Abstract

Noninvasive optical techniques for tissue characterization, in particular, light scattering properties and blood supply quantification of mucosa, is useful in a wide variety of applications. However, fiber-optic probes that require contact with the tissue surface can present a challenging problem in the variability of in vivo measurements due the nature of interactions, for example affects due to variations in pressure applied to the probe tip. We present an in vivo evaluation of pressure, angle, and temporal effects on tissue properties for polarization-gated spectroscopy at superficial depths (within 100 to 200 microns of tissue surface) for oral mucosa.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021003 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 825–834 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Shangguan, S. A. Prahl, S. L. Jacques, and L. W. Casperson, “Pressure effects on soft tissues monitored by changes in tissue optical properties,” Proc. SPIE 3254, 366–371 (1998).
  9. Y. Ti and W. C. Lin, “Effects of probe contact pressure on in vivo optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4250–4262 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(2), 335–342 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, R. K. Wali, Y. Liu, J. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Spectral markers in preneoplastic intestinal mucosa: an accurate predictor of tumor risk in the MIN mouse,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14(7), 1639–1645 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. D. Rogers, I. R. Capoğlu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1891–1893 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. R. Kelman, “Digital computer subroutine for the conversion of oxygen tension into saturation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 21(4), 1375–1376 (1966).
    [PubMed]

2009

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, I. R. Capoğlu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

Y. Ti and W. C. Lin, “Effects of probe contact pressure on in vivo optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(6), 4250–4262 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(2), 335–342 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, R. K. Wali, Y. Liu, J. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Spectral markers in preneoplastic intestinal mucosa: an accurate predictor of tumor risk in the MIN mouse,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14(7), 1639–1645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H. Shangguan, S. A. Prahl, S. L. Jacques, and L. W. Casperson, “Pressure effects on soft tissues monitored by changes in tissue optical properties,” Proc. SPIE 3254, 366–371 (1998).

1966

G. R. Kelman, “Digital computer subroutine for the conversion of oxygen tension into saturation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 21(4), 1375–1376 (1966).
[PubMed]

A’Amar, O.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amorosino, M. S.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, E. N.

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, I. R. Capoğlu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(2), 335–342 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, R. K. Wali, Y. Liu, J. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Spectral markers in preneoplastic intestinal mucosa: an accurate predictor of tumor risk in the MIN mouse,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14(7), 1639–1645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bianchi, L. K.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I. J.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brand, R. E.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calabro, K. W.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capoglu, I. R.

Casperson, L. W.

H. Shangguan, S. A. Prahl, S. L. Jacques, and L. W. Casperson, “Pressure effects on soft tissues monitored by changes in tissue optical properties,” Proc. SPIE 3254, 366–371 (1998).

Chang, S.

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. K.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, B. R.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, D.

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dasari, R. R.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davies, S.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daye, D.

Fearn, T.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, R.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fitzmaurice, M.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galindo, L. H.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gandhi, S. J.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Gillenwater, A. M.

Goldberg, M. J.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, R. K. Wali, Y. Liu, J. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Spectral markers in preneoplastic intestinal mucosa: an accurate predictor of tumor risk in the MIN mouse,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14(7), 1639–1645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, A.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, A. J.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Haka, A. S.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasabou, N.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

H. Shangguan, S. A. Prahl, S. L. Jacques, and L. W. Casperson, “Pressure effects on soft tissues monitored by changes in tissue optical properties,” Proc. SPIE 3254, 366–371 (1998).

Jameel, M.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, K.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelman, G. R.

G. R. Kelman, “Digital computer subroutine for the conversion of oxygen tension into saturation,” J. Appl. Physiol. 21(4), 1375–1376 (1966).
[PubMed]

Kim, Y. L.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(2), 335–342 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, R. K. Wali, Y. Liu, J. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Spectral markers in preneoplastic intestinal mucosa: an accurate predictor of tumor risk in the MIN mouse,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14(7), 1639–1645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koetsier, J.

H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, R. K. Wali, Y. Liu, J. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Spectral markers in preneoplastic intestinal mucosa: an accurate predictor of tumor risk in the MIN mouse,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14(7), 1639–1645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, J. R.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kromine, A.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kromine, A. K.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kunte, D. P.

H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, R. K. Wali, Y. Liu, J. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Spectral markers in preneoplastic intestinal mucosa: an accurate predictor of tumor risk in the MIN mouse,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14(7), 1639–1645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Lin, W. C.

Liu, Y.

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, R. K. Wali, Y. Liu, J. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Spectral markers in preneoplastic intestinal mucosa: an accurate predictor of tumor risk in the MIN mouse,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14(7), 1639–1645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovat, L. B.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackenzie, G. D.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, A.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirabal, Y. N.

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Motz, J. T.

J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, A. Miller, S. J. Gandhi, A. S. Haka, L. H. Galindo, R. R. Dasari, J. R. Kramer, and M. S. Feld, “In vivo Raman spectral pathology of human atherosclerosis and vulnerable plaque,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(2), 021003 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nath, A.

