Abstract

As a label-free, nondestructive method, phase contrast is by far the most popular microscopy technique for routine inspection of cell cultures. However, features of interest such as extensions near cell bodies are often obscured by a glow, which came to be known as the halo. Advances in modeling image formation have shown that this artifact is due to the limited spatial coherence of the illumination. Nevertheless, the same incoherent illumination is responsible for superior sensitivity to fine details in the phase contrast geometry. Thus, there exists a trade-off between high-detail (incoherent) and low-detail (coherent) imaging systems. In this work, we propose a method to break this dichotomy, by carefully mixing corrected low-frequency and high-frequency data in a way that eliminates the edge effect. Specifically, our technique is able to remove halo artifacts at video rates, requiring no manual interaction or a priori point spread function measurements. To validate our approach, we imaged standard spherical beads, sperm cells, tissue slices, and red blood cells. We demonstrate real-time operation with a time evolution study of adherent neuron cultures whose neurites are revealed by our halo correction. We show that with our novel technique, we can quantify cell growth in large populations, without the need for thresholds and system variant calibration.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (20)

L. Kastl, M. Isbach, D. Dirksen, J. Schnekenburger, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control,” Cytometry A 91(5), 470–481 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Yang, J. Yoon, K. Kim, and Y. Park, “Measurements of morphological and biophysical alterations in individual neuron cells associated with early neurotoxic effects in Parkinson’s disease,” Cytometry A 91(5), 510–518 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Kandel, D. Fernandes, A. M. Taylor, H. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, and G. Popescu, “Three-dimensional intracellular transport in neuron bodies and neurites investigated by label-free dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” Cytometry A 91(5), 519–526 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Guo, J. Huang, and M. A. Moses, “Characterization of dormant and active human cancer cells by quantitative phase imaging,” Cytometry A 91(5), 424–432 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Calabuig, M. Mugnano, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, “Investigating fibroblast cells under “safe” and “injurious” blue-light exposure by holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 10(6-7), 919–927 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Fan, A. Tofangchi, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and T. Saif, “Coupled circumferential and axial tension driven by actin and myosin influences in vivo axon diameter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14188 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Badea, J. M. McCracken, E. G. Tillmaand, M. E. Kandel, A. W. Oraham, M. B. Mevis, S. S. Rubakhin, G. Popescu, J. V. Sweedler, and R. G. Nuzzo, “3D-Printed pHEMA Materials for Topographical and Biochemical Modulation of Dorsal Root Ganglion Cell Response,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(36), 30318–30328 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Majeed, C. Okoro, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, K. C. Toussaint, and G. Popescu, “Quantifying collagen fiber orientation in breast cancer using quantitative phase imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 046004 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, S. Sridharan, V. Macias, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, J. Melamed, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Automatic Gleason grading of prostate cancer using quantitative phase imaging and machine learning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036015 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Kandel, S. Sridharan, J. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Han, V. Macias, A. Shah, R. Patel, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, G. Guzman, and G. Popescu, “Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066016 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Janicke, A. Kårsnäs, P. Egelberg, and K. Alm, “Label-free high temporal resolution assessment of cell proliferation using digital holographic microscopy,” Cytometry A 91(5), 460–469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, “Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks,” Cytometry A 91(5), 503–509 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Kandel, K. W. Teng, P. R. Selvin, and G. Popescu, “Label-Free Imaging of Single Microtubule Dynamics Using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy,” ACS Nano 11(1), 647–655 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Eravuchira, S. K. Mirsky, I. Barnea, M. Levi, M. Balberg, and N. T. Shaked, “Individual sperm selection by microfluidics integrated with interferometric phase microscopy,” Methods 9, 009 (2017).
[PubMed]

C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7654 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, M. Kandel, H. M. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, J. Arikkath, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Wang, K. Yan, and L. Xue, “Quantitative interferometric microscopy with two dimensional Hilbert transform based phase retrieval method,” Opt. Commun. 383, 537–544 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Farrokhi, J. Boonruangkan, B. J. Chun, T. M. Rohith, A. Mishra, H. T. Toh, H. S. Yoon, and Y. J. Kim, “Speckle reduction in quantitative phase imaging by generating spatially incoherent laser field at electroactive optical diffusers,” Opt. Express 25(10), 10791–10800 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

H. Su, Z. Yin, S. Huh, T. Kanade, and J. Zhu, “Interactive Cell Segmentation Based on Active and Semi-Supervised Learning,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(3), 762–777 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. M. Roma, L. Siman, B. Hissa, U. Agero, E. M. Braga, and O. N. Mesquita, “Profiling of individual human red blood cells under osmotic stress using defocusing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 090505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

R. Schubert, A. Vollmer, S. Ketelhut, and B. Kemper, “Enhanced quantitative phase imaging in self-interference digital holographic microscopy using an electrically focus tunable lens,” Biomed. Opt. Express 5(12), 4213–4222 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ceballos, M. Kandel, S. Sridharan, H. Majeed, F. Monroy, and G. Popescu, “Active intracellular transport in metastatic cells studied by spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111209 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (7)

M. Mir, A. Bergamaschi, B. S. Katzenellenbogen, and G. Popescu, “Highly sensitive quantitative imaging for monitoring single cancer cell growth kinetics and drug response,” PLoS One 9(2), e89000 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Corbin, L. J. Millet, K. R. Keller, W. P. King, and R. Bashir, “Measuring physical properties of neuronal and glial cells with resonant microsensors,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4864–4872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Vartiainen, R. Mokso, M. Stampanoni, and C. David, “Halo suppression in full-field x-ray Zernike phase contrast microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1601–1604 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, C. Edwards, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5511–5514 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Loehrer, J. Botterweck, J. Jahnke, D. M. Mahlmann, J. Gaetgens, M. Oldiges, R. Horbach, H. Deising, and U. Schaffrath, “In vivo assessment by Mach-Zehnder double-beam interferometry of the invasive force exerted by the Asian soybean rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi),” New Phytol. 203(2), 620–631 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Jaccard, L. D. Griffin, A. Keser, R. J. Macown, A. Super, F. S. Veraitch, and N. Szita, “Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 111(3), 504–517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

H. V. Pham, B. Bhaduri, K. Tangella, C. Best-Popescu, and G. Popescu, “Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging,” PLoS One 8(2), e55676 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

