Abstract

To investigate the use of linear diode laser bars to optically stretch cells and measure their mechanical properties, we present numerical simulations using the immersed boundary method (IBM) coupled with classic ray optics. Cells are considered as three-dimensional (3D) spherical elastic capsules immersed in a fluid subjected to both optical and hydrodynamic forces in a periodic domain. We simulate cell deformation induced by both single and dual diode laser bar configurations and show that a single diode laser bar induces significant stretching but also induces cell translation of speed < 10 µm/sec for applied 6.6 mW/µm power in unconfined systems. The dual diode laser bar configuration, however, can be used to both stretch and optically trap cells at a fixed position. The net cell deformation was found to be a function of the total laser power and not the power distribution between single or dual diode laser bar configurations.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Bao and S. Suresh, “Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 715–725 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. R. Huruta, M. L. Barjas-Castro, S. T. O. Saad, F. F. Costa, A. Fontes, L. C. Barbosa, and C. L. Cesar, “Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers,” Blood 92(8), 2975–2977 (1998).
    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. P. J. H. Bronkhorst, G. J. Streekstra, J. Grimbergen, E. J. Nijhof, J. J. Sixma, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “A new method to study shape recovery of red blood cells using multiple optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 69(5), 1666–1673 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Peskin, “Numerical analysis of blood flow in the heart,” J. Comput. Phys. 25(3), 220–252 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J. 61(2), 569–582 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “Optical deformability of soft biological dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(23), 5451–5454 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010

I. Sraj, J. Chichester, E. Hoover, R. Jimenez, J. Squier, C. D. Eggleton, and D. W. M. Marr, “Cell deformation cytometry using diode-bar optical stretchers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, (2010), in press.

2008

G. B. Liao, P. B. Bareil, Y. Sheng, and A. Chiou, “One-dimensional jumping optical tweezers for optical stretching of bi-concave human red blood cells,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1996–2004 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Pawar, S. Jadhav, C. D. Eggleton, and K. Konstantopoulos, “Roles of cell and microvillus deformation and receptor-ligand binding kinetics in cell rolling,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 295(4), 1439–1450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. K. Mohanty, A. Uppal, and P. K. Gupta, “Self-rotation of red blood cells in optical tweezers: prospects for high throughput malaria diagnosis,” Biotechnol. Lett. 26(12), 971–974 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

G. Bao and S. Suresh, “Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 715–725 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “Optical deformability of soft biological dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(23), 5451–5454 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

S. Hénon, G. Lenormand, A. Richert, and F. Gallet, “A new determination of the shear modulus of the human erythrocyte membrane using optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 76(2), 1145–1151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

R. R. Huruta, M. L. Barjas-Castro, S. T. O. Saad, F. F. Costa, A. Fontes, L. C. Barbosa, and C. L. Cesar, “Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers,” Blood 92(8), 2975–2977 (1998).
[PubMed]

C. D. Eggleton and A. S. Popel, “A large deformation of red blood cell ghosts in a simple shear flow,” Phys. Fluids 10(8), 1834–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. J. H. Bronkhorst, G. J. Streekstra, J. Grimbergen, E. J. Nijhof, J. J. Sixma, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “A new method to study shape recovery of red blood cells using multiple optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 69(5), 1666–1673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J. 61(2), 569–582 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

C. Peskin and D. McQueen, “A three dimensional computational method for blood flow in the heart I. immersed elastic fibers in a viscous incompressible fluid,” J. Comput. Phys. 81(2), 372–405 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

C. Peskin, “Numerical analysis of blood flow in the heart,” J. Comput. Phys. 25(3), 220–252 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1970

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156–159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ananthakrishnan, R.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “Optical deformability of soft biological dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(23), 5451–5454 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Applegate, R. W.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J. 61(2), 569–582 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156–159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

B. Bareil, P.

Bao, G.

G. Bao and S. Suresh, “Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 715–725 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbosa, L. C.

R. R. Huruta, M. L. Barjas-Castro, S. T. O. Saad, F. F. Costa, A. Fontes, L. C. Barbosa, and C. L. Cesar, “Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers,” Blood 92(8), 2975–2977 (1998).
[PubMed]

Bareil, P. B.

Barjas-Castro, M. L.

R. R. Huruta, M. L. Barjas-Castro, S. T. O. Saad, F. F. Costa, A. Fontes, L. C. Barbosa, and C. L. Cesar, “Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers,” Blood 92(8), 2975–2977 (1998).
[PubMed]

Bilby, C.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brakenhoff, G. J.

P. J. H. Bronkhorst, G. J. Streekstra, J. Grimbergen, E. J. Nijhof, J. J. Sixma, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “A new method to study shape recovery of red blood cells using multiple optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 69(5), 1666–1673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bronkhorst, P. J. H.

