Abstract

Persistent colonic inflammation increases risk for cancer, but mucosal appearance on conventional endoscopy correlates poorly with histology. Here we demonstrate the use of a flexible silver halide fiber to collect mid-infrared absorption spectra and an interval model to distinguish colitis from normal mucosa in dextran sulfate sodium treated mice. The spectral regime between 950 and 1800 cm−1 was collected from excised colonic specimens and compared with histology. Our model identified 3 sub-ranges that optimize the classification results, and the performance for detecting inflammation resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value of 92%, 88%, 90%, and 88%, respectively.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. R. Bhargava, “Towards a practical Fourier transform infrared chemical imaging protocol for cancer histopathology,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 389(4), 1155–1169 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. A. Mackanos, J. Hargrove, R. Wolters, C. B. Du, S. Friedland, R. M. Soetikno, C. H. Contag, M. R. Arroyo, J. M. Crawford, and T. D. Wang, “Use of an endoscope-compatible probe to detect colonic dysplasia with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

J. Xie and S. H. Itzkowitz, “Cancer in inflammatory bowel disease,” World J. Gastroenterol. 14(3), 378–389 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. El-Tawil, R. Adnan, Z. N. Muhamed, and N. H. Othman, “Comparative study between Pap smear cytology and FTIR spectroscopy: a new tool for screening for cervical cancer,” Pathology 40(6), 600–603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

T. D. Wang, G. Triadafilopoulos, J. M. Crawford, L. R. Dixon, T. Bhandari, P. Sahbaie, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, and C. H. Contag, “Detection of endogenous biomolecules in Barrett’s esophagus by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15864–15869 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Gupta, N. Harpaz, S. Itzkowitz, S. Hossain, S. Matula, A. Kornbluth, C. Bodian, and T. Ullman, “Histologic inflammation is a risk factor for progression to colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a cohort study,” Gastroenterology 133(4), 1099–1105, quiz 1340–1341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wirtz, C. Neufert, B. Weigmann, and M. F. Neurath, “Chemically induced mouse models of intestinal inflammation,” Nat. Protoc. 2(3), 541–546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bhargava, “Towards a practical Fourier transform infrared chemical imaging protocol for cancer histopathology,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 389(4), 1155–1169 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bogomolny, M. Huleihel, Y. Suproun, R. K. Sahu, and S. Mordechai, “Early spectral changes of cellular malignant transformation using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

R. Bhargava, D. C. Fernandez, S. M. Hewitt, and I. W. Levin, “High throughput assessment of cells and tissues: Bayesian classification of spectral metrics from infrared vibrational spectroscopic imaging data,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 830–845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Law, E. M. Labut, R. D. Adams, and J. L. Merchant, “An isoform of ZBP-89 predisposes the colon to colitis,” Nucleic Acids Res. 34(5), 1342–1350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (4)

I. Chong and C. Jun, “Performance of some variable selection methods when multicollinearity is present,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 78(1-2), 103–112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Fernandez, R. Bhargava, S. M. Hewitt, and I. W. Levin, “Infrared spectroscopic imaging for histopathologic recognition,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(4), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Charlton, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared evanescent field sensing with quantum cascade lasers and planar silver halide waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 77(14), 4398–4403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
[PubMed]

2004 (5)

N. Fujioka, Y. Morimoto, T. Arai, and M. Kikuchi, “Discrimination between normal and malignant human gastric tissues by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 28(1), 32–36 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Mutinga, R. D. Odze, H. H. Wang, J. L. Hornick, and F. A. Farraye, “The clinical significance of right-sided colonic inflammation in patients with left-sided chronic ulcerative colitis,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 10(3), 215–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Argov, R. K. Sahu, E. Bernshtain, A. Salman, G. Shohat, U. Zelig, and S. Mordechai, “Inflammatory bowel diseases as an intermediate stage between normal and cancer: a FTIR-microspectroscopy approach,” Biopolymers 75(5), 384–392 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

M. M. Patel, J. D. Smart, T. G. Nevell, R. J. Ewen, P. J. Eaton, and J. Tsibouklis, “Mucin/poly(acrylic acid) interactions: a spectroscopic investigation of mucoadhesion,” Biomacromolecules 4(5), 1184–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ullman, V. Croog, N. Harpaz, D. Sachar, and S. Itzkowitz, “Progression of flat low-grade dysplasia to advanced neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 125(5), 1311–1319 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

