Abstract

A method to perform fast 3-D optical reconstruction, based on structured light, in thick samples is demonstrated and experimentally validated. The experimental and reconstruction procedure, based on Finite Elements Method, used to reconstruct absorbing heterogeneities, with arbitrary arrangement in space, is discussed. In particular we demonstrated that a 2D sampling of the source Fourier plane is required to improve the imaging capability.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, M. A. Rosen, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. D. Schnall, and A. G. Yodh, “Three-dimensional in vivo fluorescence diffuse optical tomography of breast cancer in humans,” Opt. Express 15, 6696–6716 (2007).
  2. P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Absorption of collagen: effects on the estimate of breast composition and related diagnostic implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014021 (2007).
  3. J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).
  4. G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).
  5. R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nature Med. 9, 123–128 (2003).
  6. A. Koenig, L. Herve, V. Josserand, M. Berger, J. Boutet, A. D. Silva, J.-M. Dinten, P. Peltie, J.-L. Coll, and P. Rizo, “In vivo mice lung tumor follow-up with fluorescence diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011008 (2008).
  7. V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Symmetries, inversion formulas, and image reconstruction for optical tomography,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 056616 (2004).
  8. J. Ripoll, “Hybrid fourier-real space method for diffuse optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 35, 688–690 (2010).
  9. T. J. Rudge, V. Y. Soloviev, and S. R. Arridge, “Fast image reconstruction in fluoresence optical tomography using data compression,” Opt. Lett. 35, 763–765 (2010).
  10. V. A. Markel, V. Mital, and J. C. Schotland, “Inverse problem in optical diffusion tomography. iii. inversion formulas and singular-value decomposition,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 890–902 (2003).
  11. S. D. Konecky, G. Y. Panasyuk, K. Lee, V. Markel, A. G. Yodh, and J. C. Schotland, “Imaging complex structures with diffuse light,” Opt. Express 16, 5048–5060 (2008).
  12. Z.-M. Wang, G. Y. Panasyuk, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Experimental demonstration of an analytic method for image reconstruction in optical diffusion tomography with large data sets,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3338–3340 (2005).
  13. G. Y. Panasyuk, Z.-M. Wang, J. C. Schotland, and V. A. Markel, “Fluorescent optical tomography with large data sets,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1744–1746 (2008).
  14. D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1354–1356 (2005).
  15. N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, “Determination of tissue optical properties by steady-state spatial frequency-domain reflectometry,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 55–65 (1998).
  16. A. Bassi, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, and S. Arridge, “Temporal propagation of spatial information in turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2836–2838 (2008).
  17. F. L. J. Chen, V. Venugopal, and X. Intes, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography with patterned-light illumination and detection,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2121–2123 (2010).
  18. A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-muraca, “Non-contact fluorescence optical tomography with scanning patterned illumination,” Opt. Express 14, 55–64 (2006).
  19. V. Lukic, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography with structured illumination,” Opt. Lett. 34, 983–985 (2009).
  20. A. J. Dutta, S. Ahn, and R. M. Leahy, “Illumination pattern optimization for fluorescence tomography: theory and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 10, 2961–2982 (2010).
  21. S. D. Konecky, A. Mazhar, D. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, J. C. Schotland, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative optical tomography of sub-surface heterogeneities using spatially modulated structured light,” Opt. Express 17, 14780–14790 (2009).
  22. A. Bassi, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, and S. Arridge, “Detection of inhomogeneities in diffusive media using spatially modulated light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2156–2158 (2009).
  23. S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016006 (2010).
  24. A. Bassi, A. Farina, C. D’Andrea, A. Pifferi, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Portable, large-bandwidth time-resolved system for diffuse optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 14482–14487 (2007).
  25. M. Schweiger and S. R. Arridge, “Toast reconstruction package,” http://web4.cs.ucl.ac.uk/research/vis/toast/.

2010

A. J. Dutta, S. Ahn, and R. M. Leahy, “Illumination pattern optimization for fluorescence tomography: theory and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 10, 2961–2982 (2010).

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016006 (2010).