P. J. H. Bronkhorst, G. J. Streekstra, J. Grimbergen, E. J. Nijhof, J. J. Sixma, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “A new method to study shape recovery of red blood cells using multiple optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 69(5), 1666–1673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cesar, C. L.

R. R. Huruta, M. L. Barjas-Castro, S. T. O. Saad, F. F. Costa, A. Fontes, L. C. Barbosa, and C. L. Cesar, “Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers,” Blood 92(8), 2975–2977 (1998).
[PubMed]

Chen, Y. Q.

Chichester, J.

I. Sraj, J. Chichester, E. Hoover, R. Jimenez, J. Squier, C. D. Eggleton, and D. W. M. Marr, “Cell deformation cytometry using diode-bar optical stretchers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, (2010), in press.

Chiou, A.

Costa, F. F.

R. R. Huruta, M. L. Barjas-Castro, S. T. O. Saad, F. F. Costa, A. Fontes, L. C. Barbosa, and C. L. Cesar, “Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers,” Blood 92(8), 2975–2977 (1998).
[PubMed]

Cunningham, C. C.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “Optical deformability of soft biological dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(23), 5451–5454 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziedzic, J. M.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebert, S.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, C. D.

I. Sraj, J. Chichester, E. Hoover, R. Jimenez, J. Squier, C. D. Eggleton, and D. W. M. Marr, “Cell deformation cytometry using diode-bar optical stretchers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, (2010), in press.

P. Pawar, S. Jadhav, C. D. Eggleton, and K. Konstantopoulos, “Roles of cell and microvillus deformation and receptor-ligand binding kinetics in cell rolling,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 295(4), 1439–1450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Eggleton and A. S. Popel, “A large deformation of red blood cell ghosts in a simple shear flow,” Phys. Fluids 10(8), 1834–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, H. M.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontes, A.

R. R. Huruta, M. L. Barjas-Castro, S. T. O. Saad, F. F. Costa, A. Fontes, L. C. Barbosa, and C. L. Cesar, “Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers,” Blood 92(8), 2975–2977 (1998).
[PubMed]

Gallet, F.

S. Hénon, G. Lenormand, A. Richert, and F. Gallet, “A new determination of the shear modulus of the human erythrocyte membrane using optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 76(2), 1145–1151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, X.

Grimbergen, J.

P. J. H. Bronkhorst, G. J. Streekstra, J. Grimbergen, E. J. Nijhof, J. J. Sixma, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “A new method to study shape recovery of red blood cells using multiple optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 69(5), 1666–1673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

Guck, J.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “Optical deformability of soft biological dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(23), 5451–5454 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, P. K.

S. K. Mohanty, A. Uppal, and P. K. Gupta, “Self-rotation of red blood cells in optical tweezers: prospects for high throughput malaria diagnosis,” Biotechnol. Lett. 26(12), 971–974 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hénon, S.

S. Hénon, G. Lenormand, A. Richert, and F. Gallet, “A new determination of the shear modulus of the human erythrocyte membrane using optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 76(2), 1145–1151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoover, E.

I. Sraj, J. Chichester, E. Hoover, R. Jimenez, J. Squier, C. D. Eggleton, and D. W. M. Marr, “Cell deformation cytometry using diode-bar optical stretchers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, (2010), in press.

Huruta, R. R.

R. R. Huruta, M. L. Barjas-Castro, S. T. O. Saad, F. F. Costa, A. Fontes, L. C. Barbosa, and C. L. Cesar, “Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers,” Blood 92(8), 2975–2977 (1998).
[PubMed]

Jadhav, S.

P. Pawar, S. Jadhav, C. D. Eggleton, and K. Konstantopoulos, “Roles of cell and microvillus deformation and receptor-ligand binding kinetics in cell rolling,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 295(4), 1439–1450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, R.

I. Sraj, J. Chichester, E. Hoover, R. Jimenez, J. Squier, C. D. Eggleton, and D. W. M. Marr, “Cell deformation cytometry using diode-bar optical stretchers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, (2010), in press.

Käs, J.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “Optical deformability of soft biological dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(23), 5451–5454 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konstantopoulos, K.

P. Pawar, S. Jadhav, C. D. Eggleton, and K. Konstantopoulos, “Roles of cell and microvillus deformation and receptor-ligand binding kinetics in cell rolling,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 295(4), 1439–1450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuriakose, S.

Lenormand, G.

S. Hénon, G. Lenormand, A. Richert, and F. Gallet, “A new determination of the shear modulus of the human erythrocyte membrane using optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 76(2), 1145–1151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenz, D.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, G. B.

