Abstract

Cutaneous transilluminators are light-emitting devices used to localize blood vessels for various medical procedures. They are often used in populations that may be at increased risk for skin burns, such as neonates and the elderly. While there is a known potential for skin burns, little is known about the ophthalmic risk from the use of these devices. This paper will report on the laboratory evaluation of the potential ocular hazards from transilluminators (TIs). Our results indicate that transilluminators which incorporate white-light LEDs have emissions that have the potential for producing injury to the retina, especially in patients who may have a reduced aversion response.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. R. Kuhns, A. J. Martin, S. Gildersleeve, and A. K. Poznanski, “Intense transillumination for infant venipuncture,” Radiology 116(3), 734–735 (1975).
    [PubMed]
  2. J. H. Van Der Walt and K. Gassmanis, “Skin burns from a cold light source,” Anaesth. Intensive Care 18(1), 113–115 (1990).
    [PubMed]
  3. S. Church and D. H. Adamkin, “Transillumination in neonatal intensive care: a possible iatrogenic complication,” South. Med. J. 74(1), 76–77 (1981).
    [PubMed]
  4. S. Withey, G. Williams, and A. Moss, “Cold light, heat burn,” Burns 26(4), 414–415 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Sümpelmann, W. A. Osthaus, H. Irmler, and C. Hernandez, “Prevention of burns caused by transillumination for peripheral venous access in neonates,” Paediatr. Anaesth. 16(10), 1097–1098 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. M. John, “Transillumination for vascular access: old concept, new technology,” Paediatr. Anaesth. 17(2), 197–198 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. J. Pfefer, A. Mehrabi, R. H. James, R. J. Landry, S. Weininger, I. Chang, D. Kaufman, and S. A. Miller, “Optical-thermal characterization of cutaneous transilluminators,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6867–6880 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, J. E. Millen, S. F. Cleary, R. K. Guerry, and D. Guerry, “Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 3(1), 165–174 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Guidelines on limits of exposure to broad-band incoherent optical radiation (0.38 to 3 microM),” Health Phys. 73(3), 539–554 (1997).
    [PubMed]
  10. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, (IESNA), Recommended Practice for Photobiological Safety for Lamps and Lamp Systems – General Requirements, RP 27.1–05, IESNA, New York, New York, 2005.
  11. Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents & Biological Exposure Indices, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, Ohio, (2008).
  12. International Organization for Standards (ISO) 15004–2:2006(E). Ophthalmic instruments – Fundamental requirements and test methods – Part 2: Light hazard protection (2006).
  13. American Academy of Pediatrics. Section on Ophthalmology, “Screening examination of premature infants for retinopathy of prematurity,” Pediatrics 108(3), 809–811 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “ICNIRP statement on light-emitting diodes (LEDS) and laser diodes: implications for hazard assessment,” Health Phys. 78(6), 744–752 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Report, IEC TR 60825–13 Safety of laser products – Part 13: Measurements for classification of laser products, ed. 1.0 (2006).
  16. W. T. Ham, Jr., “The photopathology and nature of the blue-light and near-UV retinal lesion produced by lasers and other optical sources”, Laser Appl Med Biol, ed. M.L.Wolbarsht, Plenum, New York, (1989).
  17. R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. 395, 577–587 (1988).
    [PubMed]
  18. D. J. Sliney, and M. L. Wolbarsht, Safety with lasers and other optical sources (Plenum, 1980) p 79.
  19. J. D. Wilson, A. J. Adams, P. Murphy, H. Eswaran, and H. Prisisl, “Design of a light simulator for fetal and neonatal encephalography,” Physiol. Meas. 30(1–N), 10 (2009).
  20. H. Mactier, S. Maroo, M. Bradnam, and R. Hamilton, “Ocular biometry in preterm infants: implications for estimation of retinal illuminance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 453–457 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. E. Roberts, “Ocular phototoxicity,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 64(2-3), 136–143 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. L. Katsogridakis, R. Seshadri, C. Sullivan, and M. L. Waltzman, “Veinlite transillumination in the pediatric emergency department,” Pediatr. Emerg. Care 24(2), 83–88 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. W. Halbritter, W. Horak, and W. Jordan, “Measurement requirements for the characterization of photobiological hazards posed by the optical radiation of lamps or LEDs”, Proc. CIE “Expert Symposium 2008 on Advances in Photometry and Colorimetry” (2008).

