Abstract

Gold nanorods can be used as extremely bright labels for differential light scattering measurements using two closely spaced wavelengths, thereby detecting human disease through several centimeters of tissue in vivo. They have excellent biocompatibility, are non-toxic, and are not susceptible to photobleaching. They have narrow, easily tunable plasmon spectral lines and thus can image multiple molecular targets simultaneously. Because of their small size, gold nanorods can be transported to various tissues inside the human body via the vasculature and microvasculature, and since they are smaller than vascular pore sizes, they can easily cross vascular space and enter individual cells.

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2008 (1)

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, M. D. Modell, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Shape and size dependence of radiative, non-radiative and photothermal properties of gold nanocrystals,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(3), 409–453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 55(5), 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. N. J. Persson, “Polarizability of small spherical metal particles: influence of the matrix environment,” Surf. Sci. 281(1-2), 153–162 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1912 (1)

R. Gans, “Über die Form ultramikroskopischer Goldteilchen,” Annalen der Physik 342(5), 881–900 (1912).
[CrossRef]

1909 (1)

P. Debye, “Der Lichtdruck auf Kugeln von beliebigem Material,” Annalen der Physik 335(11), 57–136 (1909).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, C.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigio, I.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cipolloni, P. B.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debye, P.

P. Debye, “Der Lichtdruck auf Kugeln von beliebigem Material,” Annalen der Physik 335(11), 57–136 (1909).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Shape and size dependence of radiative, non-radiative and photothermal properties of gold nanocrystals,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(3), 409–453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freedman, S. D.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gans, R.

R. Gans, “Über die Form ultramikroskopischer Goldteilchen,” Annalen der Physik 342(5), 881–900 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Ghiran, I. C.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanlon, E. B.

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, M. D. Modell, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, M. D. Modell, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimerer, L. M.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korgel, B. A.

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, M. D. Modell, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Larson, T. A.

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, M. D. Modell, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, K.-H.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Link, S.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, “Shape and size dependence of radiative, non-radiative and photothermal properties of gold nanocrystals,” Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 19(3), 409–453 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mackowski, D. W.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 55(5), 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 55(5), 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Modell, M.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Modell, M. D.

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, M. D. Modell, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perelman, L. T.

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, M. D. Modell, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Persson, B. N. J.

B. N. J. Persson, “Polarizability of small spherical metal particles: influence of the matrix environment,” Surf. Sci. 281(1-2), 153–162 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, L.

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, M. D. Modell, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sachs, B. P.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salahuddin, S.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. K.

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, M. D. Modell, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sokolov, K. V.

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, M. D. Modell, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 55(5), 535–575 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vitkin, E.

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, M. D. Modell, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zaman, M. M.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Annalen der Physik (2)

P. Debye, “Der Lichtdruck auf Kugeln von beliebigem Material,” Annalen der Physik 335(11), 57–136 (1909).
[CrossRef]

R. Gans, “Über die Form ultramikroskopischer Goldteilchen,” Annalen der Physik 342(5), 881–900 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, M. D. Modell, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, E. B. Hanlon, I. Itzkan, and L. T. Perelman, “Observation of plasmon line broadening in single gold nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 153106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Qiu, T. A. Larson, D. K. Smith, E. Vitkin, S. Zhang, M. D. Modell, I. Itzkan, E. B. Hanlon, B. A. Korgel, K. V. Sokolov, and L. T. Perelman, “Single gold nanorod detection using confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1730–1738 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, and D. W. Mackowski, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by nonspherical particles: A review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 55(5), 535–575 (1996).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized absorption and scattering cross sections for three aspect ratios, α and diameters d of nanospheroids modeled using the T-matrix approach [11]. The solid curves are for scattering while the dotted lines are for absorption. From left to right: α = 2.18 and d = 10 nm, α = 3.2 and d = 10 nm, and α = 4.0 and d = 10 nm. Inset magnifies the curves in the vicinity of the 520 nm transverse mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the single gold nanorod experiment using the CLASS system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized scattering spectrum for a single gold nanorod. Dots: CLASS measurements. Other lines are T-matrix calculations for a nanorod with an aspect ratio of 3.25 and a diameter of 16.2 nm and various A values. Solid line is for the natural linewidth, A = 0. Also included are lines for A = 0.5 and A = 1. The curve for A = 0.13 is the best fit for measurements made on eight different nanorods.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical properties of an ensemble of gold nanorods. (a) TEM image of a sample of gold nanorods with an average length and standard deviation of 48.9 ± 5.0 nm and an average diameter and standard deviation of 16.4 ± 2.1 nm. (b) Experimentally measured extinction of the same sample of gold nanorods as in the TEM image in aqueous solution (blue dots) vs. T-matrix calculation for a single nanorod with length and diameter of 48.9 and 16.4 nm respectively (red solid line). (c) Aspect ratio distribution of gold nanorods as in the TEM image. (d) Ensemble spectrum calculated using aspect ratio distribution demonstrates good agreement with experimentally measured extinction of the sample of gold nanorods in aqueous solution.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometry and typical wavelength pair of the numerical simulation used to evaluate the sensitivity of various optical labels.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sensitivity of gold nanorod labels vs. available fluorescence molecular labels and quantum dots. (a) Concentration of labels (per mm3) needed to achieve S/N = 10. The concentration of gold nanorod label (red curves) is three orders of magnitude lower than that of NIR1 fluorescence dye (green curve) and CdTe/CdS quantum dot (blue curve). (b) Detectability of several common fluorescent molecular and quantum dot labels and gold nanorod labels (concentration of probes is 1 nM). Gold nanorod labels (red curves) provide more than two orders of magnitude increase in S/N over NIR1 and DDI fluorescence dyes (green curves) and CdTe/CdS quantum dot (blue curve).

Equations (4)

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σ a b s = 2 π 3 λ ε m 3 / 2 V i ε 2 / ( n ( i ) ) 2 ( ε 1 + 1 n ( i ) n ( i ) ε m ) 2 + ε 2 2 .
σ s c a 8 π 3 ε m 2 9 λ 4 V 2 i ( ( ε 1 ε m ) 2 + ε 2 2 ) / ( n ( i ) ) 2 ( ε 1 + 1 n ( i ) n ( i ) ε m ) 2 + ε 2 2 .
σ a b s 6 π λ ε m 3 / 2 ε 2 V α 2 [ F L ( α , λ ) + 8 ( 3 α 1 ) 2 F T ( α , λ ) ] .
S N = q F T t q F 0 t + N d t + N r 2 .

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