Abstract

Laminar optical tomography (LOT) is a recently developed technique for depth-resolved in vivo imaging of absorption and fluorescence contrast. Until now, LOT has been implemented in a benchtop configuration, limiting accessibility to tissues and restricting imaging applications. Here we report on LOT implemented through an articulating arm and a fiber optic image bundle allowing flexible imaging for a range of clinical applications. We quantify the performance of these two implementations by imaging a tissue mimicking phantom.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. de Leeuw, N. van der Beek, W. D. Neugebauer, P. Bjerring, and H. A. Neumann, “Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 96–103 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. B. Stenquist, M. B. Ericson, C. Strandeberg, L. Mölne, A. Rosén, O. Larkö, and A. M. Wennberg, “Bispectral fluorescence imaging of aggressive basal cell carcinoma combined with histopathological mapping: a preliminary study indicating a possible adjunct to Mohs micrographic surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(2), 305–309 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(4), 645–654 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. R. Haxel, M. Goetz, R. Kiesslich, and J. Gosepath, “Confocal endomicroscopy: a novel application for imaging of oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in human,” Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 267(3), 443–448 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG 116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 2105–2115 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. M. C. Hillman, O. Bernus, E. Pease, M. B. Bouchard, and A. Pertsov, “Depth-resolved optical imaging of transmural electrical propagation in perfused heart,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17827–17841 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. M. C. Hillman, D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and A. K. Dunn, “Laminar optical tomography: demonstration of millimeter-scale depth-resolved imaging in turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1650–1652 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. A. Burgess, M. B. Bouchard, B. Yuan, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Simultaneous multiwavelength laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2710–2712 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Ouakli, E. Guevara, S. Dubeau, É. Beaumont, and F. Lesage, “Laminar optical tomography of the hemodynamic response in the lumbar spinal cord of rats,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10068–10077 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Yuan, Q. Li, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Three-dimensional coregistered optical coherence tomography and line-scanning fluorescence laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1615–1617 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. E. M. C. Hillman, “Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051402 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, “Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3171–3181 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. B. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043706 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. C. Allard, Fiber optics handbook: for engineers and scientists, Optical and electro-optical engineering series (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), p. 549 p. in various pagings.
  20. R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Optical devices used for image analysis of pigmented skin lesions: a proposal for quality assurance protocol using tissue-like phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(23), N429–N440 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. E. M. C. Hillman and S. A. Burgess, “Sub-millimeter resolution 3D optical imaging of living tissue using laminar optical tomography,” Laser Photon Rev 3(1-2), 159–179 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with miniature objective for in vivo imaging of human tissues,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(10), 1168–1172 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Juškattis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, “Real-time white light reflection confocal microscopy using a fibre-optic bundle,” Scanning 19(1), 15–19 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (2)

B. R. Haxel, M. Goetz, R. Kiesslich, and J. Gosepath, “Confocal endomicroscopy: a novel application for imaging of oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in human,” Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 267(3), 443–448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Ouakli, E. Guevara, S. Dubeau, É. Beaumont, and F. Lesage, “Laminar optical tomography of the hemodynamic response in the lumbar spinal cord of rats,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10068–10077 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

S. Yuan, Q. Li, J. Jiang, A. Cable, and Y. Chen, “Three-dimensional coregistered optical coherence tomography and line-scanning fluorescence laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1615–1617 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG 116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. de Leeuw, N. van der Beek, W. D. Neugebauer, P. Bjerring, and H. A. Neumann, “Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 96–103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(4), 645–654 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman and S. A. Burgess, “Sub-millimeter resolution 3D optical imaging of living tissue using laminar optical tomography,” Laser Photon Rev 3(1-2), 159–179 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stenquist, M. B. Ericson, C. Strandeberg, L. Mölne, A. Rosén, O. Larkö, and A. M. Wennberg, “Bispectral fluorescence imaging of aggressive basal cell carcinoma combined with histopathological mapping: a preliminary study indicating a possible adjunct to Mohs micrographic surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(2), 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Optical devices used for image analysis of pigmented skin lesions: a proposal for quality assurance protocol using tissue-like phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(23), N429–N440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and A. K. Dunn, “Laminar optical tomography: demonstration of millimeter-scale depth-resolved imaging in turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1650–1652 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with miniature objective for in vivo imaging of human tissues,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(10), 1168–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (2)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Juškattis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, “Real-time white light reflection confocal microscopy using a fibre-optic bundle,” Scanning 19(1), 15–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. W.

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

Beaumont, É.

Bernus, O.

Bjerring, P.

J. de Leeuw, N. van der Beek, W. D. Neugebauer, P. Bjerring, and H. A. Neumann, “Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 96–103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Bordier, C.

B. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouchard, M. B.

Burg, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burgess, S. A.

B. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman and S. A. Burgess, “Sub-millimeter resolution 3D optical imaging of living tissue using laminar optical tomography,” Laser Photon Rev 3(1-2), 159–179 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burgess, M. B. Bouchard, B. Yuan, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Simultaneous multiwavelength laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2710–2712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cable, A.

Canto, M. I.

K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(4), 645–654 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrara, M.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Optical devices used for image analysis of pigmented skin lesions: a proposal for quality assurance protocol using tissue-like phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(23), N429–N440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Collier, T.

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with miniature objective for in vivo imaging of human tissues,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(10), 1168–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombo, A.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Optical devices used for image analysis of pigmented skin lesions: a proposal for quality assurance protocol using tissue-like phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(23), N429–N440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahlmann, A.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dale, A. M.

de Leeuw, J.

J. de Leeuw, N. van der Beek, W. D. Neugebauer, P. Bjerring, and H. A. Neumann, “Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 96–103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, P.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaney, P. M.

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG 116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Descour, M.

K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, “Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3171–3181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with miniature objective for in vivo imaging of human tissues,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(10), 1168–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubeau, S.

Dunbar, K. B.

K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(4), 645–654 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

El-Naggar, A. K.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enders, M.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ericson, M. B.

B. Stenquist, M. B. Ericson, C. Strandeberg, L. Mölne, A. Rosén, O. Larkö, and A. M. Wennberg, “Bispectral fluorescence imaging of aggressive basal cell carcinoma combined with histopathological mapping: a preliminary study indicating a possible adjunct to Mohs micrographic surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(2), 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, “Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3171–3181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with miniature objective for in vivo imaging of human tissues,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(10), 1168–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galle, P. R.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A. M.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gnaendiger, J.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goetz, M.

B. R. Haxel, M. Goetz, R. Kiesslich, and J. Gosepath, “Confocal endomicroscopy: a novel application for imaging of oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in human,” Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 267(3), 443–448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gosepath, J.

B. R. Haxel, M. Goetz, R. Kiesslich, and J. Gosepath, “Confocal endomicroscopy: a novel application for imaging of oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in human,” Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 267(3), 443–448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossner, L.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guevara, E.

Haxel, B. R.

B. R. Haxel, M. Goetz, R. Kiesslich, and J. Gosepath, “Confocal endomicroscopy: a novel application for imaging of oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in human,” Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 267(3), 443–448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M. C.

B. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman and S. A. Burgess, “Sub-millimeter resolution 3D optical imaging of living tissue using laminar optical tomography,” Laser Photon Rev 3(1-2), 159–179 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burgess, M. B. Bouchard, B. Yuan, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Simultaneous multiwavelength laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2710–2712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, “Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, O. Bernus, E. Pease, M. B. Bouchard, and A. Pertsov, “Depth-resolved optical imaging of transmural electrical propagation in perfused heart,” Opt. Express 15(26), 17827–17841 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, D. A. Boas, A. M. Dale, and A. K. Dunn, “Laminar optical tomography: demonstration of millimeter-scale depth-resolved imaging in turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 29(14), 1650–1652 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, A.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iranmahboob, A.

B. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janell, D.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, J.

Jung, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Juškattis, R.

R. Juškattis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, “Real-time white light reflection confocal microscopy using a fibre-optic bundle,” Scanning 19(1), 15–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kiesslich, R.

B. R. Haxel, M. Goetz, R. Kiesslich, and J. Gosepath, “Confocal endomicroscopy: a novel application for imaging of oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in human,” Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 267(3), 443–448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurachi, C.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, S.

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lane, P. M.

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larkö, O.

B. Stenquist, M. B. Ericson, C. Strandeberg, L. Mölne, A. Rosén, O. Larkö, and A. M. Wennberg, “Bispectral fluorescence imaging of aggressive basal cell carcinoma combined with histopathological mapping: a preliminary study indicating a possible adjunct to Mohs micrographic surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(2), 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. J.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehrer, N.

B. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leriche, J. C.

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lesage, F.

Li, Q.

Liang, C.

K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, “Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3171–3181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with miniature objective for in vivo imaging of human tissues,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(10), 1168–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lualdi, M.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Optical devices used for image analysis of pigmented skin lesions: a proposal for quality assurance protocol using tissue-like phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(23), N429–N440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macaulay, C. E.

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

Marchesini, R.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Optical devices used for image analysis of pigmented skin lesions: a proposal for quality assurance protocol using tissue-like phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(23), N429–N440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, W.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McLaren, W. J.

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG 116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McWilliams, A.

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mölne, L.

B. Stenquist, M. B. Ericson, C. Strandeberg, L. Mölne, A. Rosén, O. Larkö, and A. M. Wennberg, “Bispectral fluorescence imaging of aggressive basal cell carcinoma combined with histopathological mapping: a preliminary study indicating a possible adjunct to Mohs micrographic surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(2), 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montgomery, E.