2009

T. J. Pfefer, A. Mehrabi, R. H. James, R. J. Landry, S. Weininger, I. Chang, D. Kaufman, and S. A. Miller, “Optical-thermal characterization of cutaneous transilluminators,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6867–6880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Wilson, A. J. Adams, P. Murphy, H. Eswaran, and H. Prisisl, “Design of a light simulator for fetal and neonatal encephalography,” Physiol. Meas. 30(1–N), 10 (2009).

2008

H. Mactier, S. Maroo, M. Bradnam, and R. Hamilton, “Ocular biometry in preterm infants: implications for estimation of retinal illuminance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 453–457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Katsogridakis, R. Seshadri, C. Sullivan, and M. L. Waltzman, “Veinlite transillumination in the pediatric emergency department,” Pediatr. Emerg. Care 24(2), 83–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. M. John, “Transillumination for vascular access: old concept, new technology,” Paediatr. Anaesth. 17(2), 197–198 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

R. Sümpelmann, W. A. Osthaus, H. Irmler, and C. Hernandez, “Prevention of burns caused by transillumination for peripheral venous access in neonates,” Paediatr. Anaesth. 16(10), 1097–1098 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. E. Roberts, “Ocular phototoxicity,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 64(2-3), 136–143 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

American Academy of Pediatrics. Section on Ophthalmology, “Screening examination of premature infants for retinopathy of prematurity,” Pediatrics 108(3), 809–811 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “ICNIRP statement on light-emitting diodes (LEDS) and laser diodes: implications for hazard assessment,” Health Phys. 78(6), 744–752 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Withey, G. Williams, and A. Moss, “Cold light, heat burn,” Burns 26(4), 414–415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Guidelines on limits of exposure to broad-band incoherent optical radiation (0.38 to 3 microM),” Health Phys. 73(3), 539–554 (1997).
[PubMed]

1990

J. H. Van Der Walt and K. Gassmanis, “Skin burns from a cold light source,” Anaesth. Intensive Care 18(1), 113–115 (1990).
[PubMed]

1988

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. 395, 577–587 (1988).
[PubMed]

1984

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, J. E. Millen, S. F. Cleary, R. K. Guerry, and D. Guerry, “Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 3(1), 165–174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981

S. Church and D. H. Adamkin, “Transillumination in neonatal intensive care: a possible iatrogenic complication,” South. Med. J. 74(1), 76–77 (1981).
[PubMed]

1975

L. R. Kuhns, A. J. Martin, S. Gildersleeve, and A. K. Poznanski, “Intense transillumination for infant venipuncture,” Radiology 116(3), 734–735 (1975).
[PubMed]

Adamkin, D. H.

S. Church and D. H. Adamkin, “Transillumination in neonatal intensive care: a possible iatrogenic complication,” South. Med. J. 74(1), 76–77 (1981).
[PubMed]

Adams, A. J.

J. D. Wilson, A. J. Adams, P. Murphy, H. Eswaran, and H. Prisisl, “Design of a light simulator for fetal and neonatal encephalography,” Physiol. Meas. 30(1–N), 10 (2009).

Bradnam, M.

H. Mactier, S. Maroo, M. Bradnam, and R. Hamilton, “Ocular biometry in preterm infants: implications for estimation of retinal illuminance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 453–457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, I.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Mehrabi, R. H. James, R. J. Landry, S. Weininger, I. Chang, D. Kaufman, and S. A. Miller, “Optical-thermal characterization of cutaneous transilluminators,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6867–6880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Church, S.

S. Church and D. H. Adamkin, “Transillumination in neonatal intensive care: a possible iatrogenic complication,” South. Med. J. 74(1), 76–77 (1981).
[PubMed]

Cleary, S. F.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, J. E. Millen, S. F. Cleary, R. K. Guerry, and D. Guerry, “Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 3(1), 165–174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delori, F. C.

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eswaran, H.

J. D. Wilson, A. J. Adams, P. Murphy, H. Eswaran, and H. Prisisl, “Design of a light simulator for fetal and neonatal encephalography,” Physiol. Meas. 30(1–N), 10 (2009).

Gassmanis, K.

