Abstract

We describe a phantom which enables EEG and near-infrared optical tomography to be performed simultaneously over the same volume. The phantom provides a surface electrical contact impedance comparable to that of the human scalp, whilst also possessing an optical scattering coefficient and electrical conductivity equivalent to that of brain tissue. The construction of the phantom is described, as is the resulting simultaneous EEG and near infrared optical tomography experiment, which, to our knowledge, is the first performed on a scale comparable to that of the infant human brain. This imaging experiment successfully shows the suitability of this phantom construction for the assessment of simultaneous EEG and near infrared optical tomography systems.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. Gotman, E. Kobayashi, A. P. Bagshaw, C. G. Bénar, and F. Dubeau, “Combining EEG and fMRI: a multimodal tool for epilepsy research,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(6), 906–920 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. I. Goldman, J. M. Stern, J. Engel, and M. S. Cohen, “Simultaneous EEG and fMRI of the alpha rhythm,” Neuroreport 13(18), 2487–2492 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Obrig, H. Israel, M. Kohl-Bareis, K. Uludag, R. Wenzel, B. Müller, G. Arnold, and A. Villringer, “Habituation of the visually evoked potential and its vascular response: implications for neurovascular coupling in the healthy adult,” Neuroimage 17(1), 1–18 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. P. Koch, J. Steinbrink, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Synchronization between background activity and visually evoked potential is not mirrored by focal hyperoxygenation: implications for the interpretation of vascular brain imaging,” J. Neurosci. 26(18), 4940–4948 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. C. Toet and P. M. Lemmers, “Brain monitoring in neonates,” Early Hum. Dev. 85(2), 77–84 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. F. Wallois, A. Patil, G. Kongolo, S. Goudjil, and R. Grebe, “Haemodynamic changes during seizure-like activity in a neonate: a simultaneous AC EEG-SPIR and high-resolution DC EEG recording,” Neurophysiol. Clin. 39(4-5), 217–227 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. S. Scher, “Neonatal seizures and brain damage,” Pediatr. Neurol. 29(5), 381–390 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. J. Cooper, N. L. Everdell, L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, A. Worley, and J. C. Hebden, “Design and evaluation of a probe for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging of cortical activation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(7), 2093–2102 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Cooper, D. Bhatt, N. L. Everdell, and J. C. Hebden, “A tissue-like optically turbid and electrically conducting phantom for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 403–408 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Tidswell, A. Gibson, R. H. Bayford, and D. S. Holder, “Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography of human brain activity,” Neuroimage 13(2), 283–294 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(1), 256–265 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11(1), 2–11 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. C. Toet and P. M. Lemmers, “Brain monitoring in neonates,” Early Hum. Dev. 85(2), 77–84 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wallois, A. Patil, G. Kongolo, S. Goudjil, and R. Grebe, “Haemodynamic changes during seizure-like activity in a neonate: a simultaneous AC EEG-SPIR and high-resolution DC EEG recording,” Neurophysiol. Clin. 39(4-5), 217–227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Cooper, N. L. Everdell, L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, A. Worley, and J. C. Hebden, “Design and evaluation of a probe for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging of cortical activation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(7), 2093–2102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Cooper, D. Bhatt, N. L. Everdell, and J. C. Hebden, “A tissue-like optically turbid and electrically conducting phantom for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 403–408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. Koch, J. Steinbrink, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Synchronization between background activity and visually evoked potential is not mirrored by focal hyperoxygenation: implications for the interpretation of vascular brain imaging,” J. Neurosci. 26(18), 4940–4948 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gotman, E. Kobayashi, A. P. Bagshaw, C. G. Bénar, and F. Dubeau, “Combining EEG and fMRI: a multimodal tool for epilepsy research,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(6), 906–920 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. S. Scher, “Neonatal seizures and brain damage,” Pediatr. Neurol. 29(5), 381–390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

R. I. Goldman, J. M. Stern, J. Engel, and M. S. Cohen, “Simultaneous EEG and fMRI of the alpha rhythm,” Neuroreport 13(18), 2487–2492 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig, H. Israel, M. Kohl-Bareis, K. Uludag, R. Wenzel, B. Müller, G. Arnold, and A. Villringer, “Habituation of the visually evoked potential and its vascular response: implications for neurovascular coupling in the healthy adult,” Neuroimage 17(1), 1–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Tidswell, A. Gibson, R. H. Bayford, and D. S. Holder, “Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography of human brain activity,” Neuroimage 13(2), 283–294 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(1), 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11(1), 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, G.