B. Bhaduri, H. Pham, M. Mir, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy with white light,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1094–1096 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Rinehart, Y. Zhu, and A. Wax, “Quantitative phase spectroscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(5), 958–965 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Ambühl, C. Brepsant, J. J. Meister, A. B. Verkhovsky, and I. F. Sbalzarini, “High-resolution cell outline segmentation and tracking from phase-contrast microscopy images,” J. Microsc. 245(2), 161–170 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, T. Kanade, and M. Chen, “Understanding the phase contrast optics to restore artifact-free microscopy images for segmentation,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1047–1062 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

G. D. Caprio, M. A. Gioffrè, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative Label-Free Animal Sperm Imaging by Means of Digital Holographic Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

I. Ersoy, F. Bunyak, M. A. Mackey, and K. Palaniappan, “Cell Segmentation Using Hessian-Based Detection and Contour Evolution with Directional Derivatives,” Proc. Int. Conf. Image Proc. 2008, 1804–1807 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Maurer, A. Jesacher, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Phase contrast microscopy with full numerical aperture illumination,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19821–19829 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

P. Ferraro, C. Del Core, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and G. Coppola, “Phase map retrieval in digital holography: avoiding the undersampling effect by a lateral shear approach,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2233–2235 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, L. De Petrocellis, and S. D. Nicola, “Direct full compensation of the aberrations in quantitative phase microscopy of thin objects by a single digital hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041104 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2503–2505 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Delanoë-Ayari, P. Lenz, J. Brevier, M. Weidenhaupt, M. Vallade, D. Gulino, J. F. Joanny, and D. Riveline, “Periodic adhesive fingers between contacting cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 108102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Otaki, “Artifact Halo Reduction in Phase Contrast Microscopy Using Apodization,” Opt. Rev. 7(2), 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: Two-dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1955 (1)

F. Zernike, “How I Discovered Phase Contrast,” Science 121(3141), 345–349 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1954 (1)

A. F. Huxley and R. Niedergerke, “Structural changes in muscle during contraction; interference microscopy of living muscle fibres,” Nature 173(4412), 971–973 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Abbe, E.

E. Abbe, “Beiträge zur Theorie des Mikroskops und der mikroskopischen Wahrnehmung,” (1873).

Agero, U.

P. M. Roma, L. Siman, B. Hissa, U. Agero, E. M. Braga, and O. N. Mesquita, “Profiling of individual human red blood cells under osmotic stress using defocusing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 090505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alfieri, D.

L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, L. De Petrocellis, and S. D. Nicola, “Direct full compensation of the aberrations in quantitative phase microscopy of thin objects by a single digital hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Alm, K.

B. Janicke, A. Kårsnäs, P. Egelberg, and K. Alm, “Label-free high temporal resolution assessment of cell proliferation using digital holographic microscopy,” Cytometry A 91(5), 460–469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ambühl, M. E.

M. E. Ambühl, C. Brepsant, J. J. Meister, A. B. Verkhovsky, and I. F. Sbalzarini, “High-resolution cell outline segmentation and tracking from phase-contrast microscopy images,” J. Microsc. 245(2), 161–170 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arikkath, J.

T. H. Nguyen, M. Kandel, H. M. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, J. Arikkath, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, “Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks,” Cytometry A 91(5), 503–509 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arnison, M. R.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asundi, A.

C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7654 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badea, A.

A. Badea, J. M. McCracken, E. G. Tillmaand, M. E. Kandel, A. W. Oraham, M. B. Mevis, S. S. Rubakhin, G. Popescu, J. V. Sweedler, and R. G. Nuzzo, “3D-Printed pHEMA Materials for Topographical and Biochemical Modulation of Dorsal Root Ganglion Cell Response,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(36), 30318–30328 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2503–2505 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balberg, M.

P. J. Eravuchira, S. K. Mirsky, I. Barnea, M. Levi, M. Balberg, and N. T. Shaked, “Individual sperm selection by microfluidics integrated with interferometric phase microscopy,” Methods 9, 009 (2017).
[PubMed]

Balduzzi, D.

G. D. Caprio, M. A. Gioffrè, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative Label-Free Animal Sperm Imaging by Means of Digital Holographic Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

Barnea, I.

P. J. Eravuchira, S. K. Mirsky, I. Barnea, M. Levi, M. Balberg, and N. T. Shaked, “Individual sperm selection by microfluidics integrated with interferometric phase microscopy,” Methods 9, 009 (2017).
[PubMed]

Bashir, R.

E. A. Corbin, L. J. Millet, K. R. Keller, W. P. King, and R. Bashir, “Measuring physical properties of neuronal and glial cells with resonant microsensors,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4864–4872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bednarz, M.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergamaschi, A.

M. Mir, A. Bergamaschi, B. S. Katzenellenbogen, and G. Popescu, “Highly sensitive quantitative imaging for monitoring single cancer cell growth kinetics and drug response,” PLoS One 9(2), e89000 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernet, S.

Best-Popescu, C.

P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, “Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks,” Cytometry A 91(5), 503–509 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, M. Kandel, H. M. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, J. Arikkath, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Kandel, D. Fernandes, A. M. Taylor, H. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, and G. Popescu, “Three-dimensional intracellular transport in neuron bodies and neurites investigated by label-free dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” Cytometry A 91(5), 519–526 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. V. Pham, B. Bhaduri, K. Tangella, C. Best-Popescu, and G. Popescu, “Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging,” PLoS One 8(2), e55676 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhaduri, B.

H. V. Pham, B. Bhaduri, K. Tangella, C. Best-Popescu, and G. Popescu, “Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging,” PLoS One 8(2), e55676 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Bhaduri, H. Pham, M. Mir, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy with white light,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1094–1096 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boonruangkan, J.

Botterweck, J.

M. Loehrer, J. Botterweck, J. Jahnke, D. M. Mahlmann, J. Gaetgens, M. Oldiges, R. Horbach, H. Deising, and U. Schaffrath, “In vivo assessment by Mach-Zehnder double-beam interferometry of the invasive force exerted by the Asian soybean rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi),” New Phytol. 203(2), 620–631 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braga, E. M.

P. M. Roma, L. Siman, B. Hissa, U. Agero, E. M. Braga, and O. N. Mesquita, “Profiling of individual human red blood cells under osmotic stress using defocusing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 090505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brepsant, C.

M. E. Ambühl, C. Brepsant, J. J. Meister, A. B. Verkhovsky, and I. F. Sbalzarini, “High-resolution cell outline segmentation and tracking from phase-contrast microscopy images,” J. Microsc. 245(2), 161–170 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brevier, J.

