Abstract

Visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) enables retinal oximetry by measuring the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (sO2) from within individual retinal blood vessels. The sO2 calculation requires reliable estimation of the true spectrum of backscattered light from the posterior vessel wall. Unfortunately, subject motion and image noise make averaging from multiple A-lines at the same depth position challenging, and lead to inaccurate sO2 estimation. In this study, we developed an algorithm to reliably extract the backscattered light’s spectrum. We used circumpapillary scanning to sample the vessels repeatedly at the same location. A combination of cross-correlation and graph-search based segmentation extracted the posterior wall locations. Using measurements from 100 B-scans as a gold standard, we demonstrated that our method achieved highly accurate measures of sO2 with minimal bias. In addition, we also investigated how the number of repeated measurements affects the accuracy of sO2 measurement. Our method sets the stage for large-scale studies of retinal oxygenation in animals and humans.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2018 (1)

2017 (5)

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Nesper, B. T. Soetikno, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy,” Vision Res. 139, 191–203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121707 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Wang, B. Soetikno, J. Yi, K. Zhang, S. Chen, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. M. Sorenson, N. Sheibani, and H. F. Zhang, “Increased retinal oxygen metabolism precedes microvascular alterations in type 1 diabetic mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(2), 981–989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Linsenmeier and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oxygen: from animals to humans,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 58, 115–151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

C. Yeh, J. Liang, Y. Zhou, S. Hu, R. E. Sohn, J. M. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy of arteriovenous shunts and blood diffusion in early-stage tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2),020501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Feng, H. Chen, J. Yi, J. B. Troy, H. F. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Long-term protection of retinal ganglion cells and visual function by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice with ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3793–3802 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, W. Liu, D. Skondra, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography angiography for monitoring laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT86–OCT95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Chong, M. Bernucci, H. Radhakrishnan, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Structural and functional human retinal imaging with a fiber-based visible light OCT ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 323–337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (8)

S. Chen, J. Yi, and H. F. Zhang, “Measuring oxygen saturation in retinal and choroidal circulations in rats using visible light optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2840–2853 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, S. Chen, X. Shu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Human retinal imaging using visible-light optical coherence tomography guided by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3701–3713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Chong, C. W. Merkle, C. Leahy, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) assessed by combined Doppler and spectroscopic OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3941–3951 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, R. Shah, W. Liu, P. Purta, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Inner retinal oxygen metabolism in the 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, M. Lajko, and A. A. Fawzi, “A mouse model for laser-induced choroidal neovascularization,” J. Vis. Exp. 106, e53502 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

J. C. M. Lau and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Oxygen consumption and distribution in the Long-Evans rat retina,” Exp. Eye Res. 102, 50–58 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 156–158 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography and microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1629–1640 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B. A. Walther and J. L. Moore, “The concepts of bias, precision and accuracy, and their use in testing the performance of species richness estimators, with a literature review of estimator performance,” Ecography 28(6), 815–829 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

N. D. Wangsa-Wirawan and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygen: fundamental and clinical aspects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(4), 547–557 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

Aalders, M. C.

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arbeit, J. M.

C. Yeh, J. Liang, Y. Zhou, S. Hu, R. E. Sohn, J. M. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy of arteriovenous shunts and blood diffusion in early-stage tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2),020501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arshavsky, V. Y.

Backman, V.

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bailey, S. T.

Beckmann, L.

X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121707 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernucci, M.

Boppart, S. A.

A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography and microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1629–1640 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, W. J.

Camino, A.

Carroll, J.

Cepurna, W.

Chen, D. Z.

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

L. Feng, H. Chen, J. Yi, J. B. Troy, H. F. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Long-term protection of retinal ganglion cells and visual function by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice with ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3793–3802 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

W. Liu, S. Wang, B. Soetikno, J. Yi, K. Zhang, S. Chen, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. M. Sorenson, N. Sheibani, and H. F. Zhang, “Increased retinal oxygen metabolism precedes microvascular alterations in type 1 diabetic mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(2), 981–989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, and H. F. Zhang, “Measuring oxygen saturation in retinal and choroidal circulations in rats using visible light optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2840–2853 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, S. Chen, X. Shu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Human retinal imaging using visible-light optical coherence tomography guided by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3701–3713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chiu, S. J.

Chong, S. P.

Drexler, W.

Dubis, A. M.

Dubra, A.

Faber, D. J.

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

Fawzi, A.

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A. A.

