Abstract

Fourier domain low coherence interferometry (fLCI) is an emerging optical technique used to quantitatively assess cell nuclear morphology in tissue as a means of detecting early cancer development. In this work, we use the azoxymethane rat carcinogenesis model, a well characterized and established model for colon cancer research, to demonstrate the ability of fLCI to distinguish between normal and preneoplastic ex-vivo colon tissue. The results show highly statistically significant differences between the measured cell nuclear diameters of normal and azoxymethane-treated tissues, thus providing strong evidence that fLCI may be a powerful tool for non-invasive, quantitative detection of early changes associated with colorectal cancer development.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Graf, W. J. Brown, and A. Wax, “Parallel frequency-domain optical coherence tomography scatter-mode imaging of the hamster cheek pouch using a thermal light source,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1285–1287 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, Y. Liu, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, and V. Backman, “Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

B. S. Reddy, “Studies with the azoxymethane-rat preclinical model for assessing colon tumor development and chemoprevention,” Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 44(1), 26–35 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. Dominitz, G. Eisen, T. Baron, J. Goldstein, W. Hirota, B. Jacobson, J. Johanson, J. Leighton, J. Mallery, and Standards of Practice Committee. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “Complications of colonoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(4), 441–445 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Braakhuis, M. P. Tabor, J. A. Kummer, C. R. Leemans, and R. H. Brakenhoff, “A genetic explanation of Slaughter’s concept of field cancerization: evidence and clinical implications,” Cancer Res. 63(8), 1727–1730 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (2)

D. Ransohoff and R. Sandler, “Screening for colorectal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 346(1), 40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

A. J. Aldridge and J. N. Simson, “Histological assessment of colorectal adenomas by size. Are polyps less than 10 mm in size clinically important?” Eur. J. Surg. 167(10), 777–781 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. P. Weston and D. R. Campbell, “Diminutive colonic polyps: histopathology, spatial distribution, concomitant significant lesions, and treatment complications,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90(1), 24–28 (1995).
[PubMed]

E. Jaramillo, M. Watanabe, P. Slezak, and C. Rubio, “Flat neoplastic lesions of the colon and rectum detected by high-resolution video endoscopy and chromoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 42(2), 114–122 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

E. A. McLellan and R. P. Bird, “Aberrant crypts: potential preneoplastic lesions in the murine colon,” Cancer Res. 48(21), 6187–6192 (1988).
[PubMed]

Adie, S. G.

Aldridge, A. J.

A. J. Aldridge and J. N. Simson, “Histological assessment of colorectal adenomas by size. Are polyps less than 10 mm in size clinically important?” Eur. J. Surg. 167(10), 777–781 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armstrong, J. J.

Backman, V.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, Y. Liu, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, and V. Backman, “Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baron, T.

J. Dominitz, G. Eisen, T. Baron, J. Goldstein, W. Hirota, B. Jacobson, J. Johanson, J. Leighton, J. Mallery, and Standards of Practice Committee. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “Complications of colonoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(4), 441–445 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bird, R. P.

E. A. McLellan and R. P. Bird, “Aberrant crypts: potential preneoplastic lesions in the murine colon,” Cancer Res. 48(21), 6187–6192 (1988).
[PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

Braakhuis, B. J.

B. J. Braakhuis, M. P. Tabor, J. A. Kummer, C. R. Leemans, and R. H. Brakenhoff, “A genetic explanation of Slaughter’s concept of field cancerization: evidence and clinical implications,” Cancer Res. 63(8), 1727–1730 (2003).
[PubMed]

Brakenhoff, R. H.

B. J. Braakhuis, M. P. Tabor, J. A. Kummer, C. R. Leemans, and R. H. Brakenhoff, “A genetic explanation of Slaughter’s concept of field cancerization: evidence and clinical implications,” Cancer Res. 63(8), 1727–1730 (2003).
[PubMed]

Brand, R.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, W. J.

Campbell, D. R.

A. P. Weston and D. R. Campbell, “Diminutive colonic polyps: histopathology, spatial distribution, concomitant significant lesions, and treatment complications,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90(1), 24–28 (1995).
[PubMed]

Chen, X.

R. N. Graf, F. E. Robles, X. Chen, and A. Wax, “Detecting precancerous lesions in the hamster cheek pouch using spectroscopic white-light optical coherence tomography to assess nuclear morphology via spectral oscillations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, W.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, J.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dominitz, J.

J. Dominitz, G. Eisen, T. Baron, J. Goldstein, W. Hirota, B. Jacobson, J. Johanson, J. Leighton, J. Mallery, and Standards of Practice Committee. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “Complications of colonoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(4), 441–445 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisen, G.