H. Delanoë-Ayari, P. Lenz, J. Brevier, M. Weidenhaupt, M. Vallade, D. Gulino, J. F. Joanny, and D. Riveline, “Periodic adhesive fingers between contacting cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 108102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bunyak, F.

I. Ersoy, F. Bunyak, M. A. Mackey, and K. Palaniappan, “Cell Segmentation Using Hessian-Based Detection and Contour Evolution with Directional Derivatives,” Proc. Int. Conf. Image Proc. 2008, 1804–1807 (2008).
[PubMed]

Calabuig, A.

A. Calabuig, M. Mugnano, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, “Investigating fibroblast cells under “safe” and “injurious” blue-light exposure by holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 10(6-7), 919–927 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caprio, G. D.

G. D. Caprio, M. A. Gioffrè, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative Label-Free Animal Sperm Imaging by Means of Digital Holographic Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ceballos, S.

S. Ceballos, M. Kandel, S. Sridharan, H. Majeed, F. Monroy, and G. Popescu, “Active intracellular transport in metastatic cells studied by spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111209 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Charrière, F.

Chen, M.

Z. Yin, T. Kanade, and M. Chen, “Understanding the phase contrast optics to restore artifact-free microscopy images for segmentation,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1047–1062 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Q.

C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7654 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chun, B. J.

Cintora, P.

P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, “Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks,” Cytometry A 91(5), 503–509 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cogswell, C. J.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

Coppola, G.

G. D. Caprio, M. A. Gioffrè, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative Label-Free Animal Sperm Imaging by Means of Digital Holographic Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Ferraro, C. Del Core, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and G. Coppola, “Phase map retrieval in digital holography: avoiding the undersampling effect by a lateral shear approach,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2233–2235 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corbin, E. A.

E. A. Corbin, L. J. Millet, K. R. Keller, W. P. King, and R. Bashir, “Measuring physical properties of neuronal and glial cells with resonant microsensors,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4864–4872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuche, E.

Dasari, R. R.

David, C.

De Nicola, S.

De Petrocellis, L.

L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, L. De Petrocellis, and S. D. Nicola, “Direct full compensation of the aberrations in quantitative phase microscopy of thin objects by a single digital hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deflores, L.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deflores, L. P.

Deising, H.

M. Loehrer, J. Botterweck, J. Jahnke, D. M. Mahlmann, J. Gaetgens, M. Oldiges, R. Horbach, H. Deising, and U. Schaffrath, “In vivo assessment by Mach-Zehnder double-beam interferometry of the invasive force exerted by the Asian soybean rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi),” New Phytol. 203(2), 620–631 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del Core, C.

Delanoë-Ayari, H.

H. Delanoë-Ayari, P. Lenz, J. Brevier, M. Weidenhaupt, M. Vallade, D. Gulino, J. F. Joanny, and D. Riveline, “Periodic adhesive fingers between contacting cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 108102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Ding, H.

Dirksen, D.

L. Kastl, M. Isbach, D. Dirksen, J. Schnekenburger, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control,” Cytometry A 91(5), 470–481 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Do, M. N.

T. H. Nguyen, S. Sridharan, V. Macias, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, J. Melamed, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Automatic Gleason grading of prostate cancer using quantitative phase imaging and machine learning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036015 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, M. Kandel, H. M. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, J. Arikkath, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edwards, C.

Egelberg, P.

B. Janicke, A. Kårsnäs, P. Egelberg, and K. Alm, “Label-free high temporal resolution assessment of cell proliferation using digital holographic microscopy,” Cytometry A 91(5), 460–469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eravuchira, P. J.

P. J. Eravuchira, S. K. Mirsky, I. Barnea, M. Levi, M. Balberg, and N. T. Shaked, “Individual sperm selection by microfluidics integrated with interferometric phase microscopy,” Methods 9, 009 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ersoy, I.

I. Ersoy, F. Bunyak, M. A. Mackey, and K. Palaniappan, “Cell Segmentation Using Hessian-Based Detection and Contour Evolution with Directional Derivatives,” Proc. Int. Conf. Image Proc. 2008, 1804–1807 (2008).
[PubMed]

Fan, A.

A. Fan, A. Tofangchi, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and T. Saif, “Coupled circumferential and axial tension driven by actin and myosin influences in vivo axon diameter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14188 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farrokhi, H.

Fekete, P. W.

M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

Fernandes, D.

M. E. Kandel, D. Fernandes, A. M. Taylor, H. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, and G. Popescu, “Three-dimensional intracellular transport in neuron bodies and neurites investigated by label-free dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” Cytometry A 91(5), 519–526 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferraro, P.

A. Calabuig, M. Mugnano, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, “Investigating fibroblast cells under “safe” and “injurious” blue-light exposure by holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 10(6-7), 919–927 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Caprio, M. A. Gioffrè, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative Label-Free Animal Sperm Imaging by Means of Digital Holographic Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Ferraro, C. Del Core, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and G. Coppola, “Phase map retrieval in digital holography: avoiding the undersampling effect by a lateral shear approach,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2233–2235 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, L. De Petrocellis, and S. D. Nicola, “Direct full compensation of the aberrations in quantitative phase microscopy of thin objects by a single digital hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041104 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, “Whole optical wavefields reconstruction by digital holography,” Opt. Express 9(6), 294–302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finizio, A.

Gaetgens, J.

M. Loehrer, J. Botterweck, J. Jahnke, D. M. Mahlmann, J. Gaetgens, M. Oldiges, R. Horbach, H. Deising, and U. Schaffrath, “In vivo assessment by Mach-Zehnder double-beam interferometry of the invasive force exerted by the Asian soybean rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi),” New Phytol. 203(2), 620–631 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Galli, A.

G. D. Caprio, M. A. Gioffrè, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative Label-Free Animal Sperm Imaging by Means of Digital Holographic Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gao, P.

Gillette, M. U.

M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gioffrè, M. A.

G. D. Caprio, M. A. Gioffrè, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative Label-Free Animal Sperm Imaging by Means of Digital Holographic Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

Goddard, L. L.

Golding, I.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldstein, R. M.

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: Two-dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[Crossref]

Griffin, L. D.

N. Jaccard, L. D. Griffin, A. Keser, R. J. Macown, A. Super, F. S. Veraitch, and N. Szita, “Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 111(3), 504–517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grilli, S.

