Abstract

The design and characterization of a time-resolved functional imager using a wide-field excitation scheme for small animal imaging is described. The optimal operation parameters are established based on phantom studies. The performance of the platform for functional imaging and the simultaneous 3D reconstruction of absorption and scattering coefficients is investigated in vitro.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (5)

R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Determination of optical properties of turbid media spanning visible and near-infrared regimes via spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 017012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, V. Venugopal, F. Lesage, and X. Intes, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography with patterned-light illumination and detection,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2121–2123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Niedre and V. Ntziachristos, “Comparison of fluorescence tomographic imaging in mice with early-arriving and quasi-continuous-wave photons,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 369–371 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, A. A. Joshi, and R. M. Leahy, “Illumination pattern optimization for fluorescence tomography: theory and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(10), 2961–2982 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (8)

J. Chen and X. Intes, “Time-gated perturbation Monte Carlo for whole body functional imaging in small animals,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19566–19579 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bassi, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, and S. Arridge, “Detection of inhomogeneities in diffusive media using spatially modulated light,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2156–2158 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Lukic, V. A. Markel, and J. C. Schotland, “Optical tomography with structured illumination,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 983–985 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Konecky, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, J. C. Schotland, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative optical tomography of sub-surface heterogeneities using spatially modulated structured light,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14780–14790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, C. T. Badea, and G. A. Johnson, “Three-dimensional reconstruction in free-space whole-body fluorescence tomography of mice using optically reconstructed surface and atlas anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lin, H. Yan, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, “Quantitative fluorescence tomography with functional and structural a priori information,” Appl. Opt. 48(7), 1328–1336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

U. J. Netz, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, “Multipixel system for gigahertz frequency-domain optical imaging of finger joints,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(3), 034301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Patwardhan and J. P. Culver, “Quantitative diffuse optical tomography for small animals using an ultrafast gated image intensifier,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 011009 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. T. N. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, “A time domain fluorescence tomography system for small animal imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(8), 1152–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Konecky, G. Y. Panasyuk, K. Lee, V. Markel, A. G. Yodh, and J. C. Schotland, “Imaging complex structures with diffuse light,” Opt. Express 16(7), 5048–5060 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

G. Gulsen, B. Xiong, O. Birgul, and O. Nalcioglu, “Design and implementation of a multifrequency near-infrared diffuse optical tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014020 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Effect of optical property estimation accuracy on tomographic bioluminescence imaging: simulation of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(8), 2045–2053 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (6)

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, K. Lee, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, E. M. C. Hillman, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography with spectral constraints and wavelength optimization,” Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2082–2093 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes and B. Chance, “Non-PET functional imaging techniques: optical,” Radiol. Clin. North Am. 43(1), 221–234, xii (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, “Optical tomographic imaging of small animals,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 79–88 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Spectrally constrained chromophore and scattering near-infrared tomography provides quantitative and robust reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 44(10), 1858–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes and B. Chance, “Multi-frequency diffuse optical tomography,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(15), 2139–2159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. Intes, C. Maloux, M. Guven, B. Yazici, and B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography with physiological and spatial a priori constraints,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(12), N155–N163 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1675–1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Thompson, D. J. Hawrysz, and E. M. Sevick-Muraca, “Near-infrared fluorescence contrast-enhanced imaging with area illumination and area detection: the forward imaging problem,” Appl. Opt. 42(19), 4125–4136 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9(1), 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. H. Contag and M. H. Bachmann, “Advances in in vivo bioluminescence imaging of gene expression,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 4(1), 235–260 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging,” Invest. Radiol. 35(8), 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and datatype extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

Abran, M.

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achilefu, S.

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging,” Invest. Radiol. 35(8), 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, S.

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, A. A. Joshi, and R. M. Leahy, “Illumination pattern optimization for fluorescence tomography: theory and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(10), 2961–2982 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrakis, G.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Effect of optical property estimation accuracy on tomographic bioluminescence imaging: simulation of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(8), 2045–2053 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S.

A. Bassi, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, and S. Arridge, “Detection of inhomogeneities in diffusive media using spatially modulated light,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2156–2158 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and datatype extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

Ayers, F. R.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachmann, M. H.