J. Dominitz, G. Eisen, T. Baron, J. Goldstein, W. Hirota, B. Jacobson, J. Johanson, J. Leighton, J. Mallery, and Standards of Practice Committee. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “Complications of colonoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(4), 441–445 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evoniuk, M.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. Evoniuk, J. K. M. Thacker, J. Migaly, C. Guy, C. R. Mantyh, and A. Wax, “Detection of intestinal dysplasia using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry,” Dis. Colon Rectum (in review).
[PubMed]

Fang-Yen, C.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fercher, A. F.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

Georgakoudi, I.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, M.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldstein, J.

J. Dominitz, G. Eisen, T. Baron, J. Goldstein, W. Hirota, B. Jacobson, J. Johanson, J. Leighton, J. Mallery, and Standards of Practice Committee. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “Complications of colonoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(4), 441–445 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, A.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graf, R. N.

Gurjar, R. S.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guy, C.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. Evoniuk, J. K. M. Thacker, J. Migaly, C. Guy, C. R. Mantyh, and A. Wax, “Detection of intestinal dysplasia using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry,” Dis. Colon Rectum (in review).
[PubMed]

Hamano, T.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hasabou, N.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirota, W.

J. Dominitz, G. Eisen, T. Baron, J. Goldstein, W. Hirota, B. Jacobson, J. Johanson, J. Leighton, J. Mallery, and Standards of Practice Committee. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “Complications of colonoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(4), 441–445 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, B.

J. Dominitz, G. Eisen, T. Baron, J. Goldstein, W. Hirota, B. Jacobson, J. Johanson, J. Leighton, J. Mallery, and Standards of Practice Committee. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “Complications of colonoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(4), 441–445 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jameel, M.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaramillo, E.

E. Jaramillo, M. Watanabe, P. Slezak, and C. Rubio, “Flat neoplastic lesions of the colon and rectum detected by high-resolution video endoscopy and chromoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 42(2), 114–122 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johanson, J.

J. Dominitz, G. Eisen, T. Baron, J. Goldstein, W. Hirota, B. Jacobson, J. Johanson, J. Leighton, J. Mallery, and Standards of Practice Committee. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “Complications of colonoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(4), 441–445 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. L.

Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, Y. Liu, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, and V. Backman, “Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kromine, A.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kummer, J. A.

B. J. Braakhuis, M. P. Tabor, J. A. Kummer, C. R. Leemans, and R. H. Brakenhoff, “A genetic explanation of Slaughter’s concept of field cancerization: evidence and clinical implications,” Cancer Res. 63(8), 1727–1730 (2003).
[PubMed]

Leemans, C. R.

B. J. Braakhuis, M. P. Tabor, J. A. Kummer, C. R. Leemans, and R. H. Brakenhoff, “A genetic explanation of Slaughter’s concept of field cancerization: evidence and clinical implications,” Cancer Res. 63(8), 1727–1730 (2003).
[PubMed]

Leigh, M. S.

Leighton, J.

J. Dominitz, G. Eisen, T. Baron, J. Goldstein, W. Hirota, B. Jacobson, J. Johanson, J. Leighton, J. Mallery, and Standards of Practice Committee. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “Complications of colonoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(4), 441–445 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lima, C.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, Y. Liu, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, and V. Backman, “Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallery, J.

J. Dominitz, G. Eisen, T. Baron, J. Goldstein, W. Hirota, B. Jacobson, J. Johanson, J. Leighton, J. Mallery, and Standards of Practice Committee. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “Complications of colonoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(4), 441–445 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mantyh, C. R.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. Evoniuk, J. K. M. Thacker, J. Migaly, C. Guy, C. R. Mantyh, and A. Wax, “Detection of intestinal dysplasia using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry,” Dis. Colon Rectum (in review).
[PubMed]

McLellan, E. A.

E. A. McLellan and R. P. Bird, “Aberrant crypts: potential preneoplastic lesions in the murine colon,” Cancer Res. 48(21), 6187–6192 (1988).
[PubMed]

Migaly, J.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. Evoniuk, J. K. M. Thacker, J. Migaly, C. Guy, C. R. Mantyh, and A. Wax, “Detection of intestinal dysplasia using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry,” Dis. Colon Rectum (in review).
[PubMed]

Nguyen, F. T.

Nusrat, A.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paduch, A.

Perelman, L.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, P.

Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, Y. Liu, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, and V. Backman, “Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ransohoff, D.

D. Ransohoff and R. Sandler, “Screening for colorectal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 346(1), 40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, B. S.

B. S. Reddy, “Studies with the azoxymethane-rat preclinical model for assessing colon tumor development and chemoprevention,” Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 44(1), 26–35 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robles, F.

Robles, F. E.

