Abstract

We have numerically investigated the unique effects of metallic nanoparticle on the ring resonator, especially multiple Au nanoparticles on the micro ring resonator with the 4-port configuration on chip. For the Au nanoparticle, because it has smaller real refractive index than air and large absorption refractive index, we found that there is a blue shift for the ring resonance wavelength, instead of red shift normally observed for dielectric nanoparticles. The drop port intensity is strongly dependent on both number and size of nanoparticles, while relatively independent on position of nanoparticles. The correlation between the penetration depth of Au and the resonance mode evanescent tail is also discussed to reveal the unique properties of Au nanoparticle to be used for detection, sensing and nano medicine.

© 2010 OSA

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2010

B. Koch, L. Carson, C. Guo, C. Lee, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 573–580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Song, H. Cao, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Near-IR subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, “Optical biosensor based on whispering gallery mode excitations in clusters of microparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled Coupling of Counterpropagating Whispering-Gallery Modes by a Single Rayleigh Scatterer: A Classical Problem in a Quantum Optical Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(17), 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Loncar, “Molecular sensors: Cavities lead the way,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Evanko, “Incredible shrinking optics,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

R. Wiese, “Analysis of several fluorescent detector molecules for protein microarray use,” Luminescence 18(1), 25–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(8), 3597–3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 272–274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. D. Pryamikov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Rayleigh scattering in high-Q microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1051 (2000).

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reinecke, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Semiconductor Photonic Molecules,” Physica E 7(3-4), 616–624 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, and H. A. Haus, “Second-order filtering and sensing with partially coupled traveling waves in a single resonator,” Opt. Lett. 23(20), 1570 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Arnold, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, S. Holler, and F. Vollmer, “Shift of whispering-gallery modes in microspheres by protein adsorption,” Opt. Lett. 28(4), 272–274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: optics at the nanoscale,” Mater. Today 8(1), 56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Bayer, M.

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reinecke, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Semiconductor Photonic Molecules,” Physica E 7(3-4), 616–624 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, N. S.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benson, O.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled Coupling of Counterpropagating Whispering-Gallery Modes by a Single Rayleigh Scatterer: A Classical Problem in a Quantum Optical Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(17), 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

Borselli, M.

Bruchez, M.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

Q. Song, H. Cao, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Near-IR subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carlsen, A.

Carson, L.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C. Guo, C. Lee, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 573–580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

Cooper, K.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de S. Menezes, L.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled Coupling of Counterpropagating Whispering-Gallery Modes by a Single Rayleigh Scatterer: A Classical Problem in a Quantum Optical Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(17), 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dremin, A. A.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Evanko, D.

D. Evanko, “Incredible shrinking optics,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Forchel, A.

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reinecke, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Semiconductor Photonic Molecules,” Physica E 7(3-4), 616–624 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Francois, A.

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, “Optical biosensor based on whispering gallery mode excitations in clusters of microparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(8), 3597–3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gin, P.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. D. Pryamikov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Rayleigh scattering in high-Q microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1051 (2000).

G├Âtzinger, S.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled Coupling of Counterpropagating Whispering-Gallery Modes by a Single Rayleigh Scatterer: A Classical Problem in a Quantum Optical Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(17), 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C. Guo, C. Lee, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 573–580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gutbrod, T.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Hansen, T. P.

Haus, H. A.

Himmelhaus, M.

A. Francois and M. Himmelhaus, “Optical biosensor based on whispering gallery mode excitations in clusters of microparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(14), 141107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, L.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

Q. Song, H. Cao, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Near-IR subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoiby, P. E.

Holler, S.

Ilchenko, V. S.

M. L. Gorodetsky, A. D. Pryamikov, and V. S. Ilchenko, “Rayleigh scattering in high-Q microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1051 (2000).

Jensen, J. B.

Johnson, T. J.

Kardynal, B. E.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keng, D.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoshsima, M.

Knipp, P. A.

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C. Guo, C. Lee, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 573–580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kulakovskii, V. D.

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reinecke, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Semiconductor Photonic Molecules,” Physica E 7(3-4), 616–624 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C. Guo, C. Lee, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 573–580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. H.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Lin, A.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Little, B. E.

Lobo, C. J.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

M. Loncar, “Molecular sensors: Cavities lead the way,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loo, C.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
[PubMed]

Mazzei, A.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled Coupling of Counterpropagating Whispering-Gallery Modes by a Single Rayleigh Scatterer: A Classical Problem in a Quantum Optical Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(17), 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(8), 3597–3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moronne, M.

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Noordegraaf, D.

Painter, O.

Pedersen, L. H.