Lincoln, B.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahmood, H.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marr, D. W. M.

I. Sraj, J. Chichester, E. Hoover, R. Jimenez, J. Squier, C. D. Eggleton, and D. W. M. Marr, “Cell deformation cytometry using diode-bar optical stretchers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, (2010), in press.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McQueen, D.

C. Peskin and D. McQueen, “A three dimensional computational method for blood flow in the heart I. immersed elastic fibers in a viscous incompressible fluid,” J. Comput. Phys. 81(2), 372–405 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohanty, S. K.

S. K. Mohanty, A. Uppal, and P. K. Gupta, “Self-rotation of red blood cells in optical tweezers: prospects for high throughput malaria diagnosis,” Biotechnol. Lett. 26(12), 971–974 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, T. J.

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “Optical deformability of soft biological dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(23), 5451–5454 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nijhof, E. J.

P. J. H. Bronkhorst, G. J. Streekstra, J. Grimbergen, E. J. Nijhof, J. J. Sixma, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “A new method to study shape recovery of red blood cells using multiple optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 69(5), 1666–1673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oakey, J.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pawar, P.

P. Pawar, S. Jadhav, C. D. Eggleton, and K. Konstantopoulos, “Roles of cell and microvillus deformation and receptor-ligand binding kinetics in cell rolling,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 295(4), 1439–1450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peskin, C.

C. Peskin and D. McQueen, “A three dimensional computational method for blood flow in the heart I. immersed elastic fibers in a viscous incompressible fluid,” J. Comput. Phys. 81(2), 372–405 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Peskin, “Numerical analysis of blood flow in the heart,” J. Comput. Phys. 25(3), 220–252 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Popel, A. S.

C. D. Eggleton and A. S. Popel, “A large deformation of red blood cell ghosts in a simple shear flow,” Phys. Fluids 10(8), 1834–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richert, A.

S. Hénon, G. Lenormand, A. Richert, and F. Gallet, “A new determination of the shear modulus of the human erythrocyte membrane using optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 76(2), 1145–1151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romeyke, M.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saad, S. T. O.

R. R. Huruta, M. L. Barjas-Castro, S. T. O. Saad, F. F. Costa, A. Fontes, L. C. Barbosa, and C. L. Cesar, “Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers,” Blood 92(8), 2975–2977 (1998).
[PubMed]

Schinkinger, S.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheng, Y.

Sixma, J. J.

P. J. H. Bronkhorst, G. J. Streekstra, J. Grimbergen, E. J. Nijhof, J. J. Sixma, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “A new method to study shape recovery of red blood cells using multiple optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 69(5), 1666–1673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squier, J.

I. Sraj, J. Chichester, E. Hoover, R. Jimenez, J. Squier, C. D. Eggleton, and D. W. M. Marr, “Cell deformation cytometry using diode-bar optical stretchers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, (2010), in press.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sraj, I.

I. Sraj, J. Chichester, E. Hoover, R. Jimenez, J. Squier, C. D. Eggleton, and D. W. M. Marr, “Cell deformation cytometry using diode-bar optical stretchers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, (2010), in press.

Streekstra, G. J.

P. J. H. Bronkhorst, G. J. Streekstra, J. Grimbergen, E. J. Nijhof, J. J. Sixma, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “A new method to study shape recovery of red blood cells using multiple optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 69(5), 1666–1673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suresh, S.

G. Bao and S. Suresh, “Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 715–725 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ulvick, S.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uppal, A.

S. K. Mohanty, A. Uppal, and P. K. Gupta, “Self-rotation of red blood cells in optical tweezers: prospects for high throughput malaria diagnosis,” Biotechnol. Lett. 26(12), 971–974 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vestad, T.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wottawah, F.

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamane, T.

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.

P. Pawar, S. Jadhav, C. D. Eggleton, and K. Konstantopoulos, “Roles of cell and microvillus deformation and receptor-ligand binding kinetics in cell rolling,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 295(4), 1439–1450 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. W. Applegate, J. Squier, T. Vestad, J. Oakey, and D. W. M. Marr, “Fiber-focused diode bar optical trapping for microfluidic flow manipulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J.

S. Hénon, G. Lenormand, A. Richert, and F. Gallet, “A new determination of the shear modulus of the human erythrocyte membrane using optical tweezers,” Biophys. J. 76(2), 1145–1151 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. H. Bronkhorst, G. J. Streekstra, J. Grimbergen, E. J. Nijhof, J. J. Sixma, and G. J. Brakenhoff, “A new method to study shape recovery of red blood cells using multiple optical trapping,” Biophys. J. 69(5), 1666–1673 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, S. Schinkinger, B. Lincoln, F. Wottawah, S. Ebert, M. Romeyke, D. Lenz, H. M. Erickson, R. Ananthakrishnan, D. Mitchell, J. Käs, S. Ulvick, and C. Bilby, “Optical deformability as an inherent cell marker for testing malignant transformation and metastatic competence,” Biophys. J. 88(5), 3689–3698 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, H. Mahmood, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “The optical stretcher: a novel laser tool to micromanipulate cells,” Biophys. J. 81(2), 767–784 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, “Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime,” Biophys. J. 61(2), 569–582 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biotechnol. Lett.

