Abstract

Using a hand-held photoacoustic probe integrated with a clinical ultrasound array system, we successfully imaged objects deeply positioned in biological tissues. The optical contrasts were enhanced by methylene blue with a concentration of ~30 mM. The penetration depth reached ~5.2 cm in chicken breast tissue by using 650-nm wavelength, which is ~4.7 times the 1/e optical penetration depth. This imaging depth was achieved using a laser fluence on the tissue surface of only 3 mJ/cm2, which is 1/7 of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) safety limit (20 mJ/cm2). The noise equivalent sensitivity at this depth was ~11 mM. Further, after intradermal injection of methylene blue in a rat, a sentinel lymph node was easily detected in vivo, beneath a 2-cm thick layer of chicken breast. Also, blood located 3.5 cm deep in the rat was clearly imaged with intrinsic contrast. We have photoacoustically guided insertion of a needle into a rat sentinel lymph node with accumulated methylene blue. These results highlight the clinical potential of photoacoustic image-guided identification and needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes for axillary staging in breast cancer patients.

© 2010 OSA

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2010

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2756–2782 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring and three-dimensional mapping of a human arm vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Su, A. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging of clinical metal needles in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021309 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

K. H. Song, C. Kim, C. M. Cobley, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Near-infrared gold nanocages as a new class of tracers for photoacoustic sentinel lymph node mapping on a rat model,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 183–188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4084–4088 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

K. H. Song, E. W. Stein, J. A. Margenthaler, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo in a rat model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054033 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

B. W. Zeff, B. R. White, H. Dehghani, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(29), 12169–12174 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Y. Masannat, H. Shenoy, V. Speirs, A. Hanby, and K. Horgan, “Properties and characteristics of the dyes injected to assist axillary sentinel node localization in breast surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 32(4), 381–384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

2004

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, “Bulk optical properties and tissue components in the female breast from multiwavelength time-resolved optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1137–1142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, “Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using fourier transform methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(7), 1863–1872 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 981–988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. 220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nie, D. T. Chiu, and R. N. Zare, “Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Science 266(5187), 1018–1021 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol. 2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achilefu, S.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Hand-held array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. In press.

Akers, W. J.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Hand-held array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. In press.

Albertini, J. J.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alex, J. C.

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol. 2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balducci, L.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bebie, H.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, “Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using fourier transform methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(7), 1863–1872 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berman, C.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brecht, H. P.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring and three-dimensional mapping of a human arm vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cantor, A.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiu, D. T.

S. Nie, D. T. Chiu, and R. N. Zare, “Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Science 266(5187), 1018–1021 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clark, R.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cobley, C. M.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, C. M. Cobley, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Near-infrared gold nanocages as a new class of tracers for photoacoustic sentinel lymph node mapping on a rat model,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 183–188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conjusteau, A.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring and three-dimensional mapping of a human arm vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, C.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, “Bulk optical properties and tissue components in the female breast from multiwavelength time-resolved optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1137–1142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

B. W. Zeff, B. R. White, H. Dehghani, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(29), 12169–12174 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danesini, G. M.

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, “Bulk optical properties and tissue components in the female breast from multiwavelength time-resolved optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1137–1142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

B. W. Zeff, B. R. White, H. Dehghani, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(29), 12169–12174 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelianov, S.

J. Su, A. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging of clinical metal needles in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021309 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ermilov, S. A.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring and three-dimensional mapping of a human arm vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erpelding, T. N.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Hand-held array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. In press.

Esenaliev, R. O.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 981–988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

et,

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fairbank, J. T.

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol. 2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Favazza, C.

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2756–2782 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frenz, M.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, “Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using fourier transform methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(7), 1863–1872 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fronheiser, M. P.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring and three-dimensional mapping of a human arm vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, F.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giuliano, A. E.

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. 220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenberg, H.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenther, J. M.

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. 220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4084–4088 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanby, A.

Y. Masannat, H. Shenoy, V. Speirs, A. Hanby, and K. Horgan, “Properties and characteristics of the dyes injected to assist axillary sentinel node localization in breast surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 32(4), 381–384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horgan, K.

Y. Masannat, H. Shenoy, V. Speirs, A. Hanby, and K. Horgan, “Properties and characteristics of the dyes injected to assist axillary sentinel node localization in breast surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 32(4), 381–384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horton, J.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jankovic, L.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Hand-held array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. In press.

Karabutov, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 981–988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karpiouk, A.