P. L. Nesper, B. T. Soetikno, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy,” Vision Res. 139, 191–203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, W. Liu, D. Skondra, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography angiography for monitoring laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT86–OCT95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, M. Lajko, and A. A. Fawzi, “A mouse model for laser-induced choroidal neovascularization,” J. Vis. Exp. 106, e53502 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Yi, S. Chen, X. Shu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Human retinal imaging using visible-light optical coherence tomography guided by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3701–3713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, R. Shah, W. Liu, P. Purta, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Inner retinal oxygen metabolism in the 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, L.

L. Feng, H. Chen, J. Yi, J. B. Troy, H. F. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Long-term protection of retinal ganglion cells and visual function by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice with ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3793–3802 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fienup, J. R.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gao, S. S.

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Heflin, S. J.

Hooper, B. A.

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

C. Yeh, J. Liang, Y. Zhou, S. Hu, R. E. Sohn, J. M. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy of arteriovenous shunts and blood diffusion in early-stage tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2),020501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, D.

Hwang, T. S.

Ippen, E. P.

Izatt, J. A.

Jia, Y.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kim, S.

Lajko, M.

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, M. Lajko, and A. A. Fawzi, “A mouse model for laser-induced choroidal neovascularization,” J. Vis. Exp. 106, e53502 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lau, J. C. M.

J. C. M. Lau and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Oxygen consumption and distribution in the Long-Evans rat retina,” Exp. Eye Res. 102, 50–58 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leahy, C.

Li, K.

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. D.

Li, X. T.

Liang, J.

C. Yeh, J. Liang, Y. Zhou, S. Hu, R. E. Sohn, J. M. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy of arteriovenous shunts and blood diffusion in early-stage tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2),020501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linsenmeier, R. A.

R. A. Linsenmeier and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oxygen: from animals to humans,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 58, 115–151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Wang, B. Soetikno, J. Yi, K. Zhang, S. Chen, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. M. Sorenson, N. Sheibani, and H. F. Zhang, “Increased retinal oxygen metabolism precedes microvascular alterations in type 1 diabetic mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(2), 981–989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. M. Lau and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Oxygen consumption and distribution in the Long-Evans rat retina,” Exp. Eye Res. 102, 50–58 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. D. Wangsa-Wirawan and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygen: fundamental and clinical aspects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(4), 547–557 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Liu, W.

W. Liu, S. Wang, B. Soetikno, J. Yi, K. Zhang, S. Chen, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. M. Sorenson, N. Sheibani, and H. F. Zhang, “Increased retinal oxygen metabolism precedes microvascular alterations in type 1 diabetic mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(2), 981–989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, W. Liu, D. Skondra, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography angiography for monitoring laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT86–OCT95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, R. Shah, W. Liu, P. Purta, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Inner retinal oxygen metabolism in the 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

L. Feng, H. Chen, J. Yi, J. B. Troy, H. F. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Long-term protection of retinal ganglion cells and visual function by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice with ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3793–3802 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lokhnygina, Y.

Merkle, C. W.

Mik, E. G.

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moore, J. L.

B. A. Walther and J. L. Moore, “The concepts of bias, precision and accuracy, and their use in testing the performance of species richness estimators, with a literature review of estimator performance,” Ecography 28(6), 815–829 (2005).
[Crossref]

Morgner, U.

Morrison, J.

Nesper, P. L.

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Nesper, B. T. Soetikno, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy,” Vision Res. 139, 191–203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicholas, P.

Oldenburg, A. L.

A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography and microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1629–1640 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pechauer, A. D.

Pi, S.

Pitris, C.

Purta, P.

B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, R. Shah, W. Liu, P. Purta, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Inner retinal oxygen metabolism in the 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, H.

Shah, R.

B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, R. Shah, W. Liu, P. Purta, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Inner retinal oxygen metabolism in the 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, R. S.

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, W. Liu, D. Skondra, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography angiography for monitoring laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT86–OCT95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, M. Lajko, and A. A. Fawzi, “A mouse model for laser-induced choroidal neovascularization,” J. Vis. Exp. 106, e53502 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sheibani, N.

W. Liu, S. Wang, B. Soetikno, J. Yi, K. Zhang, S. Chen, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. M. Sorenson, N. Sheibani, and H. F. Zhang, “Increased retinal oxygen metabolism precedes microvascular alterations in type 1 diabetic mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(2), 981–989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shu, X.

Skondra, D.

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, W. Liu, D. Skondra, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography angiography for monitoring laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT86–OCT95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soetikno, B.