F. E. Robles and A. Wax, “Measuring morphological features using light-scattering spectroscopy and Fourier-domain low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 360–362 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Graf, F. E. Robles, X. Chen, and A. Wax, “Detecting precancerous lesions in the hamster cheek pouch using spectroscopic white-light optical coherence tomography to assess nuclear morphology via spectral oscillations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, H.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, H. K.

Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, Y. Liu, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, and V. Backman, “Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubio, C.

E. Jaramillo, M. Watanabe, P. Slezak, and C. Rubio, “Flat neoplastic lesions of the colon and rectum detected by high-resolution video endoscopy and chromoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 42(2), 114–122 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruderman, S.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

Sandler, R.

D. Ransohoff and R. Sandler, “Screening for colorectal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 346(1), 40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, M.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shields, S.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Simson, J. N.

A. J. Aldridge and J. N. Simson, “Histological assessment of colorectal adenomas by size. Are polyps less than 10 mm in size clinically important?” Eur. J. Surg. 167(10), 777–781 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slezak, P.

E. Jaramillo, M. Watanabe, P. Slezak, and C. Rubio, “Flat neoplastic lesions of the colon and rectum detected by high-resolution video endoscopy and chromoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 42(2), 114–122 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramanian, H.

Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, Y. Liu, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, and V. Backman, “Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabor, M. P.

B. J. Braakhuis, M. P. Tabor, J. A. Kummer, C. R. Leemans, and R. H. Brakenhoff, “A genetic explanation of Slaughter’s concept of field cancerization: evidence and clinical implications,” Cancer Res. 63(8), 1727–1730 (2003).
[PubMed]

Terry, N. G.

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, and A. Wax, “Scanning fiber angle-resolved low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3196–3198 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. Evoniuk, J. K. M. Thacker, J. Migaly, C. Guy, C. R. Mantyh, and A. Wax, “Detection of intestinal dysplasia using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry,” Dis. Colon Rectum (in review).
[PubMed]

Thacker, J. K. M.

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. Evoniuk, J. K. M. Thacker, J. Migaly, C. Guy, C. R. Mantyh, and A. Wax, “Detection of intestinal dysplasia using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry,” Dis. Colon Rectum (in review).
[PubMed]

Turzhitsky, V.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turzhitsky, V. M.

Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, Y. Liu, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, and V. Backman, “Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakil, P.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dam, J.

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wali, R. K.

Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, Y. Liu, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, and V. Backman, “Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallace, M.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, M.

E. Jaramillo, M. Watanabe, P. Slezak, and C. Rubio, “Flat neoplastic lesions of the colon and rectum detected by high-resolution video endoscopy and chromoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 42(2), 114–122 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

F. E. Robles and A. Wax, “Measuring morphological features using light-scattering spectroscopy and Fourier-domain low-coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 360–362 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Graf, F. E. Robles, X. Chen, and A. Wax, “Detecting precancerous lesions in the hamster cheek pouch using spectroscopic white-light optical coherence tomography to assess nuclear morphology via spectral oscillations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Robles, R. N. Graf, and A. Wax, “Dual window method for processing spectroscopic optical coherence tomography signals with simultaneously high spectral and temporal resolution,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6799–6812 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, and A. Wax, “Scanning fiber angle-resolved low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3196–3198 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Graf, W. J. Brown, and A. Wax, “Parallel frequency-domain optical coherence tomography scatter-mode imaging of the hamster cheek pouch using a thermal light source,” Opt. Lett. 33(12), 1285–1287 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Wax, C. H. Yang, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Measurement of angular distributions by use of low-coherence interferometry for light-scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(6), 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. Evoniuk, J. K. M. Thacker, J. Migaly, C. Guy, C. R. Mantyh, and A. Wax, “Detection of intestinal dysplasia using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry,” Dis. Colon Rectum (in review).
[PubMed]

Weston, A. P.

A. P. Weston and D. R. Campbell, “Diminutive colonic polyps: histopathology, spatial distribution, concomitant significant lesions, and treatment complications,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90(1), 24–28 (1995).
[PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C. H.

Young, K.

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, and A. Wax, “Scanning fiber angle-resolved low coherence interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 34(20), 3196–3198 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. Evoniuk, J. K. M. Thacker, J. Migaly, C. Guy, C. R. Mantyh, and A. Wax, “Detection of intestinal dysplasia using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry,” Dis. Colon Rectum (in review).
[PubMed]

Zonios, G.

G. Zonios, L. T. Perelman, V. Backman, R. Manoharan, M. Fitzmaurice, J. Van Dam, and M. S. Feld, “Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of human adenomatous colon polyps in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(31), 6628–6637 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zysk, A. M.