H. Obrig, H. Israel, M. Kohl-Bareis, K. Uludag, R. Wenzel, B. Müller, G. Arnold, and A. Villringer, “Habituation of the visually evoked potential and its vascular response: implications for neurovascular coupling in the healthy adult,” Neuroimage 17(1), 1–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11(1), 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Austin, T.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagshaw, A. P.

J. Gotman, E. Kobayashi, A. P. Bagshaw, C. G. Bénar, and F. Dubeau, “Combining EEG and fMRI: a multimodal tool for epilepsy research,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(6), 906–920 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayford, R. H.

T. Tidswell, A. Gibson, R. H. Bayford, and D. S. Holder, “Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography of human brain activity,” Neuroimage 13(2), 283–294 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bénar, C. G.

J. Gotman, E. Kobayashi, A. P. Bagshaw, C. G. Bénar, and F. Dubeau, “Combining EEG and fMRI: a multimodal tool for epilepsy research,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(6), 906–920 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatt, D.

R. J. Cooper, D. Bhatt, N. L. Everdell, and J. C. Hebden, “A tissue-like optically turbid and electrically conducting phantom for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 403–408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, M. S.

R. I. Goldman, J. M. Stern, J. Engel, and M. S. Cohen, “Simultaneous EEG and fMRI of the alpha rhythm,” Neuroreport 13(18), 2487–2492 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, R. J.

R. J. Cooper, D. Bhatt, N. L. Everdell, and J. C. Hebden, “A tissue-like optically turbid and electrically conducting phantom for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 403–408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Cooper, N. L. Everdell, L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, A. Worley, and J. C. Hebden, “Design and evaluation of a probe for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging of cortical activation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(7), 2093–2102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11(1), 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11(1), 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(1), 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dubeau, F.

J. Gotman, E. Kobayashi, A. P. Bagshaw, C. G. Bénar, and F. Dubeau, “Combining EEG and fMRI: a multimodal tool for epilepsy research,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(6), 906–920 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enfield, L. C.

R. J. Cooper, N. L. Everdell, L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, A. Worley, and J. C. Hebden, “Design and evaluation of a probe for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging of cortical activation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(7), 2093–2102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engel, J.

R. I. Goldman, J. M. Stern, J. Engel, and M. S. Cohen, “Simultaneous EEG and fMRI of the alpha rhythm,” Neuroreport 13(18), 2487–2492 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Everdell, N. L.

R. J. Cooper, N. L. Everdell, L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, A. Worley, and J. C. Hebden, “Design and evaluation of a probe for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging of cortical activation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(7), 2093–2102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Cooper, D. Bhatt, N. L. Everdell, and J. C. Hebden, “A tissue-like optically turbid and electrically conducting phantom for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 403–408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, M. E.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11(1), 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(1), 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, A.

T. Tidswell, A. Gibson, R. H. Bayford, and D. S. Holder, “Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography of human brain activity,” Neuroimage 13(2), 283–294 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, A. P.

R. J. Cooper, N. L. Everdell, L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, A. Worley, and J. C. Hebden, “Design and evaluation of a probe for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging of cortical activation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(7), 2093–2102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldman, R. I.

R. I. Goldman, J. M. Stern, J. Engel, and M. S. Cohen, “Simultaneous EEG and fMRI of the alpha rhythm,” Neuroreport 13(18), 2487–2492 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gotman, J.

J. Gotman, E. Kobayashi, A. P. Bagshaw, C. G. Bénar, and F. Dubeau, “Combining EEG and fMRI: a multimodal tool for epilepsy research,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(6), 906–920 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goudjil, S.

F. Wallois, A. Patil, G. Kongolo, S. Goudjil, and R. Grebe, “Haemodynamic changes during seizure-like activity in a neonate: a simultaneous AC EEG-SPIR and high-resolution DC EEG recording,” Neurophysiol. Clin. 39(4-5), 217–227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grebe, R.

F. Wallois, A. Patil, G. Kongolo, S. Goudjil, and R. Grebe, “Haemodynamic changes during seizure-like activity in a neonate: a simultaneous AC EEG-SPIR and high-resolution DC EEG recording,” Neurophysiol. Clin. 39(4-5), 217–227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebden, J. C.