W. Liu, S. Wang, B. Soetikno, J. Yi, K. Zhang, S. Chen, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. M. Sorenson, N. Sheibani, and H. F. Zhang, “Increased retinal oxygen metabolism precedes microvascular alterations in type 1 diabetic mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(2), 981–989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soetikno, B. T.

P. L. Nesper, B. T. Soetikno, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy,” Vision Res. 139, 191–203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, W. Liu, D. Skondra, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography angiography for monitoring laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT86–OCT95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, M. Lajko, and A. A. Fawzi, “A mouse model for laser-induced choroidal neovascularization,” J. Vis. Exp. 106, e53502 (2015).
[PubMed]

B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, R. Shah, W. Liu, P. Purta, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Inner retinal oxygen metabolism in the 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sohn, R. E.

C. Yeh, J. Liang, Y. Zhou, S. Hu, R. E. Sohn, J. M. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy of arteriovenous shunts and blood diffusion in early-stage tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2),020501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sonka, M.

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorenson, C. M.

W. Liu, S. Wang, B. Soetikno, J. Yi, K. Zhang, S. Chen, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. M. Sorenson, N. Sheibani, and H. F. Zhang, “Increased retinal oxygen metabolism precedes microvascular alterations in type 1 diabetic mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(2), 981–989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, P. P.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Tan, O.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thurman, S. T.

Toth, C. A.

Troy, J. B.

L. Feng, H. Chen, J. Yi, J. B. Troy, H. F. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Long-term protection of retinal ganglion cells and visual function by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice with ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3793–3802 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J.

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, T. G.

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, B. A.

B. A. Walther and J. L. Moore, “The concepts of bias, precision and accuracy, and their use in testing the performance of species richness estimators, with a literature review of estimator performance,” Ecography 28(6), 815–829 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, L. V.

C. Yeh, J. Liang, Y. Zhou, S. Hu, R. E. Sohn, J. M. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy of arteriovenous shunts and blood diffusion in early-stage tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2),020501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

W. Liu, S. Wang, B. Soetikno, J. Yi, K. Zhang, S. Chen, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. M. Sorenson, N. Sheibani, and H. F. Zhang, “Increased retinal oxygen metabolism precedes microvascular alterations in type 1 diabetic mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(2), 981–989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wangsa-Wirawan, N. D.

N. D. Wangsa-Wirawan and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygen: fundamental and clinical aspects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(4), 547–557 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

Wei, Q.

Wei, X.

Wilson, D. J.

Wu, X.

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, C.

A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography and microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1629–1640 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yeh, C.

C. Yeh, J. Liang, Y. Zhou, S. Hu, R. E. Sohn, J. M. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy of arteriovenous shunts and blood diffusion in early-stage tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2),020501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yi, J.

W. Liu, S. Wang, B. Soetikno, J. Yi, K. Zhang, S. Chen, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. M. Sorenson, N. Sheibani, and H. F. Zhang, “Increased retinal oxygen metabolism precedes microvascular alterations in type 1 diabetic mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(2), 981–989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Feng, H. Chen, J. Yi, J. B. Troy, H. F. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Long-term protection of retinal ganglion cells and visual function by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice with ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3793–3802 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, W. Liu, D. Skondra, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography angiography for monitoring laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT86–OCT95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, S. Chen, X. Shu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Human retinal imaging using visible-light optical coherence tomography guided by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3701–3713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, and H. F. Zhang, “Measuring oxygen saturation in retinal and choroidal circulations in rats using visible light optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2840–2853 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, R. Shah, W. Liu, P. Purta, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Inner retinal oxygen metabolism in the 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121707 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H. F.

P. L. Nesper, B. T. Soetikno, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy,” Vision Res. 139, 191–203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Liu, S. Wang, B. Soetikno, J. Yi, K. Zhang, S. Chen, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. M. Sorenson, N. Sheibani, and H. F. Zhang, “Increased retinal oxygen metabolism precedes microvascular alterations in type 1 diabetic mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(2), 981–989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. A. Linsenmeier and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oxygen: from animals to humans,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 58, 115–151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Feng, H. Chen, J. Yi, J. B. Troy, H. F. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Long-term protection of retinal ganglion cells and visual function by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice with ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3793–3802 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, W. Liu, D. Skondra, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography angiography for monitoring laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT86–OCT95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, and H. F. Zhang, “Measuring oxygen saturation in retinal and choroidal circulations in rats using visible light optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2840–2853 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, S. Chen, X. Shu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Human retinal imaging using visible-light optical coherence tomography guided by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3701–3713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, R. Shah, W. Liu, P. Purta, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Inner retinal oxygen metabolism in the 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, K.