J. Ripoll, “Hybrid fourier-real space method for diffuse optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 35, 688–690 (2010).

T. J. Rudge, V. Y. Soloviev, and S. R. Arridge, “Fast image reconstruction in fluoresence optical tomography using data compression,” Opt. Lett. 35, 763–765 (2010).

F. L. J. Chen, V. Venugopal, and X. Intes, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography with patterned-light illumination and detection,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2121–2123 (2010).

2009

2008

2007

2006

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-muraca, “Non-contact fluorescence optical tomography with scanning patterned illumination,” Opt. Express 14, 55–64 (2006).

2005

2004

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Symmetries, inversion formulas, and image reconstruction for optical tomography,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 056616 (2004).

2003

2002

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).

1998

N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, “Determination of tissue optical properties by steady-state spatial frequency-domain reflectometry,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 55–65 (1998).

Abran, M.

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016006 (2010).

Ahn, S.

A. J. Dutta, S. Ahn, and R. M. Leahy, “Illumination pattern optimization for fluorescence tomography: theory and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 10, 2961–2982 (2010).

Arridge, S.

Arridge, S. R.

Bangerth, W.

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-muraca, “Non-contact fluorescence optical tomography with scanning patterned illumination,” Opt. Express 14, 55–64 (2006).

Bassi, A.

Bélanger, S.

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016006 (2010).

Berger, M.

A. Koenig, L. Herve, V. Josserand, M. Berger, J. Boutet, A. D. Silva, J.-M. Dinten, P. Peltie, J.-L. Coll, and P. Rizo, “In vivo mice lung tumor follow-up with fluorescence diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011008 (2008).

Bevilacqua, F.

Boas, D. A.

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).

Boutet, J.

A. Koenig, L. Herve, V. Josserand, M. Berger, J. Boutet, A. D. Silva, J.-M. Dinten, P. Peltie, J.-L. Coll, and P. Rizo, “In vivo mice lung tumor follow-up with fluorescence diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011008 (2008).

Casanova, C.

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016006 (2010).

Chen, F. L. J.

Choe, R.

Coll, J.-L.

A. Koenig, L. Herve, V. Josserand, M. Berger, J. Boutet, A. D. Silva, J.-M. Dinten, P. Peltie, J.-L. Coll, and P. Rizo, “In vivo mice lung tumor follow-up with fluorescence diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011008 (2008).

Comelli, D.

P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Absorption of collagen: effects on the estimate of breast composition and related diagnostic implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014021 (2007).

Corlu, A.

Cubeddu, R.

Cuccia, D.

Cuccia, D. J.

D’Andrea, C.

Dinten, J.-M.

A. Koenig, L. Herve, V. Josserand, M. Berger, J. Boutet, A. D. Silva, J.-M. Dinten, P. Peltie, J.-L. Coll, and P. Rizo, “In vivo mice lung tumor follow-up with fluorescence diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011008 (2008).

Dognitz, N.

N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, “Determination of tissue optical properties by steady-state spatial frequency-domain reflectometry,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 55–65 (1998).

Durduran, T.

Durkin, A. J.

Dutta, A. J.

A. J. Dutta, S. Ahn, and R. M. Leahy, “Illumination pattern optimization for fluorescence tomography: theory and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 10, 2961–2982 (2010).

Farina, A.

Herve, L.

A. Koenig, L. Herve, V. Josserand, M. Berger, J. Boutet, A. D. Silva, J.-M. Dinten, P. Peltie, J.-L. Coll, and P. Rizo, “In vivo mice lung tumor follow-up with fluorescence diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011008 (2008).

Intes, X.

F. L. J. Chen, V. Venugopal, and X. Intes, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography with patterned-light illumination and detection,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2121–2123 (2010).

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016006 (2010).

Joseph, D. K.

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).

Joshi, A.

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-muraca, “Non-contact fluorescence optical tomography with scanning patterned illumination,” Opt. Express 14, 55–64 (2006).

Josserand, V.

A. Koenig, L. Herve, V. Josserand, M. Berger, J. Boutet, A. D. Silva, J.-M. Dinten, P. Peltie, J.-L. Coll, and P. Rizo, “In vivo mice lung tumor follow-up with fluorescence diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011008 (2008).