J. H. Van Der Walt and K. Gassmanis, “Skin burns from a cold light source,” Anaesth. Intensive Care 18(1), 113–115 (1990).
[PubMed]

Gildersleeve, S.

L. R. Kuhns, A. J. Martin, S. Gildersleeve, and A. K. Poznanski, “Intense transillumination for infant venipuncture,” Radiology 116(3), 734–735 (1975).
[PubMed]

Gray, D. C.

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerry, D.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, J. E. Millen, S. F. Cleary, R. K. Guerry, and D. Guerry, “Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 3(1), 165–174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guerry, R. K.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, J. E. Millen, S. F. Cleary, R. K. Guerry, and D. Guerry, “Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 3(1), 165–174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ham, W. T.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, J. E. Millen, S. F. Cleary, R. K. Guerry, and D. Guerry, “Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 3(1), 165–174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamilton, R.

H. Mactier, S. Maroo, M. Bradnam, and R. Hamilton, “Ocular biometry in preterm infants: implications for estimation of retinal illuminance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 453–457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hernandez, C.

R. Sümpelmann, W. A. Osthaus, H. Irmler, and C. Hernandez, “Prevention of burns caused by transillumination for peripheral venous access in neonates,” Paediatr. Anaesth. 16(10), 1097–1098 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, J. J.

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irmler, H.

R. Sümpelmann, W. A. Osthaus, H. Irmler, and C. Hernandez, “Prevention of burns caused by transillumination for peripheral venous access in neonates,” Paediatr. Anaesth. 16(10), 1097–1098 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, R. H.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Mehrabi, R. H. James, R. J. Landry, S. Weininger, I. Chang, D. Kaufman, and S. A. Miller, “Optical-thermal characterization of cutaneous transilluminators,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6867–6880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, J. M.

J. M. John, “Transillumination for vascular access: old concept, new technology,” Paediatr. Anaesth. 17(2), 197–198 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsogridakis, Y. L.

Y. L. Katsogridakis, R. Seshadri, C. Sullivan, and M. L. Waltzman, “Veinlite transillumination in the pediatric emergency department,” Pediatr. Emerg. Care 24(2), 83–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, D.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Mehrabi, R. H. James, R. J. Landry, S. Weininger, I. Chang, D. Kaufman, and S. A. Miller, “Optical-thermal characterization of cutaneous transilluminators,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6867–6880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhns, L. R.

L. R. Kuhns, A. J. Martin, S. Gildersleeve, and A. K. Poznanski, “Intense transillumination for infant venipuncture,” Radiology 116(3), 734–735 (1975).
[PubMed]

Landry, R. J.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Mehrabi, R. H. James, R. J. Landry, S. Weininger, I. Chang, D. Kaufman, and S. A. Miller, “Optical-thermal characterization of cutaneous transilluminators,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6867–6880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mactier, H.

H. Mactier, S. Maroo, M. Bradnam, and R. Hamilton, “Ocular biometry in preterm infants: implications for estimation of retinal illuminance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 453–457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maroo, S.

H. Mactier, S. Maroo, M. Bradnam, and R. Hamilton, “Ocular biometry in preterm infants: implications for estimation of retinal illuminance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 453–457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, A. J.

L. R. Kuhns, A. J. Martin, S. Gildersleeve, and A. K. Poznanski, “Intense transillumination for infant venipuncture,” Radiology 116(3), 734–735 (1975).
[PubMed]

Masella, B.

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehrabi, A.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Mehrabi, R. H. James, R. J. Landry, S. Weininger, I. Chang, D. Kaufman, and S. A. Miller, “Optical-thermal characterization of cutaneous transilluminators,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6867–6880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merigan, W. H.

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millen, J. E.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, J. E. Millen, S. F. Cleary, R. K. Guerry, and D. Guerry, “Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 3(1), 165–174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, S. A.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Mehrabi, R. H. James, R. J. Landry, S. Weininger, I. Chang, D. Kaufman, and S. A. Miller, “Optical-thermal characterization of cutaneous transilluminators,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6867–6880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, J. I. W.

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, A.

S. Withey, G. Williams, and A. Moss, “Cold light, heat burn,” Burns 26(4), 414–415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mueller, H. A.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, J. E. Millen, S. F. Cleary, R. K. Guerry, and D. Guerry, “Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 3(1), 165–174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murphy, P.