A. Calabuig, M. Mugnano, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, “Investigating fibroblast cells under “safe” and “injurious” blue-light exposure by holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 10(6-7), 919–927 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. D. Caprio, M. A. Gioffrè, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative Label-Free Animal Sperm Imaging by Means of Digital Holographic Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, L. De Petrocellis, and S. D. Nicola, “Direct full compensation of the aberrations in quantitative phase microscopy of thin objects by a single digital hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041104 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Ferraro, C. Del Core, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and G. Coppola, “Phase map retrieval in digital holography: avoiding the undersampling effect by a lateral shear approach,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2233–2235 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, G. Pierattini, and R. Meucci, “Whole optical wavefields reconstruction by digital holography,” Opt. Express 9(6), 294–302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gulino, D.

H. Delanoë-Ayari, P. Lenz, J. Brevier, M. Weidenhaupt, M. Vallade, D. Gulino, J. F. Joanny, and D. Riveline, “Periodic adhesive fingers between contacting cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 108102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, P.

P. Guo, J. Huang, and M. A. Moses, “Characterization of dormant and active human cancer cells by quantitative phase imaging,” Cytometry A 91(5), 424–432 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guzman, G.

M. E. Kandel, S. Sridharan, J. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Han, V. Macias, A. Shah, R. Patel, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, G. Guzman, and G. Popescu, “Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066016 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, K.

M. E. Kandel, S. Sridharan, J. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Han, V. Macias, A. Shah, R. Patel, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, G. Guzman, and G. Popescu, “Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066016 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Harder, I.

Hissa, B.

P. M. Roma, L. Siman, B. Hissa, U. Agero, E. M. Braga, and O. N. Mesquita, “Profiling of individual human red blood cells under osmotic stress using defocusing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 090505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horbach, R.

M. Loehrer, J. Botterweck, J. Jahnke, D. M. Mahlmann, J. Gaetgens, M. Oldiges, R. Horbach, H. Deising, and U. Schaffrath, “In vivo assessment by Mach-Zehnder double-beam interferometry of the invasive force exerted by the Asian soybean rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi),” New Phytol. 203(2), 620–631 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, J.

P. Guo, J. Huang, and M. A. Moses, “Characterization of dormant and active human cancer cells by quantitative phase imaging,” Cytometry A 91(5), 424–432 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huh, S.

H. Su, Z. Yin, S. Huh, T. Kanade, and J. Zhu, “Interactive Cell Segmentation Based on Active and Semi-Supervised Learning,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(3), 762–777 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huxley, A. F.

A. F. Huxley and R. Niedergerke, “Structural changes in muscle during contraction; interference microscopy of living muscle fibres,” Nature 173(4412), 971–973 (1954).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

Ina, H.

Isbach, M.

L. Kastl, M. Isbach, D. Dirksen, J. Schnekenburger, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control,” Cytometry A 91(5), 470–481 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwai, H.

Jaccard, N.

N. Jaccard, L. D. Griffin, A. Keser, R. J. Macown, A. Super, F. S. Veraitch, and N. Szita, “Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 111(3), 504–517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jahnke, J.

M. Loehrer, J. Botterweck, J. Jahnke, D. M. Mahlmann, J. Gaetgens, M. Oldiges, R. Horbach, H. Deising, and U. Schaffrath, “In vivo assessment by Mach-Zehnder double-beam interferometry of the invasive force exerted by the Asian soybean rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi),” New Phytol. 203(2), 620–631 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janicke, B.

B. Janicke, A. Kårsnäs, P. Egelberg, and K. Alm, “Label-free high temporal resolution assessment of cell proliferation using digital holographic microscopy,” Cytometry A 91(5), 460–469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jesacher, A.

Jin, D.

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Joanny, J. F.

H. Delanoë-Ayari, P. Lenz, J. Brevier, M. Weidenhaupt, M. Vallade, D. Gulino, J. F. Joanny, and D. Riveline, “Periodic adhesive fingers between contacting cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 108102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kajdacsy-Balla, A.

M. E. Kandel, S. Sridharan, J. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Han, V. Macias, A. Shah, R. Patel, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, G. Guzman, and G. Popescu, “Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066016 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, S. Sridharan, V. Macias, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, J. Melamed, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Automatic Gleason grading of prostate cancer using quantitative phase imaging and machine learning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036015 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Majeed, C. Okoro, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, K. C. Toussaint, and G. Popescu, “Quantifying collagen fiber orientation in breast cancer using quantitative phase imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 046004 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kanade, T.

H. Su, Z. Yin, S. Huh, T. Kanade, and J. Zhu, “Interactive Cell Segmentation Based on Active and Semi-Supervised Learning,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(3), 762–777 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, T. Kanade, and M. Chen, “Understanding the phase contrast optics to restore artifact-free microscopy images for segmentation,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1047–1062 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kandel, M.

T. H. Nguyen, M. Kandel, H. M. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, J. Arikkath, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Fan, A. Tofangchi, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and T. Saif, “Coupled circumferential and axial tension driven by actin and myosin influences in vivo axon diameter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14188 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, “Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks,” Cytometry A 91(5), 503–509 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ceballos, M. Kandel, S. Sridharan, H. Majeed, F. Monroy, and G. Popescu, “Active intracellular transport in metastatic cells studied by spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111209 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kandel, M. E.

M. E. Kandel, K. W. Teng, P. R. Selvin, and G. Popescu, “Label-Free Imaging of Single Microtubule Dynamics Using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy,” ACS Nano 11(1), 647–655 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Kandel, D. Fernandes, A. M. Taylor, H. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, and G. Popescu, “Three-dimensional intracellular transport in neuron bodies and neurites investigated by label-free dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” Cytometry A 91(5), 519–526 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Badea, J. M. McCracken, E. G. Tillmaand, M. E. Kandel, A. W. Oraham, M. B. Mevis, S. S. Rubakhin, G. Popescu, J. V. Sweedler, and R. G. Nuzzo, “3D-Printed pHEMA Materials for Topographical and Biochemical Modulation of Dorsal Root Ganglion Cell Response,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(36), 30318–30328 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Kandel, S. Sridharan, J. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Han, V. Macias, A. Shah, R. Patel, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, G. Guzman, and G. Popescu, “Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066016 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Liu, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, S. Schreiber, M. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using SLIM,” bioRxiv (2017).

Kårsnäs, A.

B. Janicke, A. Kårsnäs, P. Egelberg, and K. Alm, “Label-free high temporal resolution assessment of cell proliferation using digital holographic microscopy,” Cytometry A 91(5), 460–469 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kastl, L.