J. Su, A. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging of clinical metal needles in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021309 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, C.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2756–2782 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, C. Kim, C. M. Cobley, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Near-infrared gold nanocages as a new class of tracers for photoacoustic sentinel lymph node mapping on a rat model,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 183–188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Hand-held array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. In press.

Kirgan, D. M.

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. 220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köstli, K. P.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, “Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using fourier transform methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(7), 1863–1872 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krag, D. N.

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol. 2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ku, G.

Ku, N.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4084–4088 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, S. P.

Lyman, G. H.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margenthaler, J. A.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, E. W. Stein, J. A. Margenthaler, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo in a rat model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054033 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Hand-held array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. In press.

Marquez, G.

Masannat, Y.

Y. Masannat, H. Shenoy, V. Speirs, A. Hanby, and K. Horgan, “Properties and characteristics of the dyes injected to assist axillary sentinel node localization in breast surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 32(4), 381–384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslov, K.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Hand-held array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. In press.

Mehta, K.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring and three-dimensional mapping of a human arm vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morton, D. L.

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. 220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicosia, S.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

S. Nie, D. T. Chiu, and R. N. Zare, “Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Science 266(5187), 1018–1021 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oraevsky, A. A.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring and three-dimensional mapping of a human arm vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 981–988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pashley, M. D.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Hand-held array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. In press.

Pifferi, A.

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, “Bulk optical properties and tissue components in the female breast from multiwavelength time-resolved optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1137–1142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pramanik, M.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rapaport, D.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reintgen, D. S.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlaggar, B. L.

B. W. Zeff, B. R. White, H. Dehghani, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(29), 12169–12174 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, J. A.

Shenoy, H.

Y. Masannat, H. Shenoy, V. Speirs, A. Hanby, and K. Horgan, “Properties and characteristics of the dyes injected to assist axillary sentinel node localization in breast surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 32(4), 381–384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shivers, S.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shons, A.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, K. H.

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, C. Kim, C. M. Cobley, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Near-infrared gold nanocages as a new class of tracers for photoacoustic sentinel lymph node mapping on a rat model,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 183–188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, E. W. Stein, J. A. Margenthaler, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo in a rat model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054033 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, L.

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Hand-held array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. In press.

Speirs, V.

Y. Masannat, H. Shenoy, V. Speirs, A. Hanby, and K. Horgan, “Properties and characteristics of the dyes injected to assist axillary sentinel node localization in breast surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 32(4), 381–384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spinelli, L.

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, “Bulk optical properties and tissue components in the female breast from multiwavelength time-resolved optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1137–1142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, E. W.

K. H. Song, E. W. Stein, J. A. Margenthaler, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo in a rat model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054033 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strickler, J. H.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, J.

J. Su, A. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging of clinical metal needles in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021309 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, R.

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring and three-dimensional mapping of a human arm vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and et, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taroni, P.

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, “Bulk optical properties and tissue components in the female breast from multiwavelength time-resolved optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1137–1142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S. L.

Torricelli, A.

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, “Bulk optical properties and tissue components in the female breast from multiwavelength time-resolved optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1137–1142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

J. Su, A. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging of clinical metal needles in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021309 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. V.

T. N. Erpelding, C. Kim, M. Pramanik, L. Jankovic, K. Maslov, Z. Guo, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes in the rat: noninvasive photoacoustic and US imaging with a clinical US system,” Radiology 256(1), 102–110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, K. H. Song, F. Gao, and L. V. Wang, “Sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels: noninvasive dual-modality in vivo mapping by using indocyanine green in rats--volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging,” Radiology 255(2), 442–450 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2756–2782 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4084–4088 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Wang, “Multiscale photoacoustic microscopy and computed tomography,” Nat. Photonics 3(9), 503–509 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, C. Kim, C. M. Cobley, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Near-infrared gold nanocages as a new class of tracers for photoacoustic sentinel lymph node mapping on a rat model,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 183–188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Song, E. W. Stein, J. A. Margenthaler, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo in a rat model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054033 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Ku and L. V. Wang, “Deeply penetrating photoacoustic tomography in biological tissues enhanced with an optical contrast agent,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 507–509 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Marquez, L. V. Wang, S. P. Lin, J. A. Schwartz, and S. L. Thomsen, “Anisotropy in the absorption and scattering spectra of chicken breast tissue,” Appl. Opt. 37(4), 798–804 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Hand-held array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. In press.

Weaver, D. L.