J. D. Wilson, A. J. Adams, P. Murphy, H. Eswaran, and H. Prisisl, “Design of a light simulator for fetal and neonatal encephalography,” Physiol. Meas. 30(1–N), 10 (2009).

Osthaus, W. A.

R. Sümpelmann, W. A. Osthaus, H. Irmler, and C. Hernandez, “Prevention of burns caused by transillumination for peripheral venous access in neonates,” Paediatr. Anaesth. 16(10), 1097–1098 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfefer, T. J.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Mehrabi, R. H. James, R. J. Landry, S. Weininger, I. Chang, D. Kaufman, and S. A. Miller, “Optical-thermal characterization of cutaneous transilluminators,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6867–6880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poznanski, A. K.

L. R. Kuhns, A. J. Martin, S. Gildersleeve, and A. K. Poznanski, “Intense transillumination for infant venipuncture,” Radiology 116(3), 734–735 (1975).
[PubMed]

Prisisl, H.

J. D. Wilson, A. J. Adams, P. Murphy, H. Eswaran, and H. Prisisl, “Design of a light simulator for fetal and neonatal encephalography,” Physiol. Meas. 30(1–N), 10 (2009).

Roberts, J. E.

J. E. Roberts, “Ocular phototoxicity,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 64(2-3), 136–143 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruffolo, J. J.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, J. E. Millen, S. F. Cleary, R. K. Guerry, and D. Guerry, “Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 3(1), 165–174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seshadri, R.

Y. L. Katsogridakis, R. Seshadri, C. Sullivan, and M. L. Waltzman, “Veinlite transillumination in the pediatric emergency department,” Pediatr. Emerg. Care 24(2), 83–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sullivan, C.

Y. L. Katsogridakis, R. Seshadri, C. Sullivan, and M. L. Waltzman, “Veinlite transillumination in the pediatric emergency department,” Pediatr. Emerg. Care 24(2), 83–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sümpelmann, R.

R. Sümpelmann, W. A. Osthaus, H. Irmler, and C. Hernandez, “Prevention of burns caused by transillumination for peripheral venous access in neonates,” Paediatr. Anaesth. 16(10), 1097–1098 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Der Walt, J. H.

J. H. Van Der Walt and K. Gassmanis, “Skin burns from a cold light source,” Anaesth. Intensive Care 18(1), 113–115 (1990).
[PubMed]

Waltzman, M. L.

Y. L. Katsogridakis, R. Seshadri, C. Sullivan, and M. L. Waltzman, “Veinlite transillumination in the pediatric emergency department,” Pediatr. Emerg. Care 24(2), 83–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weale, R. A.

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. 395, 577–587 (1988).
[PubMed]

Weininger, S.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Mehrabi, R. H. James, R. J. Landry, S. Weininger, I. Chang, D. Kaufman, and S. A. Miller, “Optical-thermal characterization of cutaneous transilluminators,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6867–6880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, D. R.

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, G.

S. Withey, G. Williams, and A. Moss, “Cold light, heat burn,” Burns 26(4), 414–415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, J. D.

J. D. Wilson, A. J. Adams, P. Murphy, H. Eswaran, and H. Prisisl, “Design of a light simulator for fetal and neonatal encephalography,” Physiol. Meas. 30(1–N), 10 (2009).

Withey, S.

S. Withey, G. Williams, and A. Moss, “Cold light, heat burn,” Burns 26(4), 414–415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfe, R.

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anaesth. Intensive Care

J. H. Van Der Walt and K. Gassmanis, “Skin burns from a cold light source,” Anaesth. Intensive Care 18(1), 113–115 (1990).
[PubMed]

Burns

S. Withey, G. Williams, and A. Moss, “Cold light, heat burn,” Burns 26(4), 414–415 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Eye Res.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, J. J. Ruffolo, J. E. Millen, S. F. Cleary, R. K. Guerry, and D. Guerry, “Basic mechanisms underlying the production of photochemical lesions in the mammalian retina,” Curr. Eye Res. 3(1), 165–174 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Health Phys.