C. H. Contag and M. H. Bachmann, “Advances in in vivo bioluminescence imaging of gene expression,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 4(1), 235–260 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacskai, B. J.

A. T. N. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, “A time domain fluorescence tomography system for small animal imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(8), 1152–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badea, C. T.

X. Zhang, C. T. Badea, and G. A. Johnson, “Three-dimensional reconstruction in free-space whole-body fluorescence tomography of mice using optically reconstructed surface and atlas anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bassi, A.

Bélanger, S.

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beuthan, J.

U. J. Netz, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, “Multipixel system for gigahertz frequency-domain optical imaging of finger joints,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(3), 034301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bevilacqua, F.

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birgul, O.

G. Gulsen, B. Xiong, O. Birgul, and O. Nalcioglu, “Design and implementation of a multifrequency near-infrared diffuse optical tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014020 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

A. T. N. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, “A time domain fluorescence tomography system for small animal imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(8), 1152–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Cheng and D. A. Boas, “Systematic diffuse optical image errors resulting from uncertainty in the background optical properties,” Opt. Express 4(8), 299–307 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bugaj, J. E.

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging,” Invest. Radiol. 35(8), 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casanova, C.

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

X. Intes and B. Chance, “Non-PET functional imaging techniques: optical,” Radiol. Clin. North Am. 43(1), 221–234, xii (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes and B. Chance, “Multi-frequency diffuse optical tomography,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(15), 2139–2159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Intes, C. Maloux, M. Guven, B. Yazici, and B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography with physiological and spatial a priori constraints,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(12), N155–N163 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Patterson, B. Chance, and B. C. Wilson, “Time resolved reflectance and transmittance for the non-invasive measurement of tissue optical properties,” Appl. Opt. 28(12), 2331–2336 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatziioannou, A. F.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Effect of optical property estimation accuracy on tomographic bioluminescence imaging: simulation of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(8), 2045–2053 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J.

Cheng, X. F.

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Choe, R.

Comelli, D.

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1675–1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Contag, C. H.

C. H. Contag and M. H. Bachmann, “Advances in in vivo bioluminescence imaging of gene expression,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 4(1), 235–260 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corlu, A.

Cubeddu, R.

A. Bassi, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, and S. Arridge, “Detection of inhomogeneities in diffusive media using spatially modulated light,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2156–2158 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1675–1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cuccia, D. J.

R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Determination of optical properties of turbid media spanning visible and near-infrared regimes via spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 017012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Konecky, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, J. C. Schotland, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative optical tomography of sub-surface heterogeneities using spatially modulated structured light,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14780–14790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culver, J. P.

S. V. Patwardhan and J. P. Culver, “Quantitative diffuse optical tomography for small animals using an ultrafast gated image intensifier,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 011009 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Andrea, C.

D'Andrea, C.

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1675–1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dehghani, H.

S. Srinivasan, B. W. Pogue, S. Jiang, H. Dehghani, and K. D. Paulsen, “Spectrally constrained chromophore and scattering near-infrared tomography provides quantitative and robust reconstruction,” Appl. Opt. 44(10), 1858–1869 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and datatype extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Delpy, D. T.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and datatype extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dorshow, R. B.

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging,” Invest. Radiol. 35(8), 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, A. K.

A. T. N. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, “A time domain fluorescence tomography system for small animal imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(8), 1152–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durduran, T.

Durkin, A. J.

R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Determination of optical properties of turbid media spanning visible and near-infrared regimes via spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 017012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Konecky, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, J. C. Schotland, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative optical tomography of sub-surface heterogeneities using spatially modulated structured light,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14780–14790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutta, J.

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, A. A. Joshi, and R. M. Leahy, “Illumination pattern optimization for fluorescence tomography: theory and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(10), 2961–2982 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, T. C.

Franceschini, M. A.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frangioni, J. V.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gioux, S.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosenick, D.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gulsen, G.

Y. Lin, H. Yan, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, “Quantitative fluorescence tomography with functional and structural a priori information,” Appl. Opt. 48(7), 1328–1336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gulsen, B. Xiong, O. Birgul, and O. Nalcioglu, “Design and implementation of a multifrequency near-infrared diffuse optical tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014020 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guven, M.