H. S. Cooper, L. Everley, W. C. Chang, G. Pfeiffer, B. Lee, S. Murthy, and M. L. Clapper, “The role of mutant Apc in the development of dysplasia and cancer in the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis,” Gastroenterology 121(6), 1407–1416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bindig, M. Meinke, I. Gersonde, O. Spector, I. Vasserman, A. Katzir, and G. Müller, “IR-biosensor: flat silver halide fiber for bio-medical sensing?” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 37–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. de Jong, “SIMPLS - an Alternative Approach to Partial Least-Squares Regression,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 18(3), 251–263 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Seo, M. Okada, T. Yao, M. Ueki, S. Arima, and M. Okumura, “An index of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 87(8), 971–976 (1992).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

B. Rigas, S. Morgello, I. S. Goldman, and P. T. Wong, “Human colorectal cancers display abnormal Fourier-transform infrared spectra,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(20), 8140–8144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (2)

P. Gomes, C. du Boulay, C. L. Smith, and G. Holdstock, “Relationship between disease activity indices and colonoscopic findings in patients with colonic inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 27(1), 92–95 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Geladi and B. Kowalski, “Partial Least-Squares Regression - a Tutorial,” Anal. Chim. Acta 185(1), 1–17 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

S. Wold, A. Ruhe, H. Wold, and W. Dunn, “The Collinearity Problem in Linear-Regression - the Partial Least-Squares (PLS) Approach to Generalized Inverses,” SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput. 5(3), 735–743 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and Differentiation of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36(8), 1627–1639 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Adams, R. D.

D. J. Law, E. M. Labut, R. D. Adams, and J. L. Merchant, “An isoform of ZBP-89 predisposes the colon to colitis,” Nucleic Acids Res. 34(5), 1342–1350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adnan, R.

S. G. El-Tawil, R. Adnan, Z. N. Muhamed, and N. H. Othman, “Comparative study between Pap smear cytology and FTIR spectroscopy: a new tool for screening for cervical cancer,” Pathology 40(6), 600–603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arai, T.

N. Fujioka, Y. Morimoto, T. Arai, and M. Kikuchi, “Discrimination between normal and malignant human gastric tissues by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 28(1), 32–36 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Argov, S.

S. Argov, R. K. Sahu, E. Bernshtain, A. Salman, G. Shohat, U. Zelig, and S. Mordechai, “Inflammatory bowel diseases as an intermediate stage between normal and cancer: a FTIR-microspectroscopy approach,” Biopolymers 75(5), 384–392 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arima, S.

M. Seo, M. Okada, T. Yao, M. Ueki, S. Arima, and M. Okumura, “An index of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 87(8), 971–976 (1992).
[PubMed]

Arroyo, M. R.

M. A. Mackanos, J. Hargrove, R. Wolters, C. B. Du, S. Friedland, R. M. Soetikno, C. H. Contag, M. R. Arroyo, J. M. Crawford, and T. D. Wang, “Use of an endoscope-compatible probe to detect colonic dysplasia with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernshtain, E.

S. Argov, R. K. Sahu, E. Bernshtain, A. Salman, G. Shohat, U. Zelig, and S. Mordechai, “Inflammatory bowel diseases as an intermediate stage between normal and cancer: a FTIR-microspectroscopy approach,” Biopolymers 75(5), 384–392 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhandari, T.

T. D. Wang, G. Triadafilopoulos, J. M. Crawford, L. R. Dixon, T. Bhandari, P. Sahbaie, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, and C. H. Contag, “Detection of endogenous biomolecules in Barrett’s esophagus by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15864–15869 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhargava, R.

R. Bhargava, “Towards a practical Fourier transform infrared chemical imaging protocol for cancer histopathology,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 389(4), 1155–1169 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bhargava, D. C. Fernandez, S. M. Hewitt, and I. W. Levin, “High throughput assessment of cells and tissues: Bayesian classification of spectral metrics from infrared vibrational spectroscopic imaging data,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 830–845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Fernandez, R. Bhargava, S. M. Hewitt, and I. W. Levin, “Infrared spectroscopic imaging for histopathologic recognition,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(4), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bindig, U.

U. Bindig, M. Meinke, I. Gersonde, O. Spector, I. Vasserman, A. Katzir, and G. Müller, “IR-biosensor: flat silver halide fiber for bio-medical sensing?” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 37–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bodian, C.

R. B. Gupta, N. Harpaz, S. Itzkowitz, S. Hossain, S. Matula, A. Kornbluth, C. Bodian, and T. Ullman, “Histologic inflammation is a risk factor for progression to colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a cohort study,” Gastroenterology 133(4), 1099–1105, quiz 1340–1341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogomolny, E.