K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(4), 645–654 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nafe, B.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neugebauer, W. D.

J. de Leeuw, N. van der Beek, W. D. Neugebauer, P. Bjerring, and H. A. Neumann, “Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 96–103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumann, H. A.

J. de Leeuw, N. van der Beek, W. D. Neugebauer, P. Bjerring, and H. A. Neumann, “Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 96–103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okolo, P.

K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(4), 645–654 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouakli, N.

Pease, E.

Pertsov, A.

Pifferi, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polglase, A.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pyman, J. M.

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG 116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quinn, M. A.

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG 116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Redden Weber, C.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, “Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3171–3181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with miniature objective for in vivo imaging of human tissues,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(10), 1168–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosén, A.

B. Stenquist, M. B. Ericson, C. Strandeberg, L. Mölne, A. Rosén, O. Larkö, and A. M. Wennberg, “Bispectral fluorescence imaging of aggressive basal cell carcinoma combined with histopathological mapping: a preliminary study indicating a possible adjunct to Mohs micrographic surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(2), 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, R. A.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scienza, L.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Optical devices used for image analysis of pigmented skin lesions: a proposal for quality assurance protocol using tissue-like phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(23), N429–N440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenquist, B.

B. Stenquist, M. B. Ericson, C. Strandeberg, L. Mölne, A. Rosén, O. Larkö, and A. M. Wennberg, “Bispectral fluorescence imaging of aggressive basal cell carcinoma combined with histopathological mapping: a preliminary study indicating a possible adjunct to Mohs micrographic surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(2), 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolte, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strandeberg, C.

B. Stenquist, M. B. Ericson, C. Strandeberg, L. Mölne, A. Rosén, O. Larkö, and A. M. Wennberg, “Bispectral fluorescence imaging of aggressive basal cell carcinoma combined with histopathological mapping: a preliminary study indicating a possible adjunct to Mohs micrographic surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(2), 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sung, K. B.

K. B. Sung, R. Richards-Kortum, M. Follen, A. Malpica, C. Liang, and M. Descour, “Fiber optic confocal reflectance microscopy: a new real-time technique to view nuclear morphology in cervical squamous epithelium in vivo,” Opt. Express 11(24), 3171–3181 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with miniature objective for in vivo imaging of human tissues,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(10), 1168–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, J.

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG 116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, S.

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomatis, S.

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Optical devices used for image analysis of pigmented skin lesions: a proposal for quality assurance protocol using tissue-like phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(23), N429–N440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torricelli, A.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentini, G.

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Beek, N.

J. de Leeuw, N. van der Beek, W. D. Neugebauer, P. Bjerring, and H. A. Neumann, “Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 96–103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vieth, M.

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, T. F.

R. Juškattis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, “Real-time white light reflection confocal microscopy using a fibre-optic bundle,” Scanning 19(1), 15–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Webb, R. H.

Wennberg, A. M.

B. Stenquist, M. B. Ericson, C. Strandeberg, L. Mölne, A. Rosén, O. Larkö, and A. M. Wennberg, “Bispectral fluorescence imaging of aggressive basal cell carcinoma combined with histopathological mapping: a preliminary study indicating a possible adjunct to Mohs micrographic surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(2), 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, T.

R. Juškattis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, “Real-time white light reflection confocal microscopy using a fibre-optic bundle,” Scanning 19(1), 15–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, B.

B. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Burgess, M. B. Bouchard, B. Yuan, and E. M. C. Hillman, “Simultaneous multiwavelength laminar optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2710–2712 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

BJOG (1)

J. Tan, M. A. Quinn, J. M. Pyman, P. M. Delaney, and W. J. McLaren, “Detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in vivo using confocal endomicroscopy,” BJOG 116(12), 1663–1670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol. (1)

B. Stenquist, M. B. Ericson, C. Strandeberg, L. Mölne, A. Rosén, O. Larkö, and A. M. Wennberg, “Bispectral fluorescence imaging of aggressive basal cell carcinoma combined with histopathological mapping: a preliminary study indicating a possible adjunct to Mohs micrographic surgery,” Br. J. Dermatol. 154(2), 305–309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, C. Redden Weber, C. Kurachi, J. J. Lee, A. K. El-Naggar, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Noninvasive evaluation of oral lesions using depth-sensitive optical spectroscopy,” Cancer 115(8), 1669–1679 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. (1)

R. Kiesslich, L. Gossner, M. Goetz, A. Dahlmann, M. Vieth, M. Stolte, A. Hoffman, M. Jung, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “In vivo histology of Barrett’s esophagus and associated neoplasia by confocal laser endomicroscopy,” Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 4(8), 979–987 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. (1)