X. Intes, C. Maloux, M. Guven, B. Yazici, and B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography with physiological and spatial a priori constraints,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(12), N155–N163 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haskell, R. C.

Hawrysz, D. J.

Hebden, J. C.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and datatype extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hielscher, A. H.

U. J. Netz, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, “Multipixel system for gigahertz frequency-domain optical imaging of finger joints,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(3), 034301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, “Optical tomographic imaging of small animals,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 79–88 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillman, E. M. C.

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, K. Lee, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, E. M. C. Hillman, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography with spectral constraints and wavelength optimization,” Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2082–2093 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and datatype extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Intes, X.

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, V. Venugopal, F. Lesage, and X. Intes, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography with patterned-light illumination and detection,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2121–2123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen and X. Intes, “Time-gated perturbation Monte Carlo for whole body functional imaging in small animals,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19566–19579 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes and B. Chance, “Non-PET functional imaging techniques: optical,” Radiol. Clin. North Am. 43(1), 221–234, xii (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes and B. Chance, “Multi-frequency diffuse optical tomography,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(15), 2139–2159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Intes, C. Maloux, M. Guven, B. Yazici, and B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography with physiological and spatial a priori constraints,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(12), N155–N163 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S.

Johnson, G. A.

X. Zhang, C. T. Badea, and G. A. Johnson, “Three-dimensional reconstruction in free-space whole-body fluorescence tomography of mice using optically reconstructed surface and atlas anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, A. A.

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, A. A. Joshi, and R. M. Leahy, “Illumination pattern optimization for fluorescence tomography: theory and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(10), 2961–2982 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konecky, S. D.

Kumar, A. T. N.

A. T. N. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, “A time domain fluorescence tomography system for small animal imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(8), 1152–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leahy, R. M.

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, A. A. Joshi, and R. M. Leahy, “Illumination pattern optimization for fluorescence tomography: theory and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(10), 2961–2982 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

Lesage, F.

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, V. Venugopal, F. Lesage, and X. Intes, “Time-resolved diffuse optical tomography with patterned-light illumination and detection,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2121–2123 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liebert, A.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

Lionheart, W. R.

Lukic, V.

Macdonald, R.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maloux, C.

X. Intes, C. Maloux, M. Guven, B. Yazici, and B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography with physiological and spatial a priori constraints,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(12), N155–N163 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markel, V.

Markel, V. A.

Mazhar, A.

S. D. Konecky, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, J. C. Schotland, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative optical tomography of sub-surface heterogeneities using spatially modulated structured light,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14780–14790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McAdams, M. S.

McBride, T. O.

Nalcioglu, O.

Y. Lin, H. Yan, O. Nalcioglu, and G. Gulsen, “Quantitative fluorescence tomography with functional and structural a priori information,” Appl. Opt. 48(7), 1328–1336 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gulsen, B. Xiong, O. Birgul, and O. Nalcioglu, “Design and implementation of a multifrequency near-infrared diffuse optical tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014020 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Netz, U. J.

U. J. Netz, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, “Multipixel system for gigahertz frequency-domain optical imaging of finger joints,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(3), 034301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niedre, M. J.

Ntziachristos, V.

M. J. Niedre and V. Ntziachristos, “Comparison of fluorescence tomographic imaging in mice with early-arriving and quasi-continuous-wave photons,” Opt. Lett. 35(3), 369–371 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9(1), 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Österberg, U. L.

Panasyuk, G. Y.

Patterson, M. S.

Patwardhan, S. V.

S. V. Patwardhan and J. P. Culver, “Quantitative diffuse optical tomography for small animals using an ultrafast gated image intensifier,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 011009 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulsen, K. D.

Pifferi, A.

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1675–1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

Prahl, S. A.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Prewitt, J.

Rajagopalan, R.

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging,” Invest. Radiol. 35(8), 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rannou, F. R.

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Effect of optical property estimation accuracy on tomographic bioluminescence imaging: simulation of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(8), 2045–2053 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymond, S. B.

A. T. N. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, “A time domain fluorescence tomography system for small animal imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(8), 1152–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saager, R. B.

R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Determination of optical properties of turbid media spanning visible and near-infrared regimes via spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 017012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, F. E. W.

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and datatype extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, J. C.

Schweiger, M.