E. Bogomolny, M. Huleihel, Y. Suproun, R. K. Sahu, and S. Mordechai, “Early spectral changes of cellular malignant transformation using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024003 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W. C.

H. S. Cooper, L. Everley, W. C. Chang, G. Pfeiffer, B. Lee, S. Murthy, and M. L. Clapper, “The role of mutant Apc in the development of dysplasia and cancer in the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis,” Gastroenterology 121(6), 1407–1416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charlton, C.

C. Charlton, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared evanescent field sensing with quantum cascade lasers and planar silver halide waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 77(14), 4398–4403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiba, T.

S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, I.

I. Chong and C. Jun, “Performance of some variable selection methods when multicollinearity is present,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 78(1-2), 103–112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clapper, M. L.

H. S. Cooper, L. Everley, W. C. Chang, G. Pfeiffer, B. Lee, S. Murthy, and M. L. Clapper, “The role of mutant Apc in the development of dysplasia and cancer in the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis,” Gastroenterology 121(6), 1407–1416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contag, C. H.

M. A. Mackanos, J. Hargrove, R. Wolters, C. B. Du, S. Friedland, R. M. Soetikno, C. H. Contag, M. R. Arroyo, J. M. Crawford, and T. D. Wang, “Use of an endoscope-compatible probe to detect colonic dysplasia with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, G. Triadafilopoulos, J. M. Crawford, L. R. Dixon, T. Bhandari, P. Sahbaie, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, and C. H. Contag, “Detection of endogenous biomolecules in Barrett’s esophagus by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15864–15869 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, H. S.

H. S. Cooper, L. Everley, W. C. Chang, G. Pfeiffer, B. Lee, S. Murthy, and M. L. Clapper, “The role of mutant Apc in the development of dysplasia and cancer in the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis,” Gastroenterology 121(6), 1407–1416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, L. J.

M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J. M.

M. A. Mackanos, J. Hargrove, R. Wolters, C. B. Du, S. Friedland, R. M. Soetikno, C. H. Contag, M. R. Arroyo, J. M. Crawford, and T. D. Wang, “Use of an endoscope-compatible probe to detect colonic dysplasia with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Wang, G. Triadafilopoulos, J. M. Crawford, L. R. Dixon, T. Bhandari, P. Sahbaie, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, and C. H. Contag, “Detection of endogenous biomolecules in Barrett’s esophagus by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15864–15869 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Croog, V.

T. Ullman, V. Croog, N. Harpaz, D. Sachar, and S. Itzkowitz, “Progression of flat low-grade dysplasia to advanced neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 125(5), 1311–1319 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Jong, S.

S. de Jong, “SIMPLS - an Alternative Approach to Partial Least-Squares Regression,” Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. 18(3), 251–263 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, L. R.