L. Kastl, M. Isbach, D. Dirksen, J. Schnekenburger, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control,” Cytometry A 91(5), 470–481 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katzenellenbogen, B. S.

M. Mir, A. Bergamaschi, B. S. Katzenellenbogen, and G. Popescu, “Highly sensitive quantitative imaging for monitoring single cancer cell growth kinetics and drug response,” PLoS One 9(2), e89000 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keller, K. R.

E. A. Corbin, L. J. Millet, K. R. Keller, W. P. King, and R. Bashir, “Measuring physical properties of neuronal and glial cells with resonant microsensors,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4864–4872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kemper, B.

Keser, A.

N. Jaccard, L. D. Griffin, A. Keser, R. J. Macown, A. Super, F. S. Veraitch, and N. Szita, “Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 111(3), 504–517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ketelhut, S.

Kim, K.

S. A. Yang, J. Yoon, K. Kim, and Y. Park, “Measurements of morphological and biophysical alterations in individual neuron cells associated with early neurotoxic effects in Parkinson’s disease,” Cytometry A 91(5), 510–518 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.

M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. H.

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

King, W. P.

E. A. Corbin, L. J. Millet, K. R. Keller, W. P. King, and R. Bashir, “Measuring physical properties of neuronal and glial cells with resonant microsensors,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4864–4872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, S.

Larkin, K. G.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
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M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199(1), 79–84 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lenz, P.

H. Delanoë-Ayari, P. Lenz, J. Brevier, M. Weidenhaupt, M. Vallade, D. Gulino, J. F. Joanny, and D. Riveline, “Periodic adhesive fingers between contacting cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 108102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Levi, M.

P. J. Eravuchira, S. K. Mirsky, I. Barnea, M. Levi, M. Balberg, and N. T. Shaked, “Individual sperm selection by microfluidics integrated with interferometric phase microscopy,” Methods 9, 009 (2017).
[PubMed]

Li, J.

C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7654 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liang, J.

M. E. Kandel, S. Sridharan, J. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Han, V. Macias, A. Shah, R. Patel, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, G. Guzman, and G. Popescu, “Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066016 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lindlein, N.

Liu, L.

L. Liu, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, S. Schreiber, M. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of sperm cells using SLIM,” bioRxiv (2017).

Liu, S. C.

M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loehrer, M.

M. Loehrer, J. Botterweck, J. Jahnke, D. M. Mahlmann, J. Gaetgens, M. Oldiges, R. Horbach, H. Deising, and U. Schaffrath, “In vivo assessment by Mach-Zehnder double-beam interferometry of the invasive force exerted by the Asian soybean rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi),” New Phytol. 203(2), 620–631 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, Z.

M. E. Kandel, S. Sridharan, J. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Han, V. Macias, A. Shah, R. Patel, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, G. Guzman, and G. Popescu, “Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066016 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Macias, V.

M. E. Kandel, S. Sridharan, J. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Han, V. Macias, A. Shah, R. Patel, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, G. Guzman, and G. Popescu, “Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066016 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, S. Sridharan, V. Macias, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, J. Melamed, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Automatic Gleason grading of prostate cancer using quantitative phase imaging and machine learning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036015 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mackey, M. A.

I. Ersoy, F. Bunyak, M. A. Mackey, and K. Palaniappan, “Cell Segmentation Using Hessian-Based Detection and Contour Evolution with Directional Derivatives,” Proc. Int. Conf. Image Proc. 2008, 1804–1807 (2008).
[PubMed]

Macown, R. J.

N. Jaccard, L. D. Griffin, A. Keser, R. J. Macown, A. Super, F. S. Veraitch, and N. Szita, “Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 111(3), 504–517 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahlmann, D. M.

M. Loehrer, J. Botterweck, J. Jahnke, D. M. Mahlmann, J. Gaetgens, M. Oldiges, R. Horbach, H. Deising, and U. Schaffrath, “In vivo assessment by Mach-Zehnder double-beam interferometry of the invasive force exerted by the Asian soybean rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi),” New Phytol. 203(2), 620–631 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majeed, H.

H. Majeed, C. Okoro, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, K. C. Toussaint, and G. Popescu, “Quantifying collagen fiber orientation in breast cancer using quantitative phase imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 046004 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ceballos, M. Kandel, S. Sridharan, H. Majeed, F. Monroy, and G. Popescu, “Active intracellular transport in metastatic cells studied by spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111209 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Majumder, A.

M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marquet, P.

Maurer, C.

McCracken, J. M.

A. Badea, J. M. McCracken, E. G. Tillmaand, M. E. Kandel, A. W. Oraham, M. B. Mevis, S. S. Rubakhin, G. Popescu, J. V. Sweedler, and R. G. Nuzzo, “3D-Printed pHEMA Materials for Topographical and Biochemical Modulation of Dorsal Root Ganglion Cell Response,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(36), 30318–30328 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meister, J. J.

M. E. Ambühl, C. Brepsant, J. J. Meister, A. B. Verkhovsky, and I. F. Sbalzarini, “High-resolution cell outline segmentation and tracking from phase-contrast microscopy images,” J. Microsc. 245(2), 161–170 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Melamed, J.

T. H. Nguyen, S. Sridharan, V. Macias, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, J. Melamed, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Automatic Gleason grading of prostate cancer using quantitative phase imaging and machine learning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036015 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mesquita, O. N.

P. M. Roma, L. Siman, B. Hissa, U. Agero, E. M. Braga, and O. N. Mesquita, “Profiling of individual human red blood cells under osmotic stress using defocusing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 090505 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meucci, R.

Mevis, M. B.

A. Badea, J. M. McCracken, E. G. Tillmaand, M. E. Kandel, A. W. Oraham, M. B. Mevis, S. S. Rubakhin, G. Popescu, J. V. Sweedler, and R. G. Nuzzo, “3D-Printed pHEMA Materials for Topographical and Biochemical Modulation of Dorsal Root Ganglion Cell Response,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(36), 30318–30328 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miccio, L.

A. Calabuig, M. Mugnano, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, “Investigating fibroblast cells under “safe” and “injurious” blue-light exposure by holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 10(6-7), 919–927 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, C. Del Core, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and G. Coppola, “Phase map retrieval in digital holography: avoiding the undersampling effect by a lateral shear approach,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2233–2235 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, L. De Petrocellis, and S. D. Nicola, “Direct full compensation of the aberrations in quantitative phase microscopy of thin objects by a single digital hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Millet, L.

Millet, L. J.