R. J. Cooper, D. Bhatt, N. L. Everdell, and J. C. Hebden, “A tissue-like optically turbid and electrically conducting phantom for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 403–408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Cooper, N. L. Everdell, L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, A. Worley, and J. C. Hebden, “Design and evaluation of a probe for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging of cortical activation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(7), 2093–2102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11(1), 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(1), 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, E. M.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11(1), 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hillman, E. M. C.

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(1), 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holder, D. S.

T. Tidswell, A. Gibson, R. H. Bayford, and D. S. Holder, “Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography of human brain activity,” Neuroimage 13(2), 283–294 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Israel, H.

H. Obrig, H. Israel, M. Kohl-Bareis, K. Uludag, R. Wenzel, B. Müller, G. Arnold, and A. Villringer, “Habituation of the visually evoked potential and its vascular response: implications for neurovascular coupling in the healthy adult,” Neuroimage 17(1), 1–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, E.

J. Gotman, E. Kobayashi, A. P. Bagshaw, C. G. Bénar, and F. Dubeau, “Combining EEG and fMRI: a multimodal tool for epilepsy research,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(6), 906–920 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. P.

S. P. Koch, J. Steinbrink, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Synchronization between background activity and visually evoked potential is not mirrored by focal hyperoxygenation: implications for the interpretation of vascular brain imaging,” J. Neurosci. 26(18), 4940–4948 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kohl-Bareis, M.

H. Obrig, H. Israel, M. Kohl-Bareis, K. Uludag, R. Wenzel, B. Müller, G. Arnold, and A. Villringer, “Habituation of the visually evoked potential and its vascular response: implications for neurovascular coupling in the healthy adult,” Neuroimage 17(1), 1–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kongolo, G.

F. Wallois, A. Patil, G. Kongolo, S. Goudjil, and R. Grebe, “Haemodynamic changes during seizure-like activity in a neonate: a simultaneous AC EEG-SPIR and high-resolution DC EEG recording,” Neurophysiol. Clin. 39(4-5), 217–227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lemmers, P. M.

M. C. Toet and P. M. Lemmers, “Brain monitoring in neonates,” Early Hum. Dev. 85(2), 77–84 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meek, J. H.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, B.

H. Obrig, H. Israel, M. Kohl-Bareis, K. Uludag, R. Wenzel, B. Müller, G. Arnold, and A. Villringer, “Habituation of the visually evoked potential and its vascular response: implications for neurovascular coupling in the healthy adult,” Neuroimage 17(1), 1–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obrig, H.

S. P. Koch, J. Steinbrink, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Synchronization between background activity and visually evoked potential is not mirrored by focal hyperoxygenation: implications for the interpretation of vascular brain imaging,” J. Neurosci. 26(18), 4940–4948 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig, H. Israel, M. Kohl-Bareis, K. Uludag, R. Wenzel, B. Müller, G. Arnold, and A. Villringer, “Habituation of the visually evoked potential and its vascular response: implications for neurovascular coupling in the healthy adult,” Neuroimage 17(1), 1–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patil, A.

F. Wallois, A. Patil, G. Kongolo, S. Goudjil, and R. Grebe, “Haemodynamic changes during seizure-like activity in a neonate: a simultaneous AC EEG-SPIR and high-resolution DC EEG recording,” Neurophysiol. Clin. 39(4-5), 217–227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scher, M. S.

M. S. Scher, “Neonatal seizures and brain damage,” Pediatr. Neurol. 29(5), 381–390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, F. E.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11(1), 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F. E. W.

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(1), 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schweiger, M.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11(1), 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Steinbrink, J.

S. P. Koch, J. Steinbrink, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Synchronization between background activity and visually evoked potential is not mirrored by focal hyperoxygenation: implications for the interpretation of vascular brain imaging,” J. Neurosci. 26(18), 4940–4948 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, J. M.

R. I. Goldman, J. M. Stern, J. Engel, and M. S. Cohen, “Simultaneous EEG and fMRI of the alpha rhythm,” Neuroreport 13(18), 2487–2492 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tidswell, T.

T. Tidswell, A. Gibson, R. H. Bayford, and D. S. Holder, “Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography of human brain activity,” Neuroimage 13(2), 283–294 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toet, M. C.

M. C. Toet and P. M. Lemmers, “Brain monitoring in neonates,” Early Hum. Dev. 85(2), 77–84 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uludag, K.