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M. A. Mackanos, J. Hargrove, R. Wolters, C. B. Du, S. Friedland, R. M. Soetikno, C. H. Contag, M. R. Arroyo, J. M. Crawford, and T. D. Wang, “Use of an endoscope-compatible probe to detect colonic dysplasia with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044006 (2009).
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S. G. El-Tawil, R. Adnan, Z. N. Muhamed, and N. H. Othman, “Comparative study between Pap smear cytology and FTIR spectroscopy: a new tool for screening for cervical cancer,” Pathology 40(6), 600–603 (2008).
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H. S. Cooper, L. Everley, W. C. Chang, G. Pfeiffer, B. Lee, S. Murthy, and M. L. Clapper, “The role of mutant Apc in the development of dysplasia and cancer in the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis,” Gastroenterology 121(6), 1407–1416 (2001).
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M. M. Patel, J. D. Smart, T. G. Nevell, R. J. Ewen, P. J. Eaton, and J. Tsibouklis, “Mucin/poly(acrylic acid) interactions: a spectroscopic investigation of mucoadhesion,” Biomacromolecules 4(5), 1184–1190 (2003).
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M. L. Mutinga, R. D. Odze, H. H. Wang, J. L. Hornick, and F. A. Farraye, “The clinical significance of right-sided colonic inflammation in patients with left-sided chronic ulcerative colitis,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 10(3), 215–219 (2004).
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R. Bhargava, D. C. Fernandez, S. M. Hewitt, and I. W. Levin, “High throughput assessment of cells and tissues: Bayesian classification of spectral metrics from infrared vibrational spectroscopic imaging data,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 830–845 (2006).
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D. C. Fernandez, R. Bhargava, S. M. Hewitt, and I. W. Levin, “Infrared spectroscopic imaging for histopathologic recognition,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(4), 469–474 (2005).
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M. A. Mackanos, J. Hargrove, R. Wolters, C. B. Du, S. Friedland, R. M. Soetikno, C. H. Contag, M. R. Arroyo, J. M. Crawford, and T. D. Wang, “Use of an endoscope-compatible probe to detect colonic dysplasia with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044006 (2009).
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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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N. Fujioka, Y. Morimoto, T. Arai, and M. Kikuchi, “Discrimination between normal and malignant human gastric tissues by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 28(1), 32–36 (2004).
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M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
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P. Geladi and B. Kowalski, “Partial Least-Squares Regression - a Tutorial,” Anal. Chim. Acta 185(1), 1–17 (1986).
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M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
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U. Bindig, M. Meinke, I. Gersonde, O. Spector, I. Vasserman, A. Katzir, and G. Müller, “IR-biosensor: flat silver halide fiber for bio-medical sensing?” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 37–46 (2001).
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B. Rigas, S. Morgello, I. S. Goldman, and P. T. Wong, “Human colorectal cancers display abnormal Fourier-transform infrared spectra,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(20), 8140–8144 (1990).
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P. Gomes, C. du Boulay, C. L. Smith, and G. Holdstock, “Relationship between disease activity indices and colonoscopic findings in patients with colonic inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 27(1), 92–95 (1986).
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R. B. Gupta, N. Harpaz, S. Itzkowitz, S. Hossain, S. Matula, A. Kornbluth, C. Bodian, and T. Ullman, “Histologic inflammation is a risk factor for progression to colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a cohort study,” Gastroenterology 133(4), 1099–1105, quiz 1340–1341 (2007).
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M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. A. Mackanos, J. Hargrove, R. Wolters, C. B. Du, S. Friedland, R. M. Soetikno, C. H. Contag, M. R. Arroyo, J. M. Crawford, and T. D. Wang, “Use of an endoscope-compatible probe to detect colonic dysplasia with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044006 (2009).
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R. Bhargava, D. C. Fernandez, S. M. Hewitt, and I. W. Levin, “High throughput assessment of cells and tissues: Bayesian classification of spectral metrics from infrared vibrational spectroscopic imaging data,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 830–845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Fernandez, R. Bhargava, S. M. Hewitt, and I. W. Levin, “Infrared spectroscopic imaging for histopathologic recognition,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(4), 469–474 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
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P. Gomes, C. du Boulay, C. L. Smith, and G. Holdstock, “Relationship between disease activity indices and colonoscopic findings in patients with colonic inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 27(1), 92–95 (1986).
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M. L. Mutinga, R. D. Odze, H. H. Wang, J. L. Hornick, and F. A. Farraye, “The clinical significance of right-sided colonic inflammation in patients with left-sided chronic ulcerative colitis,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 10(3), 215–219 (2004).
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R. B. Gupta, N. Harpaz, S. Itzkowitz, S. Hossain, S. Matula, A. Kornbluth, C. Bodian, and T. Ullman, “Histologic inflammation is a risk factor for progression to colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a cohort study,” Gastroenterology 133(4), 1099–1105, quiz 1340–1341 (2007).
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E. Bogomolny, M. Huleihel, Y. Suproun, R. K. Sahu, and S. Mordechai, “Early spectral changes of cellular malignant transformation using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024003 (2007).
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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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R. B. Gupta, N. Harpaz, S. Itzkowitz, S. Hossain, S. Matula, A. Kornbluth, C. Bodian, and T. Ullman, “Histologic inflammation is a risk factor for progression to colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a cohort study,” Gastroenterology 133(4), 1099–1105, quiz 1340–1341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ullman, V. Croog, N. Harpaz, D. Sachar, and S. Itzkowitz, “Progression of flat low-grade dysplasia to advanced neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 125(5), 1311–1319 (2003).
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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
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C. Charlton, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared evanescent field sensing with quantum cascade lasers and planar silver halide waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 77(14), 4398–4403 (2005).
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U. Bindig, M. Meinke, I. Gersonde, O. Spector, I. Vasserman, A. Katzir, and G. Müller, “IR-biosensor: flat silver halide fiber for bio-medical sensing?” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 37–46 (2001).
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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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N. Fujioka, Y. Morimoto, T. Arai, and M. Kikuchi, “Discrimination between normal and malignant human gastric tissues by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 28(1), 32–36 (2004).
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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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R. B. Gupta, N. Harpaz, S. Itzkowitz, S. Hossain, S. Matula, A. Kornbluth, C. Bodian, and T. Ullman, “Histologic inflammation is a risk factor for progression to colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a cohort study,” Gastroenterology 133(4), 1099–1105, quiz 1340–1341 (2007).
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P. Geladi and B. Kowalski, “Partial Least-Squares Regression - a Tutorial,” Anal. Chim. Acta 185(1), 1–17 (1986).
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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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D. J. Law, E. M. Labut, R. D. Adams, and J. L. Merchant, “An isoform of ZBP-89 predisposes the colon to colitis,” Nucleic Acids Res. 34(5), 1342–1350 (2006).
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D. J. Law, E. M. Labut, R. D. Adams, and J. L. Merchant, “An isoform of ZBP-89 predisposes the colon to colitis,” Nucleic Acids Res. 34(5), 1342–1350 (2006).
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H. S. Cooper, L. Everley, W. C. Chang, G. Pfeiffer, B. Lee, S. Murthy, and M. L. Clapper, “The role of mutant Apc in the development of dysplasia and cancer in the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis,” Gastroenterology 121(6), 1407–1416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Bhargava, D. C. Fernandez, S. M. Hewitt, and I. W. Levin, “High throughput assessment of cells and tissues: Bayesian classification of spectral metrics from infrared vibrational spectroscopic imaging data,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1758(7), 830–845 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Fernandez, R. Bhargava, S. M. Hewitt, and I. W. Levin, “Infrared spectroscopic imaging for histopathologic recognition,” Nat. Biotechnol. 23(4), 469–474 (2005).
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M. A. Mackanos, J. Hargrove, R. Wolters, C. B. Du, S. Friedland, R. M. Soetikno, C. H. Contag, M. R. Arroyo, J. M. Crawford, and T. D. Wang, “Use of an endoscope-compatible probe to detect colonic dysplasia with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044006 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
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M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
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R. B. Gupta, N. Harpaz, S. Itzkowitz, S. Hossain, S. Matula, A. Kornbluth, C. Bodian, and T. Ullman, “Histologic inflammation is a risk factor for progression to colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a cohort study,” Gastroenterology 133(4), 1099–1105, quiz 1340–1341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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U. Bindig, M. Meinke, I. Gersonde, O. Spector, I. Vasserman, A. Katzir, and G. Müller, “IR-biosensor: flat silver halide fiber for bio-medical sensing?” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 37–46 (2001).
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D. J. Law, E. M. Labut, R. D. Adams, and J. L. Merchant, “An isoform of ZBP-89 predisposes the colon to colitis,” Nucleic Acids Res. 34(5), 1342–1350 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Charlton, A. Katzir, and B. Mizaikoff, “Infrared evanescent field sensing with quantum cascade lasers and planar silver halide waveguides,” Anal. Chem. 77(14), 4398–4403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Bogomolny, M. Huleihel, Y. Suproun, R. K. Sahu, and S. Mordechai, “Early spectral changes of cellular malignant transformation using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024003 (2007).
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B. Rigas, S. Morgello, I. S. Goldman, and P. T. Wong, “Human colorectal cancers display abnormal Fourier-transform infrared spectra,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(20), 8140–8144 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morimoto, Y.

