Abstract

A combined 32° full field of view refractive fundus camera and fixation target with a −20 to +10 diopter sphere correction range is described and demonstrated. The optical setup partially corrects the average longitudinal chromatic aberration and spherical aberration of the human eye, while providing a long eye relief to allow integration with reflective adaptive optics ophthalmoscopes, as a viewfinder. The fundus camera operates with 940 nm light, using a maximum 2.9 mm diameter imaging pupil at the eye. The fixation target uses a light projector capable of delivering red, green and/or blue spatially and temporally modulated stimuli to the retina. The design and performance of each sub-system are discussed, and retinal imaging at various wavelengths is demonstrated.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

2017 (2)

2016 (3)

2015 (4)

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rogers, “Global optimization and desensitization,” Proc. SPIE 9633, 96330S (2015).

J. Zhang, Q. Yang, K. Saito, K. Nozato, D. R. Williams, and E. A. Rossi, “An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(6), 2120–2137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Sheehy, P. Tiruveedhula, R. Sabesan, and A. Roorda, “Active eye-tracking for an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2412–2423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

M. Mujat, A. Patel, N. Iftimia, and R. D. Ferguson, “Compact adaptive optics line scanning retinal imager; closer to the clinic,” Proc. SPIE 8930, 89301B (2014).

C. Wolfram, R. Höhn, U. Kottler, P. Wild, M. Blettner, J. Bühren, N. Pfeiffer, and A. Mirshahi, “Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS),” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(7), 857–861 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

F. Hirose, K. Nozato, K.-i. Saito, and Y. Numajiri, “A compact adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-efficiency wavefront correction using dual liquid crystal on silicon - spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 788515 (2011).

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, N. Sredar, H. Queener, C. Li, and J. Porter, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14160–14171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (4)

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (4)

2005 (4)

2004 (1)

R. R. A. Bourne, B. P. Dineen, S. M. Ali, D. M. Noorul Huq, and G. J. Johnson, “Prevalence of refractive error in Bangladeshi adults: results of the National Blindness and Low Vision Survey of Bangladesh,” Ophthalmology 111(6), 1150–1160 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

W. J. Donnelly and A. Roorda, “Optimal pupil size in the human eye for axial resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(11), 2010–2015 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhöfer, K. H. Huemer, C. E. Riva, M. Wolzt, and L. Schmetterer, “Hyperglycemia affects flicker-induced vasodilation in the retina of healthy subjects,” Vision Res. 43(13), 1495–1500 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhofer, B. Kiss, E. Polska, K. Polak, C. E. Riva, and L. Schmetterer, “Nitric oxide regulates retinal vascular tone in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 285(2), H631–H636 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, “Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye,” Proc. SPIE 4956, 65–72 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (6)

2001 (3)

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, “Theory and measurement of ocular chromatic aberration,” Vision Res. 30(1), 33–49 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

J. J. Vos, “Colormetric and photometric properties of a 2 degree fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3(3), 125–128 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

Ahnelt, P.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahnelt, P. K.

Ali, S. M.

R. R. A. Bourne, B. P. Dineen, S. M. Ali, D. M. Noorul Huq, and G. J. Johnson, “Prevalence of refractive error in Bangladeshi adults: results of the National Blindness and Low Vision Survey of Bangladesh,” Ophthalmology 111(6), 1150–1160 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anastasopoulos, E.

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Artal, P.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, “Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 13(2), 400–409 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashman, R.

P. Bedggood, M. Daaboul, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. Metha, “Characteristics of the human isoplanatic patch and implications for adaptive optics retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024008 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bedggood, P.

P. Bedggood, M. Daaboul, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. Metha, “Characteristics of the human isoplanatic patch and implications for adaptive optics retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024008 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergeles, C.

Bertelsen, G.

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bigelow, C. E.

Blettner, M.

C. Wolfram, R. Höhn, U. Kottler, P. Wild, M. Blettner, J. Bühren, N. Pfeiffer, and A. Mirshahi, “Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS),” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(7), 857–861 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bloom, B.