H. Obrig, H. Israel, M. Kohl-Bareis, K. Uludag, R. Wenzel, B. Müller, G. Arnold, and A. Villringer, “Habituation of the visually evoked potential and its vascular response: implications for neurovascular coupling in the healthy adult,” Neuroimage 17(1), 1–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

S. P. Koch, J. Steinbrink, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Synchronization between background activity and visually evoked potential is not mirrored by focal hyperoxygenation: implications for the interpretation of vascular brain imaging,” J. Neurosci. 26(18), 4940–4948 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Obrig, H. Israel, M. Kohl-Bareis, K. Uludag, R. Wenzel, B. Müller, G. Arnold, and A. Villringer, “Habituation of the visually evoked potential and its vascular response: implications for neurovascular coupling in the healthy adult,” Neuroimage 17(1), 1–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wallois, F.

F. Wallois, A. Patil, G. Kongolo, S. Goudjil, and R. Grebe, “Haemodynamic changes during seizure-like activity in a neonate: a simultaneous AC EEG-SPIR and high-resolution DC EEG recording,” Neurophysiol. Clin. 39(4-5), 217–227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenzel, R.

H. Obrig, H. Israel, M. Kohl-Bareis, K. Uludag, R. Wenzel, B. Müller, G. Arnold, and A. Villringer, “Habituation of the visually evoked potential and its vascular response: implications for neurovascular coupling in the healthy adult,” Neuroimage 17(1), 1–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worley, A.

R. J. Cooper, N. L. Everdell, L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, A. Worley, and J. C. Hebden, “Design and evaluation of a probe for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging of cortical activation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(7), 2093–2102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, J. S.

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Early Hum. Dev. (1)

M. C. Toet and P. M. Lemmers, “Brain monitoring in neonates,” Early Hum. Dev. 85(2), 77–84 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. (1)

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. Hillman, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “A method for three-dimensional time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11(1), 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(4), 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Magn. Reson. Imaging (1)

J. Gotman, E. Kobayashi, A. P. Bagshaw, C. G. Bénar, and F. Dubeau, “Combining EEG and fMRI: a multimodal tool for epilepsy research,” J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 23(6), 906–920 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. (1)

S. P. Koch, J. Steinbrink, A. Villringer, and H. Obrig, “Synchronization between background activity and visually evoked potential is not mirrored by focal hyperoxygenation: implications for the interpretation of vascular brain imaging,” J. Neurosci. 26(18), 4940–4948 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroimage (3)

H. Obrig, H. Israel, M. Kohl-Bareis, K. Uludag, R. Wenzel, B. Müller, G. Arnold, and A. Villringer, “Habituation of the visually evoked potential and its vascular response: implications for neurovascular coupling in the healthy adult,” Neuroimage 17(1), 1–18 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, N. L. Everdell, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, and J. C. Hebden, “Three-dimensional whole-head optical tomography of passive motor evoked responses in the neonate,” Neuroimage 30(2), 521–528 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tidswell, A. Gibson, R. H. Bayford, and D. S. Holder, “Three-dimensional electrical impedance tomography of human brain activity,” Neuroimage 13(2), 283–294 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurophysiol. Clin. (1)

F. Wallois, A. Patil, G. Kongolo, S. Goudjil, and R. Grebe, “Haemodynamic changes during seizure-like activity in a neonate: a simultaneous AC EEG-SPIR and high-resolution DC EEG recording,” Neurophysiol. Clin. 39(4-5), 217–227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neuroreport (1)

R. I. Goldman, J. M. Stern, J. Engel, and M. S. Cohen, “Simultaneous EEG and fMRI of the alpha rhythm,” Neuroreport 13(18), 2487–2492 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pediatr. Neurol. (1)

M. S. Scher, “Neonatal seizures and brain damage,” Pediatr. Neurol. 29(5), 381–390 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

R. J. Cooper, N. L. Everdell, L. C. Enfield, A. P. Gibson, A. Worley, and J. C. Hebden, “Design and evaluation of a probe for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging of cortical activation,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(7), 2093–2102 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Cooper, D. Bhatt, N. L. Everdell, and J. C. Hebden, “A tissue-like optically turbid and electrically conducting phantom for simultaneous EEG and near-infrared imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 54(18), 403–408 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, and D. T. Delpy, “A 32-channel time-resolved instrument for medical optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(1), 256–265 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The design of the cylindrical, optically turbid and electrically conducting phantom.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The actual phantom geometry is shown in Fig. 2a, the red circle indicating the location of the optically absorbing, current-dipole target. Figure 2b show the topography of the re-scaled, dominant independent component of the recorded EEG data and the resulting dipole reconstruction. Figure 2c shows the reconstructed image of change in optical absorption coefficient at 780nm.

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