N. Fujioka, Y. Morimoto, T. Arai, and M. Kikuchi, “Discrimination between normal and malignant human gastric tissues by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Cancer Detect. Prev. 28(1), 32–36 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muhamed, Z. N.

S. G. El-Tawil, R. Adnan, Z. N. Muhamed, and N. H. Othman, “Comparative study between Pap smear cytology and FTIR spectroscopy: a new tool for screening for cervical cancer,” Pathology 40(6), 600–603 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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U. Bindig, M. Meinke, I. Gersonde, O. Spector, I. Vasserman, A. Katzir, and G. Müller, “IR-biosensor: flat silver halide fiber for bio-medical sensing?” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 37–46 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, S.

H. S. Cooper, L. Everley, W. C. Chang, G. Pfeiffer, B. Lee, S. Murthy, and M. L. Clapper, “The role of mutant Apc in the development of dysplasia and cancer in the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis,” Gastroenterology 121(6), 1407–1416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. L. Mutinga, R. D. Odze, H. H. Wang, J. L. Hornick, and F. A. Farraye, “The clinical significance of right-sided colonic inflammation in patients with left-sided chronic ulcerative colitis,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 10(3), 215–219 (2004).
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M. M. Patel, J. D. Smart, T. G. Nevell, R. J. Ewen, P. J. Eaton, and J. Tsibouklis, “Mucin/poly(acrylic acid) interactions: a spectroscopic investigation of mucoadhesion,” Biomacromolecules 4(5), 1184–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicholson, C. M.