E. A. Corbin, L. J. Millet, K. R. Keller, W. P. King, and R. Bashir, “Measuring physical properties of neuronal and glial cells with resonant microsensors,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4864–4872 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mir, M.

M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4434 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, A. Bergamaschi, B. S. Katzenellenbogen, and G. Popescu, “Highly sensitive quantitative imaging for monitoring single cancer cell growth kinetics and drug response,” PLoS One 9(2), e89000 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Bhaduri, H. Pham, M. Mir, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy with white light,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1094–1096 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mirsky, S. K.

P. J. Eravuchira, S. K. Mirsky, I. Barnea, M. Levi, M. Balberg, and N. T. Shaked, “Individual sperm selection by microfluidics integrated with interferometric phase microscopy,” Methods 9, 009 (2017).
[PubMed]

Mishra, A.

Mokso, R.

Monroy, F.

S. Ceballos, M. Kandel, S. Sridharan, H. Majeed, F. Monroy, and G. Popescu, “Active intracellular transport in metastatic cells studied by spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111209 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Montfort, F.

Moses, M. A.

P. Guo, J. Huang, and M. A. Moses, “Characterization of dormant and active human cancer cells by quantitative phase imaging,” Cytometry A 91(5), 424–432 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mugnano, M.

A. Calabuig, M. Mugnano, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, “Investigating fibroblast cells under “safe” and “injurious” blue-light exposure by holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 10(6-7), 919–927 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T. H.

T. H. Nguyen, S. Sridharan, V. Macias, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, J. Melamed, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Automatic Gleason grading of prostate cancer using quantitative phase imaging and machine learning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036015 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, M. Kandel, H. M. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, J. Arikkath, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, C. Edwards, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5511–5514 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicola, S. D.

L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, L. De Petrocellis, and S. D. Nicola, “Direct full compensation of the aberrations in quantitative phase microscopy of thin objects by a single digital hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Niedergerke, R.

A. F. Huxley and R. Niedergerke, “Structural changes in muscle during contraction; interference microscopy of living muscle fibres,” Nature 173(4412), 971–973 (1954).
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T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
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Yao, B.

Yaqoob, Z.

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, Z.

H. Su, Z. Yin, S. Huh, T. Kanade, and J. Zhu, “Interactive Cell Segmentation Based on Active and Semi-Supervised Learning,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(3), 762–777 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, T. Kanade, and M. Chen, “Understanding the phase contrast optics to restore artifact-free microscopy images for segmentation,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1047–1062 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, H. S.

Yoon, J.

S. A. Yang, J. Yoon, K. Kim, and Y. Park, “Measurements of morphological and biophysical alterations in individual neuron cells associated with early neurotoxic effects in Parkinson’s disease,” Cytometry A 91(5), 510–518 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zebker, H. A.

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: Two-dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[Crossref]

Zernike, F.

F. Zernike, “How I Discovered Phase Contrast,” Science 121(3141), 345–349 (1955).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7654 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

H. Su, Z. Yin, S. Huh, T. Kanade, and J. Zhu, “Interactive Cell Segmentation Based on Active and Semi-Supervised Learning,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(3), 762–777 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

Zuo, C.

C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7654 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

A. Badea, J. M. McCracken, E. G. Tillmaand, M. E. Kandel, A. W. Oraham, M. B. Mevis, S. S. Rubakhin, G. Popescu, J. V. Sweedler, and R. G. Nuzzo, “3D-Printed pHEMA Materials for Topographical and Biochemical Modulation of Dorsal Root Ganglion Cell Response,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(36), 30318–30328 (2017).
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ACS Nano (1)

M. E. Kandel, K. W. Teng, P. R. Selvin, and G. Popescu, “Label-Free Imaging of Single Microtubule Dynamics Using Spatial Light Interference Microscopy,” ACS Nano 11(1), 647–655 (2017).
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Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. (1)

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
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Anal. Chem. (1)

E. A. Corbin, L. J. Millet, K. R. Keller, W. P. King, and R. Bashir, “Measuring physical properties of neuronal and glial cells with resonant microsensors,” Anal. Chem. 86(10), 4864–4872 (2014).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Miccio, D. Alfieri, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, A. Finizio, L. De Petrocellis, and S. D. Nicola, “Direct full compensation of the aberrations in quantitative phase microscopy of thin objects by a single digital hologram,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041104 (2007).
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Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Biotechnol. Bioeng. (1)

N. Jaccard, L. D. Griffin, A. Keser, R. J. Macown, A. Super, F. S. Veraitch, and N. Szita, “Automated method for the rapid and precise estimation of adherent cell culture characteristics from phase contrast microscopy images,” Biotechnol. Bioeng. 111(3), 504–517 (2014).
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Cytometry A (7)

L. Kastl, M. Isbach, D. Dirksen, J. Schnekenburger, and B. Kemper, “Quantitative phase imaging for cell culture quality control,” Cytometry A 91(5), 470–481 (2017).
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S. A. Yang, J. Yoon, K. Kim, and Y. Park, “Measurements of morphological and biophysical alterations in individual neuron cells associated with early neurotoxic effects in Parkinson’s disease,” Cytometry A 91(5), 510–518 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Kandel, D. Fernandes, A. M. Taylor, H. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, and G. Popescu, “Three-dimensional intracellular transport in neuron bodies and neurites investigated by label-free dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy,” Cytometry A 91(5), 519–526 (2017).
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P. Guo, J. Huang, and M. A. Moses, “Characterization of dormant and active human cancer cells by quantitative phase imaging,” Cytometry A 91(5), 424–432 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Jin, Y. Sung, N. Lue, Y. H. Kim, P. T. C. So, and Z. Yaqoob, “Large population cell characterization using quantitative phase cytometer,” Cytometry A 91(5), 450–459 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Janicke, A. Kårsnäs, P. Egelberg, and K. Alm, “Label-free high temporal resolution assessment of cell proliferation using digital holographic microscopy,” Cytometry A 91(5), 460–469 (2017).
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P. Cintora, J. Arikkath, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and C. Best-Popescu, “Cell density modulates intracellular mass transport in neural networks,” Cytometry A 91(5), 503–509 (2017).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. D. Caprio, M. A. Gioffrè, N. Saffioti, S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, R. Puglisi, D. Balduzzi, A. Galli, and G. Coppola, “Quantitative Label-Free Animal Sperm Imaging by Means of Digital Holographic Microscopy,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(4), 833–840 (2010).
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IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (1)