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novelli, M. R.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donovan, M.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perelman, L. T.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pickard, D.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prahl, S. A.

H. Shangguan, S. A. Prahl, S. L. Jacques, and L. W. Casperson, “Pressure effects on soft tissues monitored by changes in tissue optical properties,” Proc. SPIE 3254, 366–371 (1998).

Reif, R.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

R. A. Schwarz, W. Gao, D. Daye, M. D. Williams, R. Richards-Kortum, and A. M. Gillenwater, “Autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of oral epithelial tissue using a depth-sensitive fiber-optic probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(6), 825–834 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. N. Mirabal, S. K. Chang, E. N. Atkinson, A. Malpica, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancer,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 587–594 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivoire, K.

A. Nath, K. Rivoire, S. Chang, D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Effect of probe pressure on cervical fluorescence spectroscopy measurements,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(3), 523–533 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogers, J. D.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Rogers, I. R. Capoğlu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, H. K.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47(32), 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(2), 335–342 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, R. K. Wali, Y. Liu, J. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Spectral markers in preneoplastic intestinal mucosa: an accurate predictor of tumor risk in the MIN mouse,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14(7), 1639–1645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruderman, S.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, R. A.

Selvasekar, C.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shangguan, H.

H. Shangguan, S. A. Prahl, S. L. Jacques, and L. W. Casperson, “Pressure effects on soft tissues monitored by changes in tissue optical properties,” Proc. SPIE 3254, 366–371 (1998).

Siegel, M. P.

Singh, S. K.

R. Reif, M. S. Amorosino, K. W. Calabro, O. A’Amar, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, “Analysis of changes in reflectance measurements on biological tissues subjected to different probe pressures,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010502 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoyneva, V.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thorpe, S. M.

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ti, Y.

Turzhitsky, V.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turzhitsky, V. M.

Vakil, P.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wali, R. K.

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45(2), 335–342 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, R. K. Wali, Y. Liu, J. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Spectral markers in preneoplastic intestinal mucosa: an accurate predictor of tumor risk in the MIN mouse,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14(7), 1639–1645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, M. D.

Yen, E.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, K. L.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.

H. K. Roy, Y. L. Kim, R. K. Wali, Y. Liu, J. Koetsier, D. P. Kunte, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Spectral markers in preneoplastic intestinal mucosa: an accurate predictor of tumor risk in the MIN mouse,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14(7), 1639–1645 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Cancer Res.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. L. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15(9), 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastroenterology

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135(4), 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gut

L. B. Lovat, K. Johnson, G. D. Mackenzie, B. R. Clark, M. R. Novelli, S. Davies, M. O’Donovan, C. Selvasekar, S. M. Thorpe, D. Pickard, R. Fitzgerald, T. Fearn, I. Bigio, and S. G. Bown, “Elastic scattering spectroscopy accurately detects high grade dysplasia and cancer in Barrett’s oesophagus,” Gut 55(8), 1078–1083 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram (frontal view) of the polarization-gating fiber optic probe tip. (b) Schematic (side view) of the probe tip, which comes in contact with the sample, showing the fibers, thin-film polarizers and GRIN lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Relative Reflectance from a tissue scattering phantom collected by the EIBS probe as a function of the reduced scattering coefficient for two different anisotropy factors. (b) The EIBS probe accurately measures percent oxygenation compared to a standard oxygen sensitive microelectrode. Perfect agreement between the probe and electrode oxygenation measurements is indicated by the diagonal line. The average percent error between both oxygenation measurement methods was 2% over the physiological range of 35%-100% oxygenation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

. Results for pressure and angle experiments. Angle measurements were normalized to the mean value of each parameter for the probe axis normal to tissue. Pressure measurements were normalized to the mean value of each parameter for gentle pressure. Graphs represent the relative change in each parameter. Left panel shows the means and standard errors for (a) total Hb content, (c) oxygenation, (e) PLS, and (g) m from the ΔΙ signal. The right panel shows the means and standard errors for (b) total Hb content, (d) oxygenation, (f) PLS, and (h) m from the I signal. Panel (i) shows the total scattering intensity. * Notes parameters with statistical significance of p < 0.05.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results for temporal experiments which include acquisition of 20 spectra within 30 seconds on the same tissue site. For each tissue site, measurements were normalized to the first measurement in the sequence, corresponding to initial probe contact. Either gentle or firm pressure was applied consistently throughout the measurement sequence. Graphs represent the relative change in each parameter with the applied pressure. Left panel shows the means and standard errors for (a) total Hb content, (c) oxygenation, (e) PLS, and (g) m from the ΔΙ signal. The right panel shows the means and standard errors for (b) total Hb content, (d) oxygenation, (f) PLS, and (h) m from the I signal. Panel (i) shows the total scattering intensity.

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