M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Odze, R. D.

M. L. Mutinga, R. D. Odze, H. H. Wang, J. L. Hornick, and F. A. Farraye, “The clinical significance of right-sided colonic inflammation in patients with left-sided chronic ulcerative colitis,” Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 10(3), 215–219 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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M. Seo, M. Okada, T. Yao, M. Ueki, S. Arima, and M. Okumura, “An index of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 87(8), 971–976 (1992).
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M. Seo, M. Okada, T. Yao, M. Ueki, S. Arima, and M. Okumura, “An index of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 87(8), 971–976 (1992).
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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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Othman, N. H.

S. G. El-Tawil, R. Adnan, Z. N. Muhamed, and N. H. Othman, “Comparative study between Pap smear cytology and FTIR spectroscopy: a new tool for screening for cervical cancer,” Pathology 40(6), 600–603 (2008).
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M. M. Patel, J. D. Smart, T. G. Nevell, R. J. Ewen, P. J. Eaton, and J. Tsibouklis, “Mucin/poly(acrylic acid) interactions: a spectroscopic investigation of mucoadhesion,” Biomacromolecules 4(5), 1184–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, G.

H. S. Cooper, L. Everley, W. C. Chang, G. Pfeiffer, B. Lee, S. Murthy, and M. L. Clapper, “The role of mutant Apc in the development of dysplasia and cancer in the mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis,” Gastroenterology 121(6), 1407–1416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollock, H. M.

M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Price, A.

M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ragavan, N.

M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
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B. Rigas, S. Morgello, I. S. Goldman, and P. T. Wong, “Human colorectal cancers display abnormal Fourier-transform infrared spectra,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(20), 8140–8144 (1990).
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S. Wold, A. Ruhe, H. Wold, and W. Dunn, “The Collinearity Problem in Linear-Regression - the Partial Least-Squares (PLS) Approach to Generalized Inverses,” SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput. 5(3), 735–743 (1984).
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M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
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M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
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T. Ullman, V. Croog, N. Harpaz, D. Sachar, and S. Itzkowitz, “Progression of flat low-grade dysplasia to advanced neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 125(5), 1311–1319 (2003).
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T. D. Wang, G. Triadafilopoulos, J. M. Crawford, L. R. Dixon, T. Bhandari, P. Sahbaie, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, and C. H. Contag, “Detection of endogenous biomolecules in Barrett’s esophagus by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15864–15869 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. Bogomolny, M. Huleihel, Y. Suproun, R. K. Sahu, and S. Mordechai, “Early spectral changes of cellular malignant transformation using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024003 (2007).
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S. Argov, R. K. Sahu, E. Bernshtain, A. Salman, G. Shohat, U. Zelig, and S. Mordechai, “Inflammatory bowel diseases as an intermediate stage between normal and cancer: a FTIR-microspectroscopy approach,” Biopolymers 75(5), 384–392 (2004).
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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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Salman, A.

S. Argov, R. K. Sahu, E. Bernshtain, A. Salman, G. Shohat, U. Zelig, and S. Mordechai, “Inflammatory bowel diseases as an intermediate stage between normal and cancer: a FTIR-microspectroscopy approach,” Biopolymers 75(5), 384–392 (2004).
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Saunders, B.

M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Savitzky and M. J. E. Golay, “Smoothing and Differentiation of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures,” Anal. Chem. 36(8), 1627–1639 (1964).
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M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
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M. Seo, M. Okada, T. Yao, M. Ueki, S. Arima, and M. Okumura, “An index of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 87(8), 971–976 (1992).
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Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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S. Argov, R. K. Sahu, E. Bernshtain, A. Salman, G. Shohat, U. Zelig, and S. Mordechai, “Inflammatory bowel diseases as an intermediate stage between normal and cancer: a FTIR-microspectroscopy approach,” Biopolymers 75(5), 384–392 (2004).
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Smart, J. D.

