).
[PubMed]

Dealmeida, A.

T. C. McQuinn, M. Bratoeva, A. Dealmeida, M. Remond, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “High-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of avian cardiovascular development,” Dev. Dyn. 236(12), 3503–3513 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deruiter, M. C.

A. C. Gittenberger-de Groot, M. M. Bartelings, M. C. Deruiter, and R. E. Poelmann, “Basics of cardiac development for the understanding of congenital heart malformations,” Pediatr. Res. 57(2), 169–176 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickinson, M. E.

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehmke, H.

K. Ruijtenbeek, J. G. R. De Mey, C. E. Blanco, and H. Ehmke, “The chicken embryo in developmental physiology of the cardiovascular system: a traditional model with new possibilities,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 283(2), R549–R550, author reply R550–R551 (2002).
[PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forouhar, A. S.

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Hove, R. W. Köster, A. S. Forouhar, G. Acevedo-Bolton, S. E. Fraser, and M. Gharib, “Intracardiac fluid forces are an essential epigenetic factor for embryonic cardiogenesis,” Nature 421(6919), 172–177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, F. S.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Hove, R. W. Köster, A. S. Forouhar, G. Acevedo-Bolton, S. E. Fraser, and M. Gharib, “Intracardiac fluid forces are an essential epigenetic factor for embryonic cardiogenesis,” Nature 421(6919), 172–177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gharib, M.

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Hove, R. W. Köster, A. S. Forouhar, G. Acevedo-Bolton, S. E. Fraser, and M. Gharib, “Intracardiac fluid forces are an essential epigenetic factor for embryonic cardiogenesis,” Nature 421(6919), 172–177 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gittenberger-de Groot, A. C.

A. C. Gittenberger-de Groot, M. M. Bartelings, M. C. Deruiter, and R. E. Poelmann, “Basics of cardiac development for the understanding of congenital heart malformations,” Pediatr. Res. 57(2), 169–176 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. T. Ursem, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, J. W. Wladimiroff, R. E. Poelmann, A. C. Gittenberger-de Groot, N. Hu, and E. B. Clark, “Ventricular diastolic filling characteristics in stage-24 chick embryos after extra-embryonic venous obstruction,” J. Exp. Biol. 207(9), 1487–1490 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, M. L.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groenendijk, B. C.

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech. 39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamburger, V.

V. Hamburger and H. L. Hamilton, “A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo,” J. Morphol. 88(1), 49–92 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, H. L.

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T. C. McQuinn, M. Bratoeva, A. Dealmeida, M. Remond, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “High-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of avian cardiovascular development,” Dev. Dyn. 236(12), 3503–3513 (2007).
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M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 030505 (2007).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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Shaut, C.

S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
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P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech. 39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
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M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: Active Contour Models,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 1(4), 321–331 (1988).
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T. C. McQuinn, M. Bratoeva, A. Dealmeida, M. Remond, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “High-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of avian cardiovascular development,” Dev. Dyn. 236(12), 3503–3513 (2007).
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S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
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A. Liu, R. K. Wang, K. L. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, “Efficient postacquisition synchronization of 4-D nongated cardiac images obtained from optical coherence tomography: application to 4-D reconstruction of the chick embryonic heart,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044020 (2009).
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T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106(22), 2771–2774 (2002).
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C. K. Phoon, O. Aristizábal, and D. H. Turnbull, “Spatial velocity profile in mouse embryonic aorta and Doppler-derived volumetric flow: a preliminary model,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 283(3), H908–H916 (2002).
[PubMed]

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P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech. 39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Rugonyi, C. Shaut, A. Liu, K. Thornburg, and R. K. Wang, “Changes in wall motion and blood flow in the outflow tract of chick embryonic hearts observed with optical coherence tomography after outflow tract banding and vitelline-vein ligation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 53(18), 5077–5091 (2008).
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M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 030505 (2007).
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P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech. 39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
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M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: Active Contour Models,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 1(4), 321–331 (1988).
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N. T. Ursem, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, J. W. Wladimiroff, R. E. Poelmann, A. C. Gittenberger-de Groot, N. Hu, and E. B. Clark, “Ventricular diastolic filling characteristics in stage-24 chick embryos after extra-embryonic venous obstruction,” J. Exp. Biol. 207(9), 1487–1490 (2004).
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Yang, V. X. D.

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T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106(22), 2771–2774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Zhang, M. Y.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y. Q.

F. S. Foster, M. Y. Zhang, Y. Q. Zhou, G. Liu, J. Mehi, E. Cherin, K. A. Harasiewicz, B. G. Starkoski, L. Zan, D. A. Knapik, and S. L. Adamson, “A new ultrasound instrument for in vivo microimaging of mice,” Ultrasound Med. Biol. 28(9), 1165–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (1)

C. K. Phoon, O. Aristizábal, and D. H. Turnbull, “Spatial velocity profile in mouse embryonic aorta and Doppler-derived volumetric flow: a preliminary model,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 283(3), H908–H916 (2002).
[PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (1)

K. Ruijtenbeek, J. G. R. De Mey, C. E. Blanco, and H. Ehmke, “The chicken embryo in developmental physiology of the cardiovascular system: a traditional model with new possibilities,” Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 283(2), R549–R550, author reply R550–R551 (2002).
[PubMed]

Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) (1)

A. Davis, J. Izatt, and F. Rothenberg, “Quantitative measurement of blood flow dynamics in embryonic vasculature using spectral Doppler velocimetry,” Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 292(3), 311–319 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation (1)