B. R. Haxel, M. Goetz, R. Kiesslich, and J. Gosepath, “Confocal endomicroscopy: a novel application for imaging of oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in human,” Eur. Arch. Otorhinolaryngol. 267(3), 443–448 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

R. Kiesslich, J. Burg, M. Vieth, J. Gnaendiger, M. Enders, P. Delaney, A. Polglase, W. McLaren, D. Janell, S. Thomas, B. Nafe, P. R. Galle, and M. F. Neurath, “Confocal laser endoscopy for diagnosing intraepithelial neoplasias and colorectal cancer in vivo,” Gastroenterology 127(3), 706–713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (1)

K. B. Dunbar, P. Okolo, E. Montgomery, and M. I. Canto, “Confocal laser endomicroscopy in Barrett’s esophagus and endoscopically inapparent Barrett’s neoplasia: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 70(4), 645–654 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

K. B. Sung, C. Liang, M. Descour, T. Collier, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with miniature objective for in vivo imaging of human tissues,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 49(10), 1168–1172 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

E. M. C. Hillman, “Optical brain imaging in vivo: techniques and applications from animal to man,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 051402 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. M. Lane, S. Lam, A. McWilliams, J. C. Leriche, M. W. Anderson, and C. E. Macaulay, “Confocal fluorescence microendoscopy of bronchial epithelium,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024008 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Photon Rev (1)

E. M. C. Hillman and S. A. Burgess, “Sub-millimeter resolution 3D optical imaging of living tissue using laminar optical tomography,” Laser Photon Rev 3(1-2), 159–179 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med. (1)

J. de Leeuw, N. van der Beek, W. D. Neugebauer, P. Bjerring, and H. A. Neumann, “Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage,” Lasers Surg. Med. 41(2), 96–103 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

R. Cubeddu, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, A. Torricelli, and G. Valentini, “A solid tissue phantom for photon migration studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42(10), 1971–1979 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lualdi, A. Colombo, M. Carrara, L. Scienza, S. Tomatis, and R. Marchesini, “Optical devices used for image analysis of pigmented skin lesions: a proposal for quality assurance protocol using tissue-like phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(23), N429–N440 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. Yuan, S. A. Burgess, A. Iranmahboob, M. B. Bouchard, N. Lehrer, C. Bordier, and E. M. C. Hillman, “A system for high-resolution depth-resolved optical imaging of fluorescence and absorption contrast,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 043706 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scanning (1)

R. Juškattis, T. Wilson, and T. F. Watson, “Real-time white light reflection confocal microscopy using a fibre-optic bundle,” Scanning 19(1), 15–19 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

F. C. Allard, Fiber optics handbook: for engineers and scientists, Optical and electro-optical engineering series (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1990), p. 549 p. in various pagings.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic showing remitted reflected light paths within tissue. Light emitted further from the source has, on average, travelled deeper into the tissue. (b) Schematic of basic LOT system for absorption contrast imaging. (c) RGB merged raw LOT data of a phantom with red, green and blue absorbers embedded at different depths. The narrow source-detector separation (0.25 mm) is more sensitive to shallow embedded absorbers. In the wider source-detector separation (1.0 mm) the deeper embedded absorbers become more apparent.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of the articulating arm. Pivot mirrors positioned after the scan lens couple the intermediate image plane to the sample plane with three degrees of freedom.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Screenshots of LOT ray tracing software. (a) Ray tracing for the incident source light (blue), remitted absorption light (red) and emitting fluorescence light (green). All axes are shown in millimeters. (b) Clipping of the incident light is observed when the galvanometer mirrors are rotated during a scan. (c) Clipping of the off-axis returning light during a scan.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic diagram of fiber bundle based LOT. (b) Photograph of the fiber bundle end face.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Imaging phantom: schematic drawing and photograph. Arrowheads indicate location of hair in each. Dashed line in the photograph shows the LOT imaging region of interest.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

LOT ‘raw data’ images after dark subtraction. (a) Articulating arm. (b) Fiber bundle. Color bars are in units of volts.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Background signal was calculated from the average of 100 frames (1). The averaged frame was then averaged down columns creating a profile of the frame (2). Background regions were selected and averaged from the profile (3). (b) The percent change from the background signal provided a measure of contrast. Plots show the percent change for the articulating arm (top) and fiber bundle (bottom) at three source-detector (S-D) separation distances. (c) Contrast and noise plots for each configuration.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M s , d = g d ( S s , d + D s , d + O d )
M s , d = g d ( S s , d + D s , d + O d ) g d ( D s , d + O d ) = g d S s , d
% Δ = ( g d S a v g B k g d g d S a v g ) g d S a v g B k g d × 100 = ( S a v g B k g d S a v g ) S a v g B k g d × 100 = 1 S a v g S a v g B k g d × 100

Metrics