M. M. Patel, J. D. Smart, T. G. Nevell, R. J. Ewen, P. J. Eaton, and J. Tsibouklis, “Mucin/poly(acrylic acid) interactions: a spectroscopic investigation of mucoadhesion,” Biomacromolecules 4(5), 1184–1190 (2003).
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T. D. Wang, G. Triadafilopoulos, J. M. Crawford, L. R. Dixon, T. Bhandari, P. Sahbaie, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, and C. H. Contag, “Detection of endogenous biomolecules in Barrett’s esophagus by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15864–15869 (2007).
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M. A. Mackanos, J. Hargrove, R. Wolters, C. B. Du, S. Friedland, R. M. Soetikno, C. H. Contag, M. R. Arroyo, J. M. Crawford, and T. D. Wang, “Use of an endoscope-compatible probe to detect colonic dysplasia with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044006 (2009).
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E. Bogomolny, M. Huleihel, Y. Suproun, R. K. Sahu, and S. Mordechai, “Early spectral changes of cellular malignant transformation using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(2), 024003 (2007).
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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
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M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
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T. D. Wang, G. Triadafilopoulos, J. M. Crawford, L. R. Dixon, T. Bhandari, P. Sahbaie, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, and C. H. Contag, “Detection of endogenous biomolecules in Barrett’s esophagus by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15864–15869 (2007).
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M. M. Patel, J. D. Smart, T. G. Nevell, R. J. Ewen, P. J. Eaton, and J. Tsibouklis, “Mucin/poly(acrylic acid) interactions: a spectroscopic investigation of mucoadhesion,” Biomacromolecules 4(5), 1184–1190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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M. Seo, M. Okada, T. Yao, M. Ueki, S. Arima, and M. Okumura, “An index of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 87(8), 971–976 (1992).
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R. B. Gupta, N. Harpaz, S. Itzkowitz, S. Hossain, S. Matula, A. Kornbluth, C. Bodian, and T. Ullman, “Histologic inflammation is a risk factor for progression to colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a cohort study,” Gastroenterology 133(4), 1099–1105, quiz 1340–1341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ullman, V. Croog, N. Harpaz, D. Sachar, and S. Itzkowitz, “Progression of flat low-grade dysplasia to advanced neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 125(5), 1311–1319 (2003).
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U. Bindig, M. Meinke, I. Gersonde, O. Spector, I. Vasserman, A. Katzir, and G. Müller, “IR-biosensor: flat silver halide fiber for bio-medical sensing?” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 74(1-3), 37–46 (2001).
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Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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M. A. Mackanos, J. Hargrove, R. Wolters, C. B. Du, S. Friedland, R. M. Soetikno, C. H. Contag, M. R. Arroyo, J. M. Crawford, and T. D. Wang, “Use of an endoscope-compatible probe to detect colonic dysplasia with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044006 (2009).
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T. D. Wang, G. Triadafilopoulos, J. M. Crawford, L. R. Dixon, T. Bhandari, P. Sahbaie, S. Friedland, R. Soetikno, and C. H. Contag, “Detection of endogenous biomolecules in Barrett’s esophagus by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(40), 15864–15869 (2007).
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M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
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Williams, C.

M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
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S. Wold, A. Ruhe, H. Wold, and W. Dunn, “The Collinearity Problem in Linear-Regression - the Partial Least-Squares (PLS) Approach to Generalized Inverses,” SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput. 5(3), 735–743 (1984).
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Wold, S.

S. Wold, A. Ruhe, H. Wold, and W. Dunn, “The Collinearity Problem in Linear-Regression - the Partial Least-Squares (PLS) Approach to Generalized Inverses,” SIAM J. Sci. Stat. Comput. 5(3), 735–743 (1984).
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M. A. Mackanos, J. Hargrove, R. Wolters, C. B. Du, S. Friedland, R. M. Soetikno, C. H. Contag, M. R. Arroyo, J. M. Crawford, and T. D. Wang, “Use of an endoscope-compatible probe to detect colonic dysplasia with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044006 (2009).
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Wong, P. T.

B. Rigas, S. Morgello, I. S. Goldman, and P. T. Wong, “Human colorectal cancers display abnormal Fourier-transform infrared spectra,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 87(20), 8140–8144 (1990).
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Wu, J. G.

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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J. Xie and S. H. Itzkowitz, “Cancer in inflammatory bowel disease,” World J. Gastroenterol. 14(3), 378–389 (2008).
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Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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Yamaoka, S.

S. Fujii, T. Fujimori, H. Kawamata, J. Takeda, K. Kitajima, F. Omotehara, T. Kaihara, T. Kusaka, K. Ichikawa, Y. Ohkura, Y. Ono, J. Imura, S. Yamaoka, C. Sakamoto, Y. Ueda, and T. Chiba, “Development of colonic neoplasia in p53 deficient mice with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium,” Gut 53(5), 710–716 (2004).
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Yang, L. M.

Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
[PubMed]

Yao, T.