Pepper, M.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

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A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reinecke, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Semiconductor Photonic Molecules,” Physica E 7(3-4), 616–624 (2000).
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M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
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Reithmaier, J. P.

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reinecke, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Semiconductor Photonic Molecules,” Physica E 7(3-4), 616–624 (2000).
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M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
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Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
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A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled Coupling of Counterpropagating Whispering-Gallery Modes by a Single Rayleigh Scatterer: A Classical Problem in a Quantum Optical Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(17), 173603 (2007).
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Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
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B. Koch, L. Carson, C. Guo, C. Lee, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 573–580 (2010).
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Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
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A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
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F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
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[PubMed]

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X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
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R. Wiese, “Analysis of several fluorescent detector molecules for protein microarray use,” Luminescence 18(1), 25–30 (2003).
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B. Koch, L. Carson, C. Guo, C. Lee, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 573–580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z.

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C. Guo, C. Lee, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 573–580 (2010).
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B. Koch, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zin, M.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C. Guo, C. Lee, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 573–580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Znameroski, S.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C. Guo, C. Lee, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 573–580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled Coupling of Counterpropagating Whispering-Gallery Modes by a Single Rayleigh Scatterer: A Classical Problem in a Quantum Optical Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(17), 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: a review,” Anal. Chim. Acta 620(1-2), 8–26 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

Q. Song, H. Cao, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Near-IR subwavelength microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(6), 061109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Koch, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Reflection-mode sensing using optical microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 201111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luminescence

R. Wiese, “Analysis of several fluorescent detector molecules for protein microarray use,” Luminescence 18(1), 25–30 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Today

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: optics at the nanoscale,” Mater. Today 8(1), 56 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Evanko, “Incredible shrinking optics,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

M. Loncar, “Molecular sensors: Cavities lead the way,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 565–567 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. J. Vahala, “Optical microcavities,” Nature 424(6950), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Mazzei, S. Götzinger, L. de S. Menezes, G. Zumofen, O. Benson, and V. Sandoghdar, “Controlled Coupling of Counterpropagating Whispering-Gallery Modes by a Single Rayleigh Scatterer: A Classical Problem in a Quantum Optical Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(17), 173603 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bayer, T. Gutbrod, J. P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel, T. L. Reinecke, P. A. Knipp, A. A. Dremin, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Optical Modes in Photonic Molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(12), 2582–2585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Physica E

A. Forchel, M. Bayer, J. P. Reithmaier, T. L. Reinecke, and V. D. Kulakovskii, “Semiconductor Photonic Molecules,” Physica E 7(3-4), 616–624 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

F. Vollmer, S. Arnold, and D. Keng, “Single virus detection from the reactive shift of a whispering-gallery mode,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105(52), 20701–20704 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. E. Moerner and D. P. Fromm, “Methods of single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(8), 3597–3619 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science 317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yuan, B. E. Kardynal, R. M. Stevenson, A. J. Shields, C. J. Lobo, K. Cooper, N. S. Beattie, D. A. Ritchie, and M. Pepper, “Electrically driven single-photon source,” Science 295(5552), 102–105 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bruchez, M. Moronne, P. Gin, S. Weiss, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor nanocrystals as fluorescent biological labels,” Science 281(5385), 2013–2016 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem.

B. Koch, L. Carson, C. Guo, C. Lee, Y. Yi, J. Zhang, M. Zin, S. Znameroski, and T. Smith, “Hurricane: A simplified optical resonator for optical-power-based sensing with nano-particle taggants,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 147(2), 573–580 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Technol. Cancer Res. Treat.

C. Loo, A. Lin, L. Hirsch, M. H. Lee, J. Barton, N. Halas, J. West, and R. Drezek, “Nanoshell-enabled photonics-based imaging and therapy of cancer,” Technol. Cancer Res. Treat. 3(1), 33–40 (2004).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The on-chip four port micro ring resonator configuration. The core of the micro ring resonator and the two bus waveguides is Si (n = 3.48), with bottom cladding SiO2 (n = 1.45) and air cladding on top. The waveguide width is 200nm and satisfies the single mode condition. The Au nanoparticle is adsorbed on the micro ring resonator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The Drop port intensity with different number of 80nm size Au nanoparticles adsorbed on the micro ring resonator. (b) the example of multiple Au nanoparticles randomly distributed on the micro ring resonator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The Drop port intensity with three random positions of 30 Au nanoparticles with 80nm in size.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The Drop port intensity with Au nanoparticle size distribution, 5 Au nanoparticles with uniform 80nm in diameter (solid line) and 5 Au nanoparticles with random size distribution around 80nm in size.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The Drop intensity vs. nanoparticle number for different size of Au nanoparticles.

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