Bourne, R. R. A.

R. R. A. Bourne, B. P. Dineen, S. M. Ali, D. M. Noorul Huq, and G. J. Johnson, “Prevalence of refractive error in Bangladeshi adults: results of the National Blindness and Low Vision Survey of Bangladesh,” Ophthalmology 111(6), 1150–1160 (2004).
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Bower, B. A.

Bradley, A.

Bradu, A.

Brainard, D. H.

Bron, A.

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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Bühren, J.

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Daaboul, M.

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Dai, Y.

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Dartigues, J.-F.

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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Davidson, B.

DeHoog, E.

Delcourt, C.

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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Devaney, N.

Dineen, B. P.

R. R. A. Bourne, B. P. Dineen, S. M. Ali, D. M. Noorul Huq, and G. J. Johnson, “Prevalence of refractive error in Bangladeshi adults: results of the National Blindness and Low Vision Survey of Bangladesh,” Ophthalmology 111(6), 1150–1160 (2004).
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Donnelly Iii, W.

Dorner, G. T.

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G. T. Dorner, G. Garhofer, B. Kiss, E. Polska, K. Polak, C. E. Riva, and L. Schmetterer, “Nitric oxide regulates retinal vascular tone in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 285(2), H631–H636 (2003).
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Drexler, W.

Dubra, A.

Duncan, J. L.

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K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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Fawzi, A. A.

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Feeks, J. A.

Ferguson, R. D.

Fernández, E.

Fernández, E. J.

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Fletcher, A.

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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Gao, W.

Garhofer, G.

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhofer, B. Kiss, E. Polska, K. Polak, C. E. Riva, and L. Schmetterer, “Nitric oxide regulates retinal vascular tone in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 285(2), H631–H636 (2003).
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G. T. Dorner, G. Garhöfer, K. H. Huemer, C. E. Riva, M. Wolzt, and L. Schmetterer, “Hyperglycemia affects flicker-induced vasodilation in the retina of healthy subjects,” Vision Res. 43(13), 1495–1500 (2003).
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K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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Hitzenberger, C. K.

Hofer, B.

Hofer, H.

Hofman, A.

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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Höhn, R.

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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C. Wolfram, R. Höhn, U. Kottler, P. Wild, M. Blettner, J. Bühren, N. Pfeiffer, and A. Mirshahi, “Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS),” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(7), 857–861 (2014).
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G. T. Dorner, G. Garhöfer, K. H. Huemer, C. E. Riva, M. Wolzt, and L. Schmetterer, “Hyperglycemia affects flicker-induced vasodilation in the retina of healthy subjects,” Vision Res. 43(13), 1495–1500 (2003).
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Hunter, J. J.

Iftimia, N.

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Jampol, L. M.

A. T. Sheyman, P. L. Nesper, A. A. Fawzi, and L. M. Jampol, “Adaptive Optics Imaging in Laser Pointer Maculopathy,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 47(8), 782–785 (2016).
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Jiang, W.

S. Li, Y. Xiong, J. Li, N. Wang, Y. Dai, L. Xue, H. Zhao, W. Jiang, Y. Zhang, and J. C. He, “Effects of monochromatic aberration on visual acuity using adaptive optics,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(7), 868–874 (2009).
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Johnson, G. J.

R. R. A. Bourne, B. P. Dineen, S. M. Ali, D. M. Noorul Huq, and G. J. Johnson, “Prevalence of refractive error in Bangladeshi adults: results of the National Blindness and Low Vision Survey of Bangladesh,” Ophthalmology 111(6), 1150–1160 (2004).
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Jonnal, R. S.

Kalitzeos, A.

Khawaja, A. P.

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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Kiss, B.

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhofer, B. Kiss, E. Polska, K. Polak, C. E. Riva, and L. Schmetterer, “Nitric oxide regulates retinal vascular tone in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 285(2), H631–H636 (2003).
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K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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Korobelnik, J.-F.