W. Liu, S. Wang, B. Soetikno, J. Yi, K. Zhang, S. Chen, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. M. Sorenson, N. Sheibani, and H. F. Zhang, “Increased retinal oxygen metabolism precedes microvascular alterations in type 1 diabetic mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(2), 981–989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

Zhou, Y.

C. Yeh, J. Liang, Y. Zhou, S. Hu, R. E. Sohn, J. M. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy of arteriovenous shunts and blood diffusion in early-stage tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2),020501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

N. D. Wangsa-Wirawan and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Retinal oxygen: fundamental and clinical aspects,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 121(4), 547–557 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (9)

S. Chen, X. Shu, P. L. Nesper, W. Liu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oximetry in humans using visible-light optical coherence tomography [Invited],” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(3), 1415–1429 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, S. Chen, X. Shu, A. A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Human retinal imaging using visible-light optical coherence tomography guided by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3701–3713 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, J. Yi, and H. F. Zhang, “Measuring oxygen saturation in retinal and choroidal circulations in rats using visible light optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2840–2853 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Pi, A. Camino, W. Cepurna, X. Wei, M. Zhang, D. Huang, J. Morrison, and Y. Jia, “Automated spectroscopic retinal oximetry with visible-light optical coherence tomography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(5), 2056–2067 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Chong, C. W. Merkle, C. Leahy, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) assessed by combined Doppler and spectroscopic OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3941–3951 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Srinivasan, S. J. Heflin, J. A. Izatt, V. Y. Arshavsky, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic segmentation of up to ten layer boundaries in SD-OCT images of the mouse retina with and without missing layers due to pathology,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(2), 348–365 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. J. Chiu, Y. Lokhnygina, A. M. Dubis, A. Dubra, J. Carroll, J. A. Izatt, and S. Farsiu, “Automatic cone photoreceptor segmentation using graph theory and dynamic programming,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(6), 924–937 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zhang, J. Wang, A. D. Pechauer, T. S. Hwang, S. S. Gao, L. Liu, L. Liu, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, D. Huang, and Y. Jia, “Advanced image processing for optical coherence tomographic angiography of macular diseases,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(12), 4661–4675 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. Chong, M. Bernucci, H. Radhakrishnan, and V. J. Srinivasan, “Structural and functional human retinal imaging with a fiber-based visible light OCT ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(1), 323–337 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ecography (1)

B. A. Walther and J. L. Moore, “The concepts of bias, precision and accuracy, and their use in testing the performance of species richness estimators, with a literature review of estimator performance,” Ecography 28(6), 815–829 (2005).
[Crossref]

Exp. Eye Res. (1)

J. C. M. Lau and R. A. Linsenmeier, “Oxygen consumption and distribution in the Long-Evans rat retina,” Exp. Eye Res. 102, 50–58 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. L. Oldenburg, C. Xu, and S. A. Boppart, “Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography and microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1629–1640 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

S. Chen, J. Yi, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Monte Carlo investigation of optical coherence tomography retinal oximetry,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 62(9), 2308–2315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

K. Li, X. Wu, D. Z. Chen, and M. Sonka, “Optimal surface segmentation in volumetric images-a graph-theoretic approach,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 28(1), 119–134 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

W. Liu, S. Wang, B. Soetikno, J. Yi, K. Zhang, S. Chen, R. A. Linsenmeier, C. M. Sorenson, N. Sheibani, and H. F. Zhang, “Increased retinal oxygen metabolism precedes microvascular alterations in type 1 diabetic mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 58(2), 981–989 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, W. Liu, D. Skondra, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography angiography for monitoring laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in mice,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(9), OCT86–OCT95 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Feng, H. Chen, J. Yi, J. B. Troy, H. F. Zhang, and X. Liu, “Long-term protection of retinal ganglion cells and visual function by brain-derived neurotrophic factor in mice with ocular hypertension,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 57(8), 3793–3802 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

C. Yeh, J. Liang, Y. Zhou, S. Hu, R. E. Sohn, J. M. Arbeit, and L. V. Wang, “Photoacoustic microscopy of arteriovenous shunts and blood diffusion in early-stage tumors,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(2),020501 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(6), 064003 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Shu, L. Beckmann, and H. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography: a review,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(12), 121707 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chen, X. Shu, J. Yi, A. Fawzi, and H. F. Zhang, “Dual-band optical coherence tomography using a single supercontinuum laser source,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(6), 066013 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vis. Exp. (1)