H. Su, Z. Yin, S. Huh, T. Kanade, and J. Zhu, “Interactive Cell Segmentation Based on Active and Semi-Supervised Learning,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 35(3), 762–777 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (5)

P. M. Roma, L. Siman, B. Hissa, U. Agero, E. M. Braga, and O. N. Mesquita, “Profiling of individual human red blood cells under osmotic stress using defocusing microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 21(9), 090505 (2016).
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H. Majeed, C. Okoro, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, K. C. Toussaint, and G. Popescu, “Quantifying collagen fiber orientation in breast cancer using quantitative phase imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(4), 046004 (2017).
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T. H. Nguyen, S. Sridharan, V. Macias, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, J. Melamed, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Automatic Gleason grading of prostate cancer using quantitative phase imaging and machine learning,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(3), 036015 (2017).
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M. E. Kandel, S. Sridharan, J. Liang, Z. Luo, K. Han, V. Macias, A. Shah, R. Patel, K. Tangella, A. Kajdacsy-Balla, G. Guzman, and G. Popescu, “Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening,” J. Biomed. Opt. 22(6), 066016 (2017).
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S. Ceballos, M. Kandel, S. Sridharan, H. Majeed, F. Monroy, and G. Popescu, “Active intracellular transport in metastatic cells studied by spatial light interference microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(11), 111209 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

A. Calabuig, M. Mugnano, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, and P. Ferraro, “Investigating fibroblast cells under “safe” and “injurious” blue-light exposure by holographic microscopy,” J. Biophotonics 10(6-7), 919–927 (2017).
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J. Microsc. (3)

M. E. Ambühl, C. Brepsant, J. J. Meister, A. B. Verkhovsky, and I. F. Sbalzarini, “High-resolution cell outline segmentation and tracking from phase-contrast microscopy images,” J. Microsc. 245(2), 161–170 (2012).
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M. R. Arnison, C. J. Cogswell, N. I. Smith, P. W. Fekete, and K. G. Larkin, “Using the Hilbert transform for 3D visualization of differential interference contrast microscope images,” J. Microsc. 199(1), 79–84 (2000).
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M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Med. Image Anal. (1)

Z. Yin, T. Kanade, and M. Chen, “Understanding the phase contrast optics to restore artifact-free microscopy images for segmentation,” Med. Image Anal. 16(5), 1047–1062 (2012).
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Methods (1)

P. J. Eravuchira, S. K. Mirsky, I. Barnea, M. Levi, M. Balberg, and N. T. Shaked, “Individual sperm selection by microfluidics integrated with interferometric phase microscopy,” Methods 9, 009 (2017).
[PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
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Nature (1)

A. F. Huxley and R. Niedergerke, “Structural changes in muscle during contraction; interference microscopy of living muscle fibres,” Nature 173(4412), 971–973 (1954).
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New Phytol. (1)

M. Loehrer, J. Botterweck, J. Jahnke, D. M. Mahlmann, J. Gaetgens, M. Oldiges, R. Horbach, H. Deising, and U. Schaffrath, “In vivo assessment by Mach-Zehnder double-beam interferometry of the invasive force exerted by the Asian soybean rust fungus (Phakopsora pachyrhizi),” New Phytol. 203(2), 620–631 (2014).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

S. Wang, K. Yan, and L. Xue, “Quantitative interferometric microscopy with two dimensional Hilbert transform based phase retrieval method,” Opt. Commun. 383, 537–544 (2017).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (8)

P. Gao, B. Yao, I. Harder, N. Lindlein, and F. J. Torcal-Milla, “Phase-shifting Zernike phase contrast microscopy for quantitative phase measurement,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4305–4307 (2011).
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I. Vartiainen, R. Mokso, M. Stampanoni, and C. David, “Halo suppression in full-field x-ray Zernike phase contrast microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(6), 1601–1604 (2014).
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G. Popescu, L. P. Deflores, J. C. Vaughan, K. Badizadegan, H. Iwai, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Fourier phase microscopy for investigation of biological structures and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2503–2505 (2004).
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G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
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B. Bhaduri, H. Pham, M. Mir, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy with white light,” Opt. Lett. 37(6), 1094–1096 (2012).
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T. H. Nguyen, C. Edwards, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging with partially coherent illumination,” Opt. Lett. 39(19), 5511–5514 (2014).
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T. Ikeda, G. Popescu, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Hilbert phase microscopy for investigating fast dynamics in transparent systems,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1165–1167 (2005).
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P. Ferraro, C. Del Core, L. Miccio, S. Grilli, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and G. Coppola, “Phase map retrieval in digital holography: avoiding the undersampling effect by a lateral shear approach,” Opt. Lett. 32(15), 2233–2235 (2007).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Delanoë-Ayari, P. Lenz, J. Brevier, M. Weidenhaupt, M. Vallade, D. Gulino, J. F. Joanny, and D. Riveline, “Periodic adhesive fingers between contacting cells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(10), 108102 (2004).
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PLoS One (2)

M. Mir, A. Bergamaschi, B. S. Katzenellenbogen, and G. Popescu, “Highly sensitive quantitative imaging for monitoring single cancer cell growth kinetics and drug response,” PLoS One 9(2), e89000 (2014).
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H. V. Pham, B. Bhaduri, K. Tangella, C. Best-Popescu, and G. Popescu, “Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging,” PLoS One 8(2), e55676 (2013).
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Proc. Int. Conf. Image Proc. (1)

I. Ersoy, F. Bunyak, M. A. Mackey, and K. Palaniappan, “Cell Segmentation Using Hessian-Based Detection and Contour Evolution with Directional Derivatives,” Proc. Int. Conf. Image Proc. 2008, 1804–1807 (2008).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(32), 13124–13129 (2011).
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Radio Sci. (1)

R. M. Goldstein, H. A. Zebker, and C. L. Werner, “Satellite radar interferometry: Two-dimensional phase unwrapping,” Radio Sci. 23(4), 713–720 (1988).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (4)

A. Fan, A. Tofangchi, M. Kandel, G. Popescu, and T. Saif, “Coupled circumferential and axial tension driven by actin and myosin influences in vivo axon diameter,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 14188 (2017).
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M. Mir, T. Kim, A. Majumder, M. Xiang, R. Wang, S. C. Liu, M. U. Gillette, S. Stice, and G. Popescu, “Label-free characterization of emerging human neuronal networks,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 4434 (2014).
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T. H. Nguyen, M. Kandel, H. M. Shakir, C. Best-Popescu, J. Arikkath, M. N. Do, and G. Popescu, “Halo-free Phase Contrast Microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 7, 44034 (2017).
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C. Zuo, J. Sun, J. Li, J. Zhang, A. Asundi, and Q. Chen, “High-resolution transport-of-intensity quantitative phase microscopy with annular illumination,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 7654 (2017).
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Science (1)