S. K. Mohanty, A. Uppal, and P. K. Gupta, “Self-rotation of red blood cells in optical tweezers: prospects for high throughput malaria diagnosis,” Biotechnol. Lett. 26(12), 971–974 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blood

R. R. Huruta, M. L. Barjas-Castro, S. T. O. Saad, F. F. Costa, A. Fontes, L. C. Barbosa, and C. L. Cesar, “Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers,” Blood 92(8), 2975–2977 (1998).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

I. Sraj, J. Chichester, E. Hoover, R. Jimenez, J. Squier, C. D. Eggleton, and D. W. M. Marr, “Cell deformation cytometry using diode-bar optical stretchers,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, (2010), in press.

J. Comput. Phys.

C. Peskin and D. McQueen, “A three dimensional computational method for blood flow in the heart I. immersed elastic fibers in a viscous incompressible fluid,” J. Comput. Phys. 81(2), 372–405 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. Peskin, “Numerical analysis of blood flow in the heart,” J. Comput. Phys. 25(3), 220–252 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

G. Bao and S. Suresh, “Cell and molecular mechanics of biological materials,” Nat. Mater. 2(11), 715–725 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and T. Yamane, “Optical trapping and manipulation of single cells using infrared laser beams,” Nature 330(6150), 769–771 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Fluids

C. D. Eggleton and A. S. Popel, “A large deformation of red blood cell ghosts in a simple shear flow,” Phys. Fluids 10(8), 1834–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Ashkin, “Acceleration and trapping of particles by radiation pressure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(4), 156–159 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Guck, R. Ananthakrishnan, T. J. Moon, C. C. Cunningham, and J. Käs, “Optical deformability of soft biological dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84(23), 5451–5454 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

H. C. Van de Hulst, “Light scattering by small particles,” John Wiley and Sons, New York. 172–176 (1957).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Model of the diode laser bar geometry used and the ray optics approach on a spherical cell in the (a) y-z plane and (b) x-z plane. The position and dimension of the diodes are not drawn to scale

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

2D side view of the optical stress distribution color map on a 3D cell membrane of radius a from a 1 μm wide (a) single diode laser bar (red square) with long axis in and out of the figure along the y-direction. The net force is pushing the cell away from the diode laser bar and (b) symmetric dual diode laser bars (both with long axes along the y-direction) where the cell does not translate. The total optical power is the same for both cases but the maximum local surface stress for case (a) is twice that of case (b). The arrows indicate the direction of back and front translational force. The position and dimension of the diodes are not drawn to scale.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Evolution of deformation parameter DF as a function of time for different diode laser power using single and dual diode laser bars. Total laser power is held fixed by setting the power in each diode laser in the dual configuration to half the power of the single diode laser case. For the physical properties provided in the text, the asymptotic values DF range from 0.008 using a 6.6 mW/μm diode laser (Foptical = 0.62 pN) to 0.11 using a 106 mW/μm diode laser (Foptical = 9.98 pN). (b) Variation of equilibrium deformation parameter DF as a function of the net optical force Foptical for different optical stretcher cases. Lines are guides to the eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Side view of the deformed cell at steady-state from a fully 3-D simulation colored by the elastic energy distribution, Eng, normalized by Eh using (a) single diode of 53.3 mW/μm power and (b) symmetric dual diodes of 26.6 mW/μm power each. Total energy is the same but is more localized in the case of the single diode.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

t 0 = μ a 2 F o p t i c a l .
F o p t i c a l = n m P Q c ,
Q f r o n t ( α ) = 1 + R ( α ) cos ( 2 α ) n ( 1 R ( α ) ) cos ( α β ) Q f r o n t ( α ) = R ( α ) sin ( 2 α ) n ( 1 R ( α ) ) sin ( α β )
Q b a c k ( α ) = ( 1 R ( α ) ) [ n cos ( α β ) + n R ( β ) cos ( 3 β α ) ( 1 R ( β ) ) cos ( 2 α 2 β ) ] Q b a c k ( α ) = ( 1 R ( α ) ) [ n sin ( α β ) + n R ( β ) sin ( 3 β α ) ( 1 R ( β ) ) sin ( 2 α 2 β ) ] ,
D F = A B A + B

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