R. S. Shah, B. T. Soetikno, M. Lajko, and A. A. Fawzi, “A mouse model for laser-induced choroidal neovascularization,” J. Vis. Exp. 106, e53502 (2015).
[PubMed]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. A. Fawzi, R. A. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl. 4(9), e334 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. J. Faber, M. C. Aalders, E. G. Mik, B. A. Hooper, M. J. van Gemert, and T. G. van Leeuwen, “Oxygen saturation-dependent absorption and scattering of blood,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(2), 028102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

R. A. Linsenmeier and H. F. Zhang, “Retinal oxygen: from animals to humans,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 58, 115–151 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

B. T. Soetikno, J. Yi, R. Shah, W. Liu, P. Purta, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “Inner retinal oxygen metabolism in the 50/10 oxygen-induced retinopathy model,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 16752 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (1)

P. L. Nesper, B. T. Soetikno, H. F. Zhang, and A. A. Fawzi, “OCT angiography and visible-light OCT in diabetic retinopathy,” Vision Res. 139, 191–203 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Overview of the retinal oximetry algorithm. The dashed box indicates steps of the algorithm that were performed for each vessel.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Vessel detection procedure. (A) En face raster scan of an adult rat retina. The white dashed circle indicates the approximate path of the circumpapillary scan on the retina. Numbers 1-14 identify the fourteen vessels; (B) En face of the circumpapillary scan OCT volume. Numbers 1-14 correspond to the vessels in A; (C) Average vis-OCT B-scan of the flattened circular scan volume. Numbers 1-14 correspond the numbers in A and B. Depth pixel size: 0.55 μm; (D) Black line indicates the two-dimensional shadowgram, calculated from C. Red line indicates the baseline, after low pass filtering; (E) Black line indicates the shadowgram after baseline subtraction and median filtering. Each red-cross indicates a peak corresponding to a vessel.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Graph-search segmentation for the anterior and posterior vessel walls. (A) Segmentation of the top of the anterior wall. (B) Segmentation of the bottom of the anterior wall. (C) Segmentation of the top of the posterior wall. (D) Segmentation of the bottom of the posterior wall. Each column shows the vessel cross-section obtained from a circular B-scan. Pixel dimension in the depth direction was approximately 0.55 μm assuming a refractive index of retinal tissue, n = 1.35.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Comparison of methods to extract the average OCT amplitude from the posterior wall for a single vessel. (A) Blind manual selection of straight manual slab for blind averaging. (B) Cross-correlation with manual selection of straight slab. (C) Cross-correlation with automatic graph-search segmentation for slab selection. (D) Cross-correlation with A-line by A-line manual selection of the peak signal from the posterior wall. Red lines in (A-D) denote the region of the slabs or segmentation. (E) Measured spectra from each B-scan for blind selection. (F) Measured spectra from each B-scan for cross-correlation alone. (G) Measured spectra from each B-scan for cross-correlation with graph-search segmentation. (H) Measured spectra from each B-scan for cross-correlation with manual selection. (I) Spectral OCT amplitude mean square error compared with the gold standard.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Accuracy, bias, and precision for OCT amplitude (at λ c = 558 nm) and sO2 for different number of B-scans used for averaging. (A-C) Accuracy, bias, and precision for OCT amplitude (at λ c = 558 nm) vs. number of B-scans used per sample. (D-F) Accuracy, bias, and precision for sO2 vs. number of B-scans used per sample. Error bars indicate standard error of the mean across vessels.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Spectral fitting. (A) Example of the least-squares spectral fit for an artery (vessel number 7 from Fig. 2). (B) Example of a least-squares spectral fit for a vein (vessel number 8 from Fig. 2). Black lines denote the measured average OCT amplitude after the graph-search algorithm. Error bars show the standard error of the mean of the OCT amplitude.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Vessel wall segmentation parameters

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Table 2 Automatic sO2 measurements obtained with graph-search segmentation

Equations (3)

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RMS E M = [ 1 N n=1 N ( s O 2;M,n s O 2;GS ) 2 ] 1/2 ,
M E M = 1 N n=1 N (s O 2;M,n s O 2;GS ),
S D M = [ 1 N n=1 N (s O 2;M,n s O 2;M,N ¯ ) 2 ] 1/2 ,

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