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K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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H. Li, J. Lu, G. Shi, and Y. Zhang, “Automatic montage of retinal images in adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Opt Eng 51(5), 057008 (2012).

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S. Li, Y. Xiong, J. Li, N. Wang, Y. Dai, L. Xue, H. Zhao, W. Jiang, Y. Zhang, and J. C. He, “Effects of monochromatic aberration on visual acuity using adaptive optics,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(7), 868–874 (2009).
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H.-M. Wu, B. Seet, E. P.-H. Yap, S.-M. Saw, T.-H. Lim, and K.-S. Chia, “Does Education Explain Ethnic Differences in Myopia Prevalence? A Population-Based Study of Young Adult Males in Singapore,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(4), 234–239 (2001).
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H. Li, J. Lu, G. Shi, and Y. Zhang, “Automatic montage of retinal images in adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Opt Eng 51(5), 057008 (2012).

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K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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F. Hirose, K. Nozato, K.-i. Saito, and Y. Numajiri, “A compact adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-efficiency wavefront correction using dual liquid crystal on silicon - spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 788515 (2011).

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K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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G. T. Dorner, G. Garhofer, B. Kiss, E. Polska, K. Polak, C. E. Riva, and L. Schmetterer, “Nitric oxide regulates retinal vascular tone in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 285(2), H631–H636 (2003).
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F. Hirose, K. Nozato, K.-i. Saito, and Y. Numajiri, “A compact adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-efficiency wavefront correction using dual liquid crystal on silicon - spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 788515 (2011).

Sattmann, H.

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
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H.-M. Wu, B. Seet, E. P.-H. Yap, S.-M. Saw, T.-H. Lim, and K.-S. Chia, “Does Education Explain Ethnic Differences in Myopia Prevalence? A Population-Based Study of Young Adult Males in Singapore,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(4), 234–239 (2001).
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G. T. Dorner, G. Garhöfer, K. H. Huemer, C. E. Riva, M. Wolzt, and L. Schmetterer, “Hyperglycemia affects flicker-induced vasodilation in the retina of healthy subjects,” Vision Res. 43(13), 1495–1500 (2003).
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G. T. Dorner, G. Garhofer, B. Kiss, E. Polska, K. Polak, C. E. Riva, and L. Schmetterer, “Nitric oxide regulates retinal vascular tone in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 285(2), H631–H636 (2003).
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K. Polak, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, “Influence of Flicker Frequency on Flicker-Induced Changes of Retinal Vessel Diameter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(8), 2721–2726 (2002).
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Schwiegerling, J.

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Sheehy, C. K.

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A. T. Sheyman, P. L. Nesper, A. A. Fawzi, and L. M. Jampol, “Adaptive Optics Imaging in Laser Pointer Maculopathy,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 47(8), 782–785 (2016).
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H. Li, J. Lu, G. Shi, and Y. Zhang, “Automatic montage of retinal images in adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Opt Eng 51(5), 057008 (2012).

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Smith, G.

P. Bedggood, M. Daaboul, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. Metha, “Characteristics of the human isoplanatic patch and implications for adaptive optics retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024008 (2008).
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K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
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Werner, J. S.

Wild, P.

C. Wolfram, R. Höhn, U. Kottler, P. Wild, M. Blettner, J. Bühren, N. Pfeiffer, and A. Mirshahi, “Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS),” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(7), 857–861 (2014).
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Williams, D. R.

Williams, K. M.

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolfram, C.

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Wolfram, R. Höhn, U. Kottler, P. Wild, M. Blettner, J. Bühren, N. Pfeiffer, and A. Mirshahi, “Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS),” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(7), 857–861 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wolzt, M.

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhöfer, K. H. Huemer, C. E. Riva, M. Wolzt, and L. Schmetterer, “Hyperglycemia affects flicker-induced vasodilation in the retina of healthy subjects,” Vision Res. 43(13), 1495–1500 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-M.