F. Zernike, “How I Discovered Phase Contrast,” Science 121(3141), 345–349 (1955).
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Supplementary Material (4)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Time-lapse growth of a representative portion of a neuron culture before and after application of our halo removal method (FOV 1, SLIM, 20x/0.3NA objective).
» Visualization 2       Time-lapse growth of a representative portion of a neuron culture before and after application of our halo removal method (FOV 2, SLIM, 20x/0.3NA objective).
» Visualization 3       Time-lapse growth of a representative portion of a neuron culture before and after application of our halo removal method (FOV 3, SLIM, 20x/0.3NA objective).
» Visualization 4       Real-time halo removal with spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM, 40x/0.75NA objective).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A halo forms when the reference field is distorted by a low-pass version of the sample field. (a) Measurement of the halo-artifact was performed using a four-frame shifting interferometer (SLIM) attached to a phase-contrast microscope. From four orthogonal interferograms (90°, 180°, 270°, 360°) it is possible to uniquely determine the phase at each pixel. (b) Due to its wide illumination aperture, the phase contrast condenser introduces a spread in spatial frequencies, leading to unwanted glows in the measured field when compared to the object (c). Due to the spread in illuminating spatial frequencies, the reference field is not flat, but rather contains a distorted, low-frequency replicate of the sample field.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The halo appears as a shadow that disproportionately affects low-frequency content. (a) A typical phase map (inset profile) the halo appears as a negative glow (phase delay) around the cell body (red arrows). The defect is negligible for isolated, small, structures typical of neuronal extensions (green arrow). (b) In the frequency domain, the image divides into “preserved high-frequencies” (green), and “distorted low-frequencies”.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 A direct (non-iterative) algorithm to remove halo artifacts using the Hilbert transform. Directional filters are applied to the frequency domain representation of the image. The frequency content corresponding to fine details unaffected by the halo (those greater than 1⁄L_c) are allowed to pass unperturbed. For the low-frequency content affected by the halo, we apply a filter corresponding to a derivative combined with a signum function. In our implementation, we use three such directions and take the imaginary part of the inverse Fourier transform. These three directional images, as well as the original image, are then merged by taking a pixel-wise maximum of the values, such that in areas without a halo there is no change in pixel value.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 To compare to previous, not real-time, halo removal efforts - “hfQPI” in Nguyen et al. (2017) -we imaged a polystyrene bead (a) as well as adherent cells (b). (a) When Halo removal applied to a 3-μm polystyrene bead shows a line profile fitting well with the expected peak phase value of 2.7 radians. (b) Applying our method to a more complicated structure such as a cluster of HeLa cells, we note that for this category of sample, results are qualitatively similar and stress that our approach is real-time. Data acquired with 20x/0.3.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Halo removal reveals submerged high-frequency content. Because our halo removal routine includes the existing phase map, the procedure preserves the shape of control structures such as the 1 μm polystyrene bead (white bar = 5 μm). We note that there is little change in the image as the structure does not exhibit a significant halo. The prominent halo around the sperm cell is removed after application of our technique (white bar = 12 μm). Notably, in continuous samples, such as surgically resected tissue (white bar = 5 μm), the halo often obscures significant details such as the fibers separating individual cells in gland structures. While images in this paper were acquired with a SLIM style add-on module, the procedure is also applicable to other common-path systems such as the DPM microscope (RBC, white bar = 6 μm). Phase maps are displayed in a range from a, b.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 A large field of view assembled from mosaic tiles. (a) To investigate neuron growth we image a whole petri dish (35 mm, 20x/0.3, glass bottom outlined in white) over the course of 29 hours. Each time point is composed of 900 mosaic tiles. Tiles are aligned after assembly with a purpose-built phase correlation algorithm and visualized with TrakEM2. (b,c) zoomed portions of the previous image.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Halo removal fixes neurite near cell bodies and cell clusters. (a) In a typical neuron (white bar = 30 um), the neurites appear submerged under the halo-artifact, showing a non-physical phase shift near the cell body (blue curves). After application of our technique, this defect is removed. (b) Cell clusters (such as the glia shown, white bar = 30 μm) suffer from halo defects, particularly where cells contact each other. After halo removal, similar to tissue in previous figures, a more complex structure becomes visible. Images displayed on a [-0.3,0.9] RAD scale.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Halo removal reveals cell growth behavior. (a) According to a linear growth model, each tile is assigned a rate by finding the change in dry mass over time. The gaussian fit for the growth rate of the measured data has a mean of 0.101 x 10−3 hr−1 and a standard deviation of 3.6 x 10−4 hr−1, while that of the corrected data has a mean of 2.41 x 10−3 hr−1 and a standard deviation of 1.4 x10−3 hr−1. Comparing the growth rates between the original and halo-correct data, we observed a mean growth rate shift of 2.3 x 10−3 hr−1, and calculated a statistically significant difference (p < 0.01). (b) In tiles showing positive growth rates, neurite extensions increase in length (representative inset shown), while in the few tiles with negative growth rates, extensions typically wither away (c). Images acquired with 20x/0.3 and displayed on a [-0.3,0.9] RAD range with the white bar indicating 20 μm.

Equations (7)

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ϕ m ( x , y ) = ϕ ( x , y ) ϕ _ ( x , y )
d ϕ m ( x , y ) d x ~ d ϕ ( x , y ) d x
H [ d ϕ ( x , y ) d x ] = d ϕ d x x 1 x = P π d ϕ ( x ' , y ) d x ' 1 x x ' d x '
H [ d ϕ m ( x , y ) d x ] = 1 π ϕ ( x , y ) x x ' | x ' = x ' = + P π ϕ ( x , y ) ( x x ' ) 2 d x '
H [ d ϕ ( x , y ) d x ] = ϕ ( x , y ) x 1 x 2
H [ d ϕ m d x ] = F 1 [ k x sign ( k x ) ϕ ( k x , k y ) ] = F 1 [ | k x | ϕ ( k x , k y ) ]
H [ d ϕ m ( x , y ) d x ] = F 1 [ | k x | ϕ ( k x , k y ) | k x | < 1 / L c ( 1 / L c ) ϕ ( k x , k y ) | k x | 1 / L c ]

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