Koenig, A.

A. Koenig, L. Herve, V. Josserand, M. Berger, J. Boutet, A. D. Silva, J.-M. Dinten, P. Peltie, J.-L. Coll, and P. Rizo, “In vivo mice lung tumor follow-up with fluorescence diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011008 (2008).

Konecky, S. D.

Leahy, R. M.

A. J. Dutta, S. Ahn, and R. M. Leahy, “Illumination pattern optimization for fluorescence tomography: theory and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 10, 2961–2982 (2010).

Lee, K.

Lesage, F.

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016006 (2010).

Lukic, V.

Markel, V.

Markel, V. A.

Mazhar, A.

Mital, V.

Ntziachristos, V.

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nature Med. 9, 123–128 (2003).

Panasyuk, G. Y.

Peltie, P.

A. Koenig, L. Herve, V. Josserand, M. Berger, J. Boutet, A. D. Silva, J.-M. Dinten, P. Peltie, J.-L. Coll, and P. Rizo, “In vivo mice lung tumor follow-up with fluorescence diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011008 (2008).

Pifferi, A.

A. Bassi, A. Farina, C. D’Andrea, A. Pifferi, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Portable, large-bandwidth time-resolved system for diffuse optical spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 15, 14482–14487 (2007).

P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Absorption of collagen: effects on the estimate of breast composition and related diagnostic implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014021 (2007).

Ripoll, J.

Rizo, P.

A. Koenig, L. Herve, V. Josserand, M. Berger, J. Boutet, A. D. Silva, J.-M. Dinten, P. Peltie, J.-L. Coll, and P. Rizo, “In vivo mice lung tumor follow-up with fluorescence diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011008 (2008).

Rosen, M. A.

Rudge, T. J.

Schnall, M. D.

Schotland, J. C.

Schweiger, M.

Selb, J.

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).

Sevick-muraca, E. M.

A. Joshi, W. Bangerth, and E. M. Sevick-muraca, “Non-contact fluorescence optical tomography with scanning patterned illumination,” Opt. Express 14, 55–64 (2006).

Silva, A. D.

A. Koenig, L. Herve, V. Josserand, M. Berger, J. Boutet, A. D. Silva, J.-M. Dinten, P. Peltie, J.-L. Coll, and P. Rizo, “In vivo mice lung tumor follow-up with fluorescence diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011008 (2008).

Soloviev, V. Y.

Strangman, G.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).

Sutton, J. P.

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).

Taroni, P.

P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Absorption of collagen: effects on the estimate of breast composition and related diagnostic implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014021 (2007).

Torricelli, A.

P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Absorption of collagen: effects on the estimate of breast composition and related diagnostic implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014021 (2007).

Tromberg, B. J.

Valentini, G.

Venugopal, V.

Wagnieres, G.

N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, “Determination of tissue optical properties by steady-state spatial frequency-domain reflectometry,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 55–65 (1998).

Wang, Z.-M.

Weissleder, R.

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nature Med. 9, 123–128 (2003).

Yodh, A. G.

Biol. Psychiatry

G. Strangman, D. A. Boas, and J. P. Sutton, “Non-invasive neuroimaging using near-infrared light,” Biol. Psychiatry 52, 679–693 (2002).

J. Biomed. Opt.

P. Taroni, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, and R. Cubeddu, “Absorption of collagen: effects on the estimate of breast composition and related diagnostic implications,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 014021 (2007).

J. Selb, D. K. Joseph, and D. A. Boas, “Time-gated optical system for depth-resolved functional brain imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 044008 (2006).

A. Koenig, L. Herve, V. Josserand, M. Berger, J. Boutet, A. D. Silva, J.-M. Dinten, P. Peltie, J.-L. Coll, and P. Rizo, “In vivo mice lung tumor follow-up with fluorescence diffuse optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 011008 (2008).

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15, 016006 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Lasers Med. Sci.

N. Dognitz and G. Wagnieres, “Determination of tissue optical properties by steady-state spatial frequency-domain reflectometry,” Lasers Med. Sci. 13, 55–65 (1998).