H.-M. Wu, B. Seet, E. P.-H. Yap, S.-M. Saw, T.-H. Lim, and K.-S. Chia, “Does Education Explain Ethnic Differences in Myopia Prevalence? A Population-Based Study of Young Adult Males in Singapore,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(4), 234–239 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

S. Li, Y. Xiong, J. Li, N. Wang, Y. Dai, L. Xue, H. Zhao, W. Jiang, Y. Zhang, and J. C. He, “Effects of monochromatic aberration on visual acuity using adaptive optics,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(7), 868–874 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xue, L.

S. Li, Y. Xiong, J. Li, N. Wang, Y. Dai, L. Xue, H. Zhao, W. Jiang, Y. Zhang, and J. C. He, “Effects of monochromatic aberration on visual acuity using adaptive optics,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(7), 868–874 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamauchi, Y.

Yang, Q.

Yap, E. P.-H.

H.-M. Wu, B. Seet, E. P.-H. Yap, S.-M. Saw, T.-H. Lim, and K.-S. Chia, “Does Education Explain Ethnic Differences in Myopia Prevalence? A Population-Based Study of Young Adult Males in Singapore,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(4), 234–239 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, M.

Yoon, G. Y.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

L. N. Thibos, M. Ye, X. Zhang, and A. Bradley, “The chromatic eye: A new reduced-eye model of ocular chromatic aberration in humans,” Appl. Opt. 31(19), 3594–3600 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, “Theory and measurement of ocular chromatic aberration,” Vision Res. 30(1), 33–49 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

H. Li, J. Lu, G. Shi, and Y. Zhang, “Automatic montage of retinal images in adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Opt Eng 51(5), 057008 (2012).

S. Li, Y. Xiong, J. Li, N. Wang, Y. Dai, L. Xue, H. Zhao, W. Jiang, Y. Zhang, and J. C. He, “Effects of monochromatic aberration on visual acuity using adaptive optics,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(7), 868–874 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4552–4569 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, H.

S. Li, Y. Xiong, J. Li, N. Wang, Y. Dai, L. Xue, H. Zhao, W. Jiang, Y. Zhang, and J. C. He, “Effects of monochromatic aberration on visual acuity using adaptive optics,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(7), 868–874 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, M.

Zhong, Z.

Zou, W.

Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (1)

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhofer, B. Kiss, E. Polska, K. Polak, C. E. Riva, and L. Schmetterer, “Nitric oxide regulates retinal vascular tone in humans,” Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 285(2), H631–H636 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (10)

W. M. Harmening, P. Tiruveedhula, A. Roorda, and L. C. Sincich, “Measurement and correction of transverse chromatic offsets for multi-wavelength retinal microscopy in the living eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(9), 2066–2077 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cooper, W. S. Tuten, A. Dubra, D. H. Brainard, and J. I. W. Morgan, “Non-invasive assessment of human cone photoreceptor function,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(11), 5098–5112 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Y. Sulai, “Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1757–1768 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Feeks and J. J. Hunter, “Adaptive optics two-photon excited fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy of exogenous fluorophores in mice,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2483–2495 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Mariotti, N. Devaney, G. Lombardo, and M. Lombardo, “Understanding the changes of cone reflectance in adaptive optics flood illumination retinal images over three years,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(7), 2807–2822 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nowakowski, M. Sheehan, D. Neal, and A. V. Goncharov, “Investigation of the isoplanatic patch and wavefront aberration along the pupillary axis compared to the line of sight in the eye,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(2), 240–258 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, Q. Yang, K. Saito, K. Nozato, D. R. Williams, and E. A. Rossi, “An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(6), 2120–2137 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. K. Sheehy, P. Tiruveedhula, R. Sabesan, and A. Roorda, “Active eye-tracking for an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(7), 2412–2423 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Chen, R. F. Cooper, G. K. Han, J. Gee, D. H. Brainard, and J. I. Morgan, “Multi-modal automatic montaging of adaptive optics retinal images,” Biomed. Opt. Express 7(12), 4899–4918 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Davidson, A. Kalitzeos, J. Carroll, A. Dubra, S. Ourselin, M. Michaelides, and C. Bergeles, “Fast adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope retinal montaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 9(9), 4317–4328 (2018).
[Crossref]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