M. Seo, M. Okada, T. Yao, M. Ueki, S. Arima, and M. Okumura, “An index of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 87(8), 971–976 (1992).
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S. Argov, R. K. Sahu, E. Bernshtain, A. Salman, G. Shohat, U. Zelig, and S. Mordechai, “Inflammatory bowel diseases as an intermediate stage between normal and cancer: a FTIR-microspectroscopy approach,” Biopolymers 75(5), 384–392 (2004).
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Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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Q. B. Li, Z. Xu, N. W. Zhang, L. Zhang, F. Wang, L. M. Yang, J. S. Wang, S. Zhou, Y. F. Zhang, X. S. Zhou, J. S. Shi, and J. G. Wu, “In vivo and in situ detection of colorectal cancer using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy,” World J. Gastroenterol. 11(3), 327–330 (2005).
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Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

M. Seo, M. Okada, T. Yao, M. Ueki, S. Arima, and M. Okumura, “An index of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 87(8), 971–976 (1992).
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Biomacromolecules (1)

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Biophys. J. (1)

M. J. German, A. Hammiche, N. Ragavan, M. J. Tobin, L. J. Cooper, S. S. Matanhelia, A. C. Hindley, C. M. Nicholson, N. J. Fullwood, H. M. Pollock, and F. L. Martin, “Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis potentially facilitates the segregation of different types of prostate cell,” Biophys. J. 90(10), 3783–3795 (2006).
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Biopolymers (1)

S. Argov, R. K. Sahu, E. Bernshtain, A. Salman, G. Shohat, U. Zelig, and S. Mordechai, “Inflammatory bowel diseases as an intermediate stage between normal and cancer: a FTIR-microspectroscopy approach,” Biopolymers 75(5), 384–392 (2004).
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Cancer Detect. Prev. (1)

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Chemom. Intell. Lab. Syst. (2)

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Gastroenterology (4)

T. Ullman, V. Croog, N. Harpaz, D. Sachar, and S. Itzkowitz, “Progression of flat low-grade dysplasia to advanced neoplasia in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 125(5), 1311–1319 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Gupta, N. Harpaz, S. Itzkowitz, S. Hossain, S. Matula, A. Kornbluth, C. Bodian, and T. Ullman, “Histologic inflammation is a risk factor for progression to colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis: a cohort study,” Gastroenterology 133(4), 1099–1105, quiz 1340–1341 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson, S. Rumbles, G. Schofield, M. Kamm, C. Williams, A. Price, I. Talbot, and A. Forbes, “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 126(2), 451–459 (2004).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

FTIR instrument. Flexible silver halide fiber inserted into signal arm of Michelson interferometer is used to collect infrared (IR) spectra. Details provided in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Representative FTIR spectra for DSS (red) and normal (black) colonic mucosa over fingerprint region (900 to 1800 cm−1)) from the right (R), transverse (T), and left (L) anatomic segments demonstrate very good SNR and reveal numerous absorbance peaks in 6 separate sub-ranges.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pre-processing of spectra prior to classification. (A) The mean unprocessed spectra for the DSS (red) and control (black) mice from sub-ranges 1 to 3. (B) Along-spectrum derivation (Savitsky-Golay algorithm) followed by normalization enhances spectral differences between groups. (C) Unit-variance scaling further amplifies spectral differences. (D) VIP score reveals relative contribution of each wavenumber to the performance of the classification model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Performance for n = 8 DSS (red) and n = 8 control (black) mice in right (R), transverse (T), and left (L) colonic segments using the classification value of 1.5 (dashed horizontal line) as threshold. (A) Best interval model produced a sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value of 92%, 88%, 90%, and 88%, respectively. (B) Best discrete model using 3 wavenumbers of 1072, 1088, and 1740 cm−1 produced results of 92%, 83%, 88%, and 85%, respectively. C) Colitis index (CI) scores from histology are shown for comparison.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histology (H&E). Representative sections from (A) DSS colitis shows features of mucosal damage, including distorted crypt morphology, dot hemorrhages, and edema, and for (B) control (normal colonic mucosa) shows regular-spaced crypts, no hemorrhages, and absence of edema, scale bar 50 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ROC curves show comparison of performance between the interval (solid) and discrete (dashed) models for detection of colitis with optical fiber, resulting in an AUC of 0.92 and 0.88, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Band assignments for inter-atomic bonds found in common tissue biomolecules for primary mid-infrared absorption peaks in molecular fingerprint regime are shown (νs – symmetric, νas – asymmetric stretch). References cited are within 5 cm−1 of those found in this study

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