Nature Med.

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nature Med. 9, 123–128 (2003).

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

J. Ripoll, “Hybrid fourier-real space method for diffuse optical tomography,” Opt. Lett. 35, 688–690 (2010).

T. J. Rudge, V. Y. Soloviev, and S. R. Arridge, “Fast image reconstruction in fluoresence optical tomography using data compression,” Opt. Lett. 35, 763–765 (2010).

F. L. J. Chen, V. Venugopal, and X. Intes, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography with patterned-light illumination and detection,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2121–2123 (2010).

G. Y. Panasyuk, Z.-M. Wang, J. C. Schotland, and V. A. Markel, “Fluorescent optical tomography with large data sets,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1744–1746 (2008).

A. Bassi, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, and S. Arridge, “Temporal propagation of spatial information in turbid media,” Opt. Lett. 33, 2836–2838 (2008).

V. Lukic, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography with structured illumination,” Opt. Lett. 34, 983–985 (2009).

A. Bassi, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, and S. Arridge, “Detection of inhomogeneities in diffusive media using spatially modulated light,” Opt. Lett. 34, 2156–2158 (2009).

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, and B. J. Tromberg, “Modulated imaging: quantitative analysis and tomography of turbid media in the spatial-frequency domain,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1354–1356 (2005).

Z.-M. Wang, G. Y. Panasyuk, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Experimental demonstration of an analytic method for image reconstruction in optical diffusion tomography with large data sets,” Opt. Lett. 30, 3338–3340 (2005).

Phys. Med. Biol.

A. J. Dutta, S. Ahn, and R. M. Leahy, “Illumination pattern optimization for fluorescence tomography: theory and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 10, 2961–2982 (2010).

Phys. Rev. E

V. A. Markel and J. C. Schotland, “Symmetries, inversion formulas, and image reconstruction for optical tomography,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 056616 (2004).

Other

M. Schweiger and S. R. Arridge, “Toast reconstruction package,” http://web4.cs.ucl.ac.uk/research/vis/toast/.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Experimental set-up; (b) Phantom; (c) Source patterns along x and y from frequency k x(y) = 0 rad mm -1 to k x(y) = 0.40 rad mm -1.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Scheme of data analysis and reconstruction procedure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Reconstructed absorption at different depths in the case of bi-dimensional sampling of the input sources. Image scale in arbitrary units.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Reconstructed absorption at different depths in the case of bi-dimensional sampling of the input sources with flipped sample. Image scale in arbitrary units.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reconstructed absorption at different depths in the case of horizontal (a) and vertical (b) source spatially modulation, respectively. Image scale in arbitrary units.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Reconstructed absorption at different depths in the case of bi-dimensional sampling of the input sources and a totally absorbing inclusions. Image scale in arbitrary units.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Table summarizing the FWHM transversal dimension of the parallel (A) and oblique inclusion (B) by using 1D (horizontal and vertical) and 2D modulation.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( D 2 + μ a ) Φ = 0 in Ω ,
Φ + 2 ζ D Φ ν = { J on Γ 1 0 on Ω \ Γ 1 ,
J + = D Φ ν on Γ 2 .
J + = Λ J = 𝓜 𝒢 J
J + = 𝖬 𝖪 1 J
y = 𝖯 J + .
y ( k m , k s ) = Γ 2 e i k m · ρ 2 J + ( ρ 2 ) d 2 ρ 2 = e i k m · ρ 2 , 𝖯𝖬 𝖪 1 e i k s · ρ 1 Γ 2 .
y δ μ a = e i k m · ρ 2 , 𝖯𝖬𝖪 1 δ μ a 1 e i k s · ρ 1 Γ 2 = 𝖪 1 𝖬 T 𝖯 T e i k m · ρ 2 , 𝖪 δ μ a 𝖪 1 e i k s · ρ 1 Ω
= Φ m + , 𝖪 δ μ a Φ s Ω
δ g = g obj g ref = 𝖩 x
x = 𝖩 T ( 𝖩 𝖩 T + α 𝖨 ) 1 δ g

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