A. Corlu, R. Choe, T. Durduran, K. Lee, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, E. M. C. Hillman, and A. G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography with spectral constraints and wavelength optimization,” Appl. Opt. 44(11), 2082–2093 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and datatype extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Selb, J.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sevick-Muraca, E. M.

Sorensen, A. G.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

Stott, J. J.

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svaasand, L. O.

Thompson, A. B.

Torricelli, A.

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1675–1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tromberg, B. J.

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Konecky, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, J. C. Schotland, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitative optical tomography of sub-surface heterogeneities using spatially modulated structured light,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14780–14790 (2009).
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R. C. Haskell, L. O. Svaasand, T. T. Tsay, T. C. Feng, M. S. McAdams, and B. J. Tromberg, “Boundary conditions for the diffusion equation in radiative transfer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11(10), 2727–2741 (1994).
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Valentini, G.

A. Bassi, C. D’Andrea, G. Valentini, R. Cubeddu, and S. Arridge, “Detection of inhomogeneities in diffusive media using spatially modulated light,” Opt. Lett. 34(14), 2156–2158 (2009).
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C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1675–1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Venugopal, V.

Wabnitz, H.

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9(1), 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

Xiong, B.

G. Gulsen, B. Xiong, O. Birgul, and O. Nalcioglu, “Design and implementation of a multifrequency near-infrared diffuse optical tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014020 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

Yazici, B.

X. Intes, C. Maloux, M. Guven, B. Yazici, and B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography with physiological and spatial a priori constraints,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(12), N155–N163 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yodh, A. G.

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, C. T. Badea, and G. A. Johnson, “Three-dimensional reconstruction in free-space whole-body fluorescence tomography of mice using optically reconstructed surface and atlas anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (1)

C. H. Contag and M. H. Bachmann, “Advances in in vivo bioluminescence imaging of gene expression,” Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. 4(1), 235–260 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. (1)

A. H. Hielscher, “Optical tomographic imaging of small animals,” Curr. Opin. Biotechnol. 16(1), 79–88 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, and A. J. Welch, “A review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(12), 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

A. T. N. Kumar, S. B. Raymond, A. K. Dunn, B. J. Bacskai, and D. A. Boas, “A time domain fluorescence tomography system for small animal imaging,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 27(8), 1152–1163 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Radiol. (1)

S. Achilefu, R. B. Dorshow, J. E. Bugaj, and R. Rajagopalan, “Novel receptor-targeted fluorescent contrast agents for in vivo tumor imaging,” Invest. Radiol. 35(8), 479–485 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (9)

A. Liebert, H. Wabnitz, D. Grosenick, and R. Macdonald, “Fiber dispersion in time domain measurements compromising the accuracy of determination of optical properties of strongly scattering media,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 512–516 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gulsen, B. Xiong, O. Birgul, and O. Nalcioglu, “Design and implementation of a multifrequency near-infrared diffuse optical tomography system,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11(1), 014020 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, C. T. Badea, and G. A. Johnson, “Three-dimensional reconstruction in free-space whole-body fluorescence tomography of mice using optically reconstructed surface and atlas anatomy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(6), 064010 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Patwardhan and J. P. Culver, “Quantitative diffuse optical tomography for small animals using an ultrafast gated image intensifier,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 011009 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Selb, J. J. Stott, M. A. Franceschini, A. G. Sorensen, and D. A. Boas, “Improved sensitivity to cerebral hemodynamics during brain activation with a time-gated optical system: analytical model and experimental validation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10(1), 011013 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cuccia, F. Bevilacqua, A. J. Durkin, F. R. Ayers, and B. J. Tromberg, “Quantitation and mapping of tissue optical properties using modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(2), 024012 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Saager, D. J. Cuccia, and A. J. Durkin, “Determination of optical properties of turbid media spanning visible and near-infrared regimes via spatially modulated quantitative spectroscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 017012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gioux, A. Mazhar, D. J. Cuccia, A. J. Durkin, B. J. Tromberg, and J. V. Frangioni, “Three-dimensional surface profile intensity correction for spatially modulated imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(3), 034045 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bélanger, M. Abran, X. Intes, C. Casanova, and F. Lesage, “Real-time diffuse optical tomography based on structured illumination,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(1), 016006 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