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

A. P. Weston and D. R. Campbell, “Diminutive colonic polyps: histopathology, spatial distribution, concomitant significant lesions, and treatment complications,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 90(1), 24–28 (1995).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Cancer Res. (2)

E. A. McLellan and R. P. Bird, “Aberrant crypts: potential preneoplastic lesions in the murine colon,” Cancer Res. 48(21), 6187–6192 (1988).
[PubMed]

B. J. Braakhuis, M. P. Tabor, J. A. Kummer, C. R. Leemans, and R. H. Brakenhoff, “A genetic explanation of Slaughter’s concept of field cancerization: evidence and clinical implications,” Cancer Res. 63(8), 1727–1730 (2003).
[PubMed]

Dis. Colon Rectum (1)

N. G. Terry, Y. Zhu, M. Evoniuk, J. K. M. Thacker, J. Migaly, C. Guy, C. R. Mantyh, and A. Wax, “Detection of intestinal dysplasia using angle-resolved low coherence interferometry,” Dis. Colon Rectum (in review).
[PubMed]

Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (1)

B. S. Reddy, “Studies with the azoxymethane-rat preclinical model for assessing colon tumor development and chemoprevention,” Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 44(1), 26–35 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Surg. (1)

A. J. Aldridge and J. N. Simson, “Histological assessment of colorectal adenomas by size. Are polyps less than 10 mm in size clinically important?” Eur. J. Surg. 167(10), 777–781 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology (1)

H. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. Young, A. Kromine, R. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1071 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (2)

E. Jaramillo, M. Watanabe, P. Slezak, and C. Rubio, “Flat neoplastic lesions of the colon and rectum detected by high-resolution video endoscopy and chromoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 42(2), 114–122 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dominitz, G. Eisen, T. Baron, J. Goldstein, W. Hirota, B. Jacobson, J. Johanson, J. Leighton, J. Mallery, and Standards of Practice Committee. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, “Complications of colonoscopy,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 57(4), 441–445 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

Y. L. Kim, V. M. Turzhitsky, Y. Liu, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, and V. Backman, “Low-coherence enhanced backscattering: review of principles and applications for colon cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041125 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Graf, F. E. Robles, X. Chen, and A. Wax, “Detecting precancerous lesions in the hamster cheek pouch using spectroscopic white-light optical coherence tomography to assess nuclear morphology via spectral oscillations,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064030 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Engl. J. Med. (1)

D. Ransohoff and R. Sandler, “Screening for colorectal cancer,” N. Engl. J. Med. 346(1), 40 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (1)

R. S. Gurjar, V. Backman, L. T. Perelman, I. Georgakoudi, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Imaging human epithelial properties with polarized light-scattering spectroscopy,” Nat. Med. 7(11), 1245–1248 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, T. Hamano, I. Itzkan, J. Van Dam, J. Crawford, and M. Feld, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80(3), 627–630 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. C. Van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, 1957).

American Cancer Society, Colorectal Cancer Facts & Figs. 2008–2010. Atlanta:American Cancer Society, 2008.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Stained tissue sample, 4 weeks post treatment with three ACF containing 2, 3, and 4 aberrant crypts.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Parallel frequency domain OCT system operating in scatter mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

pfdOCT image of an ex-vivo rat colon sample. The red line delineates an example region that is averaged across to determine the nuclear diameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DW processing method to obtain TFDs with simultaneously high spectral and spatial resolution. Two STFTs, one obtained with a narrow window and another with a wide window, are multiplied together to obtain the DW TFD. Gaussian windows were used with standard deviations w 1 = 0.029 µm−1 and w 2 = 0.804 µm−1, resulting in TFDs with an axial resolution of 3.45 µm and spectral resolution of 1.66 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Average spectrum (blue solid line) from the delineated region in Fig. 3, along with low frequency component (black dotted line) (a). The low frequency component is subtracted from the averaged spectrum of obtain the local oscillations (b). A Fourier transform yields a correlation function (c), where the peak corresponds to an average cell nuclear diameter of 7.88 µm in the region of analysis.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Nuclear diameter by depth sections. The mid section (35 µm in depth) provided the most significant results, with p-values<10−4 ** for the treated samples at all time points when compared to the control group. No statistical significance was found at the surface, and mildly significant differences (p-values <0.05 *) were found at the low (50µm) section.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Results by colon length segments. Highly statistical differences (p-value <10−4 **) were observed between the control group and treated groups for the proximal LC (a) and distal LC (b). (c) Plots the measured cell nuclear diameter as a function of the number of ACF. For clarity, the time of measurement is noted next to each point (wk = week).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured cell nuclear diameter by depth sections

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured cell nuclear diameter (fLCI measurement) and number of ACF by length segments

Metrics