C. Wolfram, R. Höhn, U. Kottler, P. Wild, M. Blettner, J. Bühren, N. Pfeiffer, and A. Mirshahi, “Prevalence of refractive errors in the European adult population: the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS),” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 98(7), 857–861 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Color Res. Appl. (1)

J. J. Vos, “Colormetric and photometric properties of a 2 degree fundamental observer,” Color Res. Appl. 3(3), 125–128 (1978).
[Crossref]

Eur. J. Epidemiol. (1)

K. M. Williams, V. J. M. Verhoeven, P. Cumberland, G. Bertelsen, C. Wolfram, G. H. S. Buitendijk, A. Hofman, C. M. van Duijn, J. R. Vingerling, R. W. A. M. Kuijpers, R. Höhn, A. Mirshahi, A. P. Khawaja, R. N. Luben, M. G. Erke, T. von Hanno, O. Mahroo, R. Hogg, C. Gieger, A. Cougnard-Grégoire, E. Anastasopoulos, A. Bron, J.-F. Dartigues, J.-F. Korobelnik, C. Creuzot-Garcher, F. Topouzis, C. Delcourt, J. Rahi, T. Meitinger, A. Fletcher, P. J. Foster, N. Pfeiffer, C. C. W. Klaver, and C. J. Hammond, “Prevalence of refractive error in Europe: the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium,” Eur. J. Epidemiol. 30(4), 305–315 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2)

K. Polak, L. Schmetterer, and C. E. Riva, “Influence of Flicker Frequency on Flicker-Induced Changes of Retinal Vessel Diameter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43(8), 2721–2726 (2002).
[PubMed]

A. Roorda, Y. Zhang, and J. L. Duncan, “High-resolution in vivo imaging of the RPE mosaic in eyes with retinal disease,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 48(5), 2297–2303 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

P. Bedggood, M. Daaboul, R. Ashman, G. Smith, and A. Metha, “Characteristics of the human isoplanatic patch and implications for adaptive optics retinal imaging,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(2), 024008 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (8)

J. Porter, A. Guirao, I. G. Cox, and D. R. Williams, “Monochromatic aberrations of the human eye in a large population,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18(8), 1793–1803 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, “Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(12), 2329–2348 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, “Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(12), 2329–2348 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. J. Donnelly and A. Roorda, “Optimal pupil size in the human eye for axial resolution,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20(11), 2010–2015 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, B. Bloom, and D. X. Hammer, “Compact multimodal adaptive-optics spectral-domain optical coherence tomography instrument for retinal imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24(5), 1327–1336 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Y. Yoon and D. R. Williams, “Visual performance after correcting the monochromatic and chromatic aberrations of the eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(2), 266–275 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Ferguson, Z. Zhong, D. X. Hammer, M. Mujat, A. H. Patel, C. Deng, W. Zou, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with integrated wide-field retinal imaging and tracking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(11), A265–A277 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liang, D. R. Williams, and D. T. Miller, “Supernormal vision and high-resolution retinal imaging through adaptive optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14(11), 2884–2892 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina (1)

A. T. Sheyman, P. L. Nesper, A. A. Fawzi, and L. M. Jampol, “Adaptive Optics Imaging in Laser Pointer Maculopathy,” Ophthalmic Surg. Lasers Imaging Retina 47(8), 782–785 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

R. R. A. Bourne, B. P. Dineen, S. M. Ali, D. M. Noorul Huq, and G. J. Johnson, “Prevalence of refractive error in Bangladeshi adults: results of the National Blindness and Low Vision Survey of Bangladesh,” Ophthalmology 111(6), 1150–1160 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt Eng (1)

H. Li, J. Lu, G. Shi, and Y. Zhang, “Automatic montage of retinal images in adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope,” Opt Eng 51(5), 057008 (2012).