D. N. Krag, D. L. Weaver, J. C. Alex, and J. T. Fairbank, “Surgical resection and radiolocalization of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer using a gamma probe,” Surg. Oncol. 2(6), 335–340 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J. H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy,” Science 248(4951), 73–76 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H. P.

K. P. Köstli, M. Frenz, H. Bebie, and H. P. Weber, “Temporal backward projection of optoacoustic pressure transients using fourier transform methods,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46(7), 1863–1872 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wells, K.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, B. R.

B. W. Zeff, B. R. White, H. Dehghani, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(29), 12169–12174 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, Y.

K. H. Song, C. Kim, C. M. Cobley, Y. Xia, and L. V. Wang, “Near-infrared gold nanocages as a new class of tracers for photoacoustic sentinel lymph node mapping on a rat model,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 183–188 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeatman, T.

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zare, R. N.

S. Nie, D. T. Chiu, and R. N. Zare, “Probing individual molecules with confocal fluorescence microscopy,” Science 266(5187), 1018–1021 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeff, B. W.

B. W. Zeff, B. R. White, H. Dehghani, B. L. Schlaggar, and J. P. Culver, “Retinotopic mapping of adult human visual cortex with high-density diffuse optical tomography,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(29), 12169–12174 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Surg.

A. E. Giuliano, D. M. Kirgan, J. M. Guenther, and D. L. Morton, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer,” Ann. Surg. 220(3), 391–401 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Rev.

C. Kim, C. Favazza, and L. V. Wang, “In vivo photoacoustic tomography of chemicals: high-resolution functional and molecular optical imaging at new depths,” Chem. Rev. 110(5), 2756–2782 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. J. Surg. Oncol.

Y. Masannat, H. Shenoy, V. Speirs, A. Hanby, and K. Horgan, “Properties and characteristics of the dyes injected to assist axillary sentinel node localization in breast surgery,” Eur. J. Surg. Oncol. 32(4), 381–384 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 981–988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

K. H. Song, E. W. Stein, J. A. Margenthaler, and L. V. Wang, “Noninvasive photoacoustic identification of sentinel lymph nodes containing methylene blue in vivo in a rat model,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(5), 054033 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Fronheiser, S. A. Ermilov, H. P. Brecht, A. Conjusteau, R. Su, K. Mehta, and A. A. Oraevsky, “Real-time optoacoustic monitoring and three-dimensional mapping of a human arm vasculature,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kim, T. N. Erpelding, K. Maslov, L. Jankovic, W. J. Akers, L. Song, S. Achilefu, J. A. Margenthaler, M. D. Pashley, and L. V. Wang, “Hand-held array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes,” J. Biomed. Opt. In press.

J. Su, A. Karpiouk, B. Wang, and S. Emelianov, “Photoacoustic imaging of clinical metal needles in tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(2), 021309 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Spinelli, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, P. Taroni, G. M. Danesini, and R. Cubeddu, “Bulk optical properties and tissue components in the female breast from multiwavelength time-resolved optical mammography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(6), 1137–1142 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

JAMA

J. J. Albertini, G. H. Lyman, C. Cox, T. Yeatman, L. Balducci, N. Ku, S. Shivers, C. Berman, K. Wells, D. Rapaport, A. Shons, J. Horton, H. Greenberg, S. Nicosia, R. Clark, A. Cantor, and D. S. Reintgen, “Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy in the patient with breast cancer,” JAMA 276(22), 1818–1822 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Phys.

Z. Guo, L. Li, and L. V. Wang, “On the speckle-free nature of photoacoustic tomography,” Med. Phys. 36(9), 4084–4088 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nano Lett.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of an integrated photoacoustic (PA) and ultrasound (US) imaging system modified from a clinical US array system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Deeply penetrating PA imaging in biological tissues. Photographs of (a) the cross section of chicken breast tissue in which a transparent tube containing methylene blue (MB) is embedded and (b) the entire sample. (c) PA image of the tube containing MB. (d) Overlaid PA (pseudo color) and US (gray) image. The thresholded PA signals in the yellow dotted box in (c) were overlaid with the US image in (d).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

In vivo deeply penetrating PA imaging. (a) Control PA image acquired before methylene blue injection. (b) PA image taken 10 minutes after methylene blue injection. (c) Overlaid post-injection PA (pseudo color) and US (gray scale) images. B, blood and SLN, sentinel lymph node.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In vivo PA guidance of a metal needle (18-gauge). SLN, sentinel lymph node.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental results of deeply penetrating PA imaging in biological tissues.

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