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “Guidelines on limits of exposure to broad-band incoherent optical radiation (0.38 to 3 microM),” Health Phys. 73(3), 539–554 (1997).
[PubMed]

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, “ICNIRP statement on light-emitting diodes (LEDS) and laser diodes: implications for hazard assessment,” Health Phys. 78(6), 744–752 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

H. Mactier, S. Maroo, M. Bradnam, and R. Hamilton, “Ocular biometry in preterm infants: implications for estimation of retinal illuminance,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(1), 453–457 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. W. Morgan, J. J. Hunter, B. Masella, R. Wolfe, D. C. Gray, W. H. Merigan, F. C. Delori, and D. R. Williams, “Light-induced retinal changes observed with high-resolution autofluorescence imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(8), 3715–3729 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B

J. E. Roberts, “Ocular phototoxicity,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 64(2-3), 136–143 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Physiol.

R. A. Weale, “Age and the transmittance of the human crystalline lens,” J. Physiol. 395, 577–587 (1988).
[PubMed]

Paediatr. Anaesth.

R. Sümpelmann, W. A. Osthaus, H. Irmler, and C. Hernandez, “Prevention of burns caused by transillumination for peripheral venous access in neonates,” Paediatr. Anaesth. 16(10), 1097–1098 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. John, “Transillumination for vascular access: old concept, new technology,” Paediatr. Anaesth. 17(2), 197–198 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pediatr. Emerg. Care

Y. L. Katsogridakis, R. Seshadri, C. Sullivan, and M. L. Waltzman, “Veinlite transillumination in the pediatric emergency department,” Pediatr. Emerg. Care 24(2), 83–88 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pediatrics

American Academy of Pediatrics. Section on Ophthalmology, “Screening examination of premature infants for retinopathy of prematurity,” Pediatrics 108(3), 809–811 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

T. J. Pfefer, A. Mehrabi, R. H. James, R. J. Landry, S. Weininger, I. Chang, D. Kaufman, and S. A. Miller, “Optical-thermal characterization of cutaneous transilluminators,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(22), 6867–6880 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas.

J. D. Wilson, A. J. Adams, P. Murphy, H. Eswaran, and H. Prisisl, “Design of a light simulator for fetal and neonatal encephalography,” Physiol. Meas. 30(1–N), 10 (2009).

Radiology

L. R. Kuhns, A. J. Martin, S. Gildersleeve, and A. K. Poznanski, “Intense transillumination for infant venipuncture,” Radiology 116(3), 734–735 (1975).
[PubMed]

South. Med. J.

S. Church and D. H. Adamkin, “Transillumination in neonatal intensive care: a possible iatrogenic complication,” South. Med. J. 74(1), 76–77 (1981).
[PubMed]

Other

D. J. Sliney, and M. L. Wolbarsht, Safety with lasers and other optical sources (Plenum, 1980) p 79.

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Report, IEC TR 60825–13 Safety of laser products – Part 13: Measurements for classification of laser products, ed. 1.0 (2006).

W. T. Ham, Jr., “The photopathology and nature of the blue-light and near-UV retinal lesion produced by lasers and other optical sources”, Laser Appl Med Biol, ed. M.L.Wolbarsht, Plenum, New York, (1989).

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/ Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, (IESNA), Recommended Practice for Photobiological Safety for Lamps and Lamp Systems – General Requirements, RP 27.1–05, IESNA, New York, New York, 2005.

Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents & Biological Exposure Indices, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), Cincinnati, Ohio, (2008).

International Organization for Standards (ISO) 15004–2:2006(E). Ophthalmic instruments – Fundamental requirements and test methods – Part 2: Light hazard protection (2006).

W. Halbritter, W. Horak, and W. Jordan, “Measurement requirements for the characterization of photobiological hazards posed by the optical radiation of lamps or LEDs”, Proc. CIE “Expert Symposium 2008 on Advances in Photometry and Colorimetry” (2008).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Irradiance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Radiance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Set-up used for measurement of spectral radiance distribution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ANSI/IESNA Blue Light & Aphakic Hazard Functions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Graph of the relative spectral irradiance and aphakic weighted spectral irradiance versus wavelength for TI2, which contains red and white LEDs, on a semi-logarithmic plot.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Graph of the spectral irradiance and aphakic weighted spectral irradiance versus wavelength for TI5, which contains red and orange LEDs.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 TI color characteristics

Tables Icon

Table 2 Variation in relative radiance for 4 different white LEDs for device type TI1. Data for three different devices and two LED positions are presented

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Time TLV =  1 00 / L A .

Metrics