Abstract

Speckle is an intrinsic noise of interferometric signals which reduces contrast and degrades the quality of optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Here, we present a frequency compounding speckle reduction technique using the dual window (DW) method. Using the DW method, speckle noise is reduced without the need to acquire multiple frames. A ~25% improvement in the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was achieved using the DW speckle reduction method with only minimal loss (~17%) in axial resolution. We also demonstrate that real-time speckle reduction can be achieved at a B-scan rate of ~21 frames per second using a graphic processing unit (GPU). The DW speckle reduction technique can work on any existing OCT instrument without further system modification or extra components. This makes it applicable both in real-time imaging systems and during post-processing.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  1. J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, M. Sylwestrzak, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Efficient reduction of speckle noise in Optical Coherence Tomography,” Opt. Express 20(2), 1337–1359 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. Cui, E. Bo, Y. Luo, X. Liu, X. Wang, S. Chen, X. Yu, S. Chen, P. Shum, and L. Liu, “Multifiber angular compounding optical coherence tomography for speckle reduction,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 125–128 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. F. Al-Asad and A. Moghadamjoo, “Short-Time Fourier Transform and Wigner-Ville Transform for Ultrasound Image De-Noising through Dynamic Mask Thresholding,” in 2010 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 2010), 1–4.
    [Crossref]
  8. F. Robles, R. N. Graf, and A. Wax, “Dual window method for processing spectroscopic optical coherence tomography signals with simultaneously high spectral and temporal resolution,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6799–6812 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).

2017 (2)

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).

D. Cui, E. Bo, Y. Luo, X. Liu, X. Wang, S. Chen, X. Yu, S. Chen, P. Shum, and L. Liu, “Multifiber angular compounding optical coherence tomography for speckle reduction,” Opt. Lett. 42(1), 125–128 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2003 (1)

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Bo, E.

Chen, S.

Chen, Z.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).

Cui, D.

de Boer, J. F.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de la Zerda, A.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).

Dutta, R.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).

Fercher, A. F.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Gotzinger, E.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Götzinger, E.

Graf, R. N.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kowalczyk, A.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

Lew, M. D.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).

Liba, O.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

Luo, Y.

Milner, T. E.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moshfeghi, D. M.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).

Nelson, J. S.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pham, T. H.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, B. Baumann, T. Schmoll, H. Sattmann, R. A. Leitgeb, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14568–14585 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robles, F.

Sattmann, H.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmoll, T.

Sen, D.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).

Shum, P.

SoRelle, E. D.

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).

Srinivas, S. M.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sylwestrzak, M.

Szkulmowski, M.

Szlag, D.

Wang, X.

Wax, A.

Wojtkowski, M.

Xiang, S. H.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

Yung, K. M.

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, B. H. Park, T. H. Pham, Z. Chen, T. E. Milner, and J. S. Nelson, “Polarization effects in optical coherence tomography of various biological tissues,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 1200–1204 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

J. M. Schmitt, S. H. Xiang, and K. M. Yung, “Speckle in optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 4(1), 95–105 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pircher, E. Gotzinger, R. Leitgeb, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography by frequency compounding,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8(3), 565–569 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

O. Liba, M. D. Lew, E. D. SoRelle, R. Dutta, D. Sen, D. M. Moshfeghi, S. Chu, and A. de la Zerda, “Speckle-modulating optical coherence tomography in living mice and humans,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15845 (2017).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. F. Al-Asad and A. Moghadamjoo, “Short-Time Fourier Transform and Wigner-Ville Transform for Ultrasound Image De-Noising through Dynamic Mask Thresholding,” in 2010 4th International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 2010), 1–4.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Data processing of the DW speckle reduction method. (b) The degradation of axial resolution caused by the DW/STFT method in turbid media, calculated by measuring the FWHM of a mirror reflector under 250 µm of scattering phantom. (Legend: blue – full 155 nm bandwidth, orange – DW, yellow – STFT; error bars: standard deviation of measurements.)
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Pixel intensity distribution of Spectralon OCT images before (blue) and after (yellow) DW-SR (five 30 nm windows). The pixel intensity exhibits a Rayleigh distribution before DW-SR due to speckle noise, and shifted towards a Poisson distribution after DW-SR due to speckle reduction. (b) Normalized standard deviation C before and after DW-SR, plotted against a theoretical speckle reduction curve (dotted black line) if the speckle noise in the compounding images are completely uncorrelated
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Lateral high-contrast target: (left) images of the ~20 µm gap in a TiO2/PDMS phantom before and after DW-SR; (right) lateral cross-sections of the gap images show an improvement of 2.85 dB in CNR by DW-SR. (b) Axial high-contrast target: images of the 25 µm microspheres embedded TiO2/PDMS phantom before and after DW-SR. 3D plots of the microsphere images on the same linear scale show reduced noise floor which results in a 2.08 dB increase in CNR by DW-SR.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Representative images of healthy mouse skin before and after DW speckle reduction (five 30 nm spectral windows for DW-SR), structural details of subcutaneous tissue can be better resolved after applying the DW speckle reduction. (Scale bar: 100 µm)

Tables (1)

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Table 1 DW-SR processing time (ms) vs. different window number (N) and spectral width (Δλ1).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

C = σ < I >
C O C T 2 = σ 2 < I > 2 = σ int 2 < I > 2 + σ s p k 2 < I > 2 = C int 2 + C s p k 2
C N R = 1 R r = 1 R μ r μ b σ r 2 + σ b 2
S N R = 10 log 10 ( max S l i n 2 σ l i n 2 )

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