Opt. Express (14)

R. S. Jonnal, J. Rha, Y. Zhang, B. Cense, W. Gao, and D. T. Miller, “In vivo functional imaging of human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16141–16160 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Torti, B. Považay, B. Hofer, A. Unterhuber, J. Carroll, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 120,000 depth scans/s for non-invasive cellular phenotyping of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19382–19400 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Rha, R. S. Jonnal, K. E. Thorn, J. Qu, Y. Zhang, and D. T. Miller, “Adaptive optics flood-illumination camera for high speed retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4552–4569 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dubra and Y. N. Sulai, “First-order design of a reflective viewfinder for adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 20(24), 26596–26605 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, “Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations,” Opt. Express 8(11), 631–643 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, J. Rha, R. Jonnal, and D. Miller, “Adaptive optics parallel spectral domain optical coherence tomography for imaging the living retina,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4792–4811 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, M. Zhao, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, S. Choi, S. Laut, and J. S. Werner, “Adaptive-optics optical coherence tomography for high-resolution and high-speed 3D retinal in vivo imaging,” Opt. Express 13(21), 8532–8546 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Merino, C. Dainty, A. Bradu, and A. G. Podoleanu, “Adaptive optics enhanced simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3345–3353 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3354–3367 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. Hebert, and M. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Hofer, N. Sredar, H. Queener, C. Li, and J. Porter, “Wavefront sensorless adaptive optics ophthalmoscopy in the human eye,” Opt. Express 19(15), 14160–14171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, T. E. Ustun, and S. A. Burns, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope for stabilized retinal imaging,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3354–3367 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Fernández, A. Unterhuber, P. Prieto, B. Hermann, W. Drexler, and P. Artal, “Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 13(2), 400–409 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

S. Li, Y. Xiong, J. Li, N. Wang, Y. Dai, L. Xue, H. Zhao, W. Jiang, Y. Zhang, and J. C. He, “Effects of monochromatic aberration on visual acuity using adaptive optics,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 86(7), 868–874 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-M. Wu, B. Seet, E. P.-H. Yap, S.-M. Saw, T.-H. Lim, and K.-S. Chia, “Does Education Explain Ethnic Differences in Myopia Prevalence? A Population-Based Study of Young Adult Males in Singapore,” Optom. Vis. Sci. 78(4), 234–239 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (4)

J. Rogers, “Global optimization and desensitization,” Proc. SPIE 9633, 96330S (2015).

D. T. Miller, J. Qu, R. S. Jonnal, and K. Thorn, “Coherence gating and adaptive optics in the eye,” Proc. SPIE 4956, 65–72 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Mujat, A. Patel, N. Iftimia, and R. D. Ferguson, “Compact adaptive optics line scanning retinal imager; closer to the clinic,” Proc. SPIE 8930, 89301B (2014).

F. Hirose, K. Nozato, K.-i. Saito, and Y. Numajiri, “A compact adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-efficiency wavefront correction using dual liquid crystal on silicon - spatial light modulator,” Proc. SPIE 7885, 788515 (2011).

Retina (1)

G. Michelson, A. Patzelt, and J. Harazny, “Flickering Light Increases Retinal BlooDLPd Flow,” Retina 22(3), 336–343 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vision Res. (3)

G. T. Dorner, G. Garhöfer, K. H. Huemer, C. E. Riva, M. Wolzt, and L. Schmetterer, “Hyperglycemia affects flicker-induced vasodilation in the retina of healthy subjects,” Vision Res. 43(13), 1495–1500 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, D. L. Still, X. Zhang, and P. A. Howarth, “Theory and measurement of ocular chromatic aberration,” Vision Res. 30(1), 33–49 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, B. Považay, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, P. M. Prieto, R. Leitgeb, P. Ahnelt, P. Artal, and W. Drexler, “Three-dimensional adaptive optics ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Vision Res. 45(28), 3432–3444 (2005).
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H. A. Knoll, “Ophthalmic instruments,” in Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume 5, Optical Instruments, Part 2, R. Kingslake, ed. (Academic, 1969).