T. M. Yelbuz, M. A. Choma, L. Thrane, M. L. Kirby, and J. A. Izatt, “Optical coherence tomography: a new high-resolution imaging technology to study cardiac development in chick embryos,” Circulation 106(22), 2771–2774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dev. Dyn. (1)

T. C. McQuinn, M. Bratoeva, A. Dealmeida, M. Remond, R. P. Thompson, and D. Sedmera, “High-frequency ultrasonographic imaging of avian cardiovascular development,” Dev. Dyn. 236(12), 3503–3513 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (1)

M. Kass, A. Witkin, and D. Terzopoulos, “Snakes: Active Contour Models,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 1(4), 321–331 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomech. (1)

P. Vennemann, K. T. Kiger, R. Lindken, B. C. Groenendijk, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, T. L. ten Hagen, N. T. Ursem, R. E. Poelmann, J. Westerweel, and B. P. Hierck, “In vivo micro particle image velocimetry measurements of blood-plasma in the embryonic avian heart,” J. Biomech. 39(7), 1191–1200 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

M. Liebling, A. S. Forouhar, M. Gharib, S. E. Fraser, and M. E. Dickinson, “Four-dimensional cardiac imaging in living embryos via postacquisition synchronization of nongated slice sequences,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(5), 054001 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. K. Wang, K. L. Thornburg, and S. Rugonyi, “Efficient postacquisition synchronization of 4-D nongated cardiac images obtained from optical coherence tomography: application to 4-D reconstruction of the chick embryonic heart,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044020 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Jenkins, O. Q. Chughtai, A. N. Basavanhally, M. Watanabe, and A. M. Rollins, “In vivo gated 4D imaging of the embryonic heart using optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(3), 030505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Exp. Biol. (1)

N. T. Ursem, S. Stekelenburg-de Vos, J. W. Wladimiroff, R. E. Poelmann, A. C. Gittenberger-de Groot, N. Hu, and E. B. Clark, “Ventricular diastolic filling characteristics in stage-24 chick embryos after extra-embryonic venous obstruction,” J. Exp. Biol. 207(9), 1487–1490 (2004).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of our spectral-domain OCT system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic 4D scan strategy (non-gated). Spatial volume: 4.6 (Z) × 1.1(X) × 1.1(Y) mm3. Each position: 200 frames (~1.5 sec).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D views of segmented chicken embryonic OFT and the OFT centerline. Side view (a) and top view (b) of segmented chicken embryonic OFT, when the OFT walls are most expanded. Blue line and yellow line in (a) correspond to inlet and outlet of OFT . (c) Calculated centerline corresponding to (a) and (b), Red circle corresponds to the region of OFT near the aortic sac, purple circle corresponds to the ventricle; (d) schematic representation of calculation of flow direction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Boundary segmentation of chicken embryonic OFT walls: (a) Structural image; (b) boundary segmentation; (c) segmented boundary curve; (d) region within the curve (geometrical center of the region serves as blood vessel center point).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Doppler angle factor (DF) distribution at different positions along the chicken embryo OFT. Region 1: OFT near the arterial system; region 2: bended region of OFT; region 3: ventricle. Doppler angle factors in region 1 and 3 are inaccurate because the boundaries of the OFT in the structural image are not clear (Section 3.3). Doppler angle factors in region 2 are not useful because the Doppler angles here are close to π/2 (Section 3.4).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Maximum blood flow velocity near the OFT inlet. (a) M-mode image extracted from the sequence of cross-sectional images (one row over time). White line in (a) denotes the phase (time) of the cross-sectional images (b) and (c); (b) OCT structural image; (c)absolute velocity distribution image (obtained from Doppler SDOCT after correction for DF); (d) velocity profile across the white line [on (b)] of OFT.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maximum blood flow velocity near the OFT outlet. (a) M-mode image extracted from the sequence of cross-sectional images (one row over time). White line in (a) denotes the phase (time) of the cross-sectional images (b) and (c); (b) OCT structural image; (c)absolute velocity distribution image (obtained from Doppler SDOCT after correction for DF); (d) velocity profile across the white line [on (b)] of OFT.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Maximum backward blood flow velocity near the OFT outlet. (a) M-mode image extracted from the sequence of cross-sectional images (one row over time). White line in (a) denotes the phase (time) of the cross-sectional images (b) and (c); (b) OCT structural image; (c)absolute velocity distribution image (obtained from Doppler SDOCT after correction for DF); (d) velocity profile across the white line [on (b)] of OFT.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Chicken embryo OFT bending. (a) Side view of segmented OFT; (b) Top view of segmented OFT ; (c) Longitudinal 2D scan of OFT. The OFT is bending in two direction, so it is difficult to get a longitudinal cut of OFT.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Phase unwrapping. (a) Forward blood flow with wrapping; (b) Forward blood flow with wrapping correct. Measurable range shifted from [-12, 12] mm/sec ((a))to [0, 24]mm/sec((b)).

Equations (6)

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X C = ( i , j ) x i I ( z j , x i ) N
Z C = ( i , j ) z j I ( z j , x i ) N
Δ φ = 4 π λ n τ V Z = 4 π λ n τ V cos θ
V = Δ φ λ 4 π n τ cos θ = V Z cos θ = D F V Z
D F = 1 cos θ = ( d x ) 2 + ( d y ) 2 + ( d z ) 2 d z
d x = x P ' ' x P ' , d y = y P ' ' y P ' , d z = z P ' ' z P '

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