X. Intes and B. Chance, “Multi-frequency diffuse optical tomography,” J. Mod. Opt. 52(15), 2139–2159 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

C. D'Andrea, D. Comelli, A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, G. Valentini, and R. Cubeddu, “Time-resolved optical imaging through turbid media using a fast data acquisition system based on a gated CCD camera,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 36(14), 1675–1681 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (1)

V. Ntziachristos and B. Chance, “Accuracy limits in the determination of absolute optical properties using time-resolved NIR spectroscopy,” Med. Phys. 28(6), 1115–1124 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Med. (1)

R. Weissleder and V. Ntziachristos, “Shedding light onto live molecular targets,” Nat. Med. 9(1), 123–128 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Med. Biol. (3)

G. Alexandrakis, F. R. Rannou, and A. F. Chatziioannou, “Effect of optical property estimation accuracy on tomographic bioluminescence imaging: simulation of a combined optical-PET (OPET) system,” Phys. Med. Biol. 51(8), 2045–2053 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dutta, S. Ahn, A. A. Joshi, and R. M. Leahy, “Illumination pattern optimization for fluorescence tomography: theory and simulation studies,” Phys. Med. Biol. 55(10), 2961–2982 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Intes, C. Maloux, M. Guven, B. Yazici, and B. Chance, “Diffuse optical tomography with physiological and spatial a priori constraints,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(12), N155–N163 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiol. Clin. North Am. (1)

X. Intes and B. Chance, “Non-PET functional imaging techniques: optical,” Radiol. Clin. North Am. 43(1), 221–234, xii (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

U. J. Netz, J. Beuthan, and A. H. Hielscher, “Multipixel system for gigahertz frequency-domain optical imaging of finger joints,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(3), 034301 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. C. Hillman, J. C. Hebden, F. E. W. Schmidt, S. Arridge, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, and D. T. Delpy, “Calibration techniques and datatype extraction for time-resolved optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71(9), 3415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Using Lasers with DLP® DMD technology, http://focus.ti.com/pdfs/dlpdmd/Using_Lasers_with_DLP(r)_Technology.pdf

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (3393 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System Schematic

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) IRF of the system across the NIR window for gatewidth of 300ps (b) IRF measured for varying gatewidth settings on the ICCD.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of the estimated optical properties with increasing MCP voltage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)-(b) Estimated absorption and scattering coefficient with increasing volume of ink. (c) - (d) Estimated absorption and scattering coefficient with increasing volume of Intralipid-20%.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Comparison of the absorption spectra of India ink and Bovine hemoglobin, (b) Comparison the estimated and expected absorption coefficients.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Media 1) (a)-(b) show the 50% isovolumes of the reconstructed differential absorption and scattering coefficients respectively. (Boundary maps) The reconstructed slices along y = 15mm, z = 11mm and x = 13mm and 29mm for (a) and (b) respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Time-gated measurements and contrast functions using wide-field patterns. (Media 1)

Equations (4)

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T ( ρ , d , t ) = ( 4 μ D C ) 3 / 2 t 5 / 2 exp ( μ a c t ) exp ( ρ 2 D c t ) n = { z 1 , n exp ( z 1 , n 2 4 D c t ) z 2 , n exp ( z 2 , n 2 4 D c t ) } ,
W ^ ( t ) = W ( t ) j = 1 n ( μ ^ s ( r j ) / μ ^ t ( r j ) μ s ( r j ) / μ t ( r j ) ) p ( r j , t ) ( μ ^ t ( r j ) μ t ( r j ) ) p ( r j , t ) exp ( ( μ ^ t ( r j ) μ t ( r j ) ) L ( r j , t ) )
[ Δ W 1 ( t ) Δ W m ( t ) ] = [ J 11 a ( t ) J 1 n a ( t ) J 11 s ( t ) J 1 n s ( t ) J m 1 a ( t ) J m n a ( t ) J m 1 s ( t ) J m n s ( t ) ] × [ Δ δ μ a ( r 1 ) Δ δ μ a ( r n ) Δ δ μ s ( r 1 ) Δ δ μ s ( r n ) ]
J i j a ( t ) = W ^ i ( t ) δ μ a ( r j ) , J i j s ( t ) = W ^ i ( t ) δ μ s ( r j )

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