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Near infrared fundus camera and fixation target optical layout (D1, D2 and D3 are dichroic mirrors).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Custom LED ring as seen at the pupil of the eye (left) and as built on a heatsink (Thorlabs, MXXXL1-SP; right). The red circles represent the LEDs and the orange circle the imaging pupil.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Afocal relay optics layout (a), in which the distance t between the lens groups can be set to 272, 399 and 524 mm for correcting −10, 0 and +10 D of sphere, respectively. Transverse ray aberration curves over normalized pupil coordinates (b, d), in units of mm. Spot diagrams (c, e), in which the black circles represent the Airy disk at the central wavelengths of each range (940 & 525 nm, respectively). All diagrams correspond to 0 D of defocus.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fundus objective double Gauss lens layout with a working distance of 14 mm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Afocal relay and fundus objective lens (a) layout, (b) ray curves, (c) field curves and (d) distortion. In the spot diagrams the black circle represents the Airy disk at 940 nm. The scale bar corresponds to the spot diagrams.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Afocal relay and fundus objective manufacturing yield of polychromatic (920-960 nm) RMS wavefront error, simulated using 5,000 trials in the TOR sensitivity analysis (Code V).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Fixation target objective layout with a working distance of 4.8 mm and total lens objective length of 30 mm. The DLP prism is shown as a thick piece of glass and includes a cover plate.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Fixation objective polychromatic ray curves (left), spot diagram (middle; black circle represents the Airy disk at 525 nm) and simulated manufacturing yield for the worst of the three fields at each wavelength of the complete system with the model eye, excluding TCA (right).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Instrument cross-section (left), and actual setup integrated with a reflective adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope (right). The red arrows indicate translation to correct for focus.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Fundus camera theoretical (left) and 3-unit average measured modulation transfer function (right), plotted out to the camera’s Nyquist frequency (91 lp/mm).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Image of back-illuminated USAF 1951 target at (a) +10D (b) 0D and (c) −20D using the fundus camera with the blue and red boxes showing the areas for the horizontal and vertical evaluation and the average of seven (d) horizontal and seven (e) vertical cross-sections. Error bars are the standard deviation.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Contrast-stretched montage of seven fundus images captured 940 nm light in an emmetropic subject (ADS00082), in which each individual image is 32° across.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Images of a model eye (top) and two retinas (subject IDs ADS00054 and ADS00056), using 940, 850, 780 and 690 nm illumination (columns 1-4, respectively). Exposure times were 5, 10, 10 & 15ms, respectively. The black dot in the model eye was used to aid in alignment and focus. The scale bar is 15°.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Demonstration of the fundus camera (left) as the viewfinder of an AO scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO right) at two retinal locations (subject ID ADS00082). The contrast in the fundus images has been enhanced as described in the main text. The scale bars are 5 and 0.25°, respectively.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Fixation target objective lens modulation transfer function: theoretical (top) and average measurement of three units (bottom), tested at 490, 520 and 625 nm. Curves are plotted out to the DMD pixel pitch (90 lp/mm).

Tables (9)

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Table 1 Fundus camera and fixation target design specifications

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Table 2 Afocal relay specifications

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Table 3 Fundus imaging lens specifications

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Table 4 Afocal relay and fundus imaging lens optical tolerances

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Table 5 Afocal relay and fundus imaging lens opto-mechanical tolerances

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Table 6 Fixation objective lens specifications

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Table 7 Fixation target optical and opto-mechanical tolerances

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Table 8 Longitudinal shift referenced to 525 nm in the fixation arm in units of diopters

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Table 9 Fundus and fixation target lens data

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u a ' =2 W 020 / y p ,
W 020 = φ d y p 2 2λ .
MP E fundus camera  = 1.8  C A C E T 2 0.25 mW/c m 2 ,
MP E Thermal  = 0.36  C E T 2 0.25 mW/c m 2 ,
MP E Photochemical  = 2  C B ,