Abstract

We demonstrated that attenuated total reflectance terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (ATR THz-TDS) is able to monitor oxidative stress response of living human cells, which is proven in this work that it is an efficient non-invasive, label-free, real-time and in situ monitoring of cell death. Furthermore, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of cultured living human breast epithelial cells, and along with their evolution under oxidative stress response induced by high concentration of H2O2, were quantitatively determined in the work. Our observation and results were finally confirmed using standard fluorescence-labeled flow cytometry measurements and visible fluorescence imaging.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [PubMed]
  25. J. B. Masson, M. P. Sauviat, J. L. Martin, and G. Gallot, “Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(13), 4808–4812 (2006).
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    [PubMed]

2017 (1)

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (1)

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (3)

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 253701 (2015).

M. Grognot and G. Gallot, “Quantitative measurement of permeabilizattion of living cells by terahertz attenuated total reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 103702 (2015).

U. Krengel and S. Törnroth-Horsefield, “Coping with oxidative stress,” Science 347(6218), 125–126 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (1)

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 35, 493–502 (2014).

2013 (4)

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053702 (2013).

J. Oin, Y. Ying, and L. Xie, “The detection of agricultural products and food using terahertz spectroscopy: a review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(6), 439–457 (2013).

T. R. Figueira, M. H. Barros, A. A. Camargo, R. F. Castilho, J. C. B. Ferreira, A. J. Kowaltowski, F. E. Sluse, N. C. Souza-Pinto, and A. E. Vercesi, “Mitochondria as a source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: from molecular mechanisms to human health,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18(16), 2029–2074 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Wehbe, J. Filik, M. D. Frogley, and G. Cinque, “The effect of optical substrates on micro-FTIR analysis of single mammalian cells,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(4), 1311–1324 (2013).
[PubMed]

2011 (5)

D. Wlodkowic, W. Telford, J. Skommer, and Z. Darzynkiewicz, “Apoptosis and beyond: cytometry in studies of programmed cell death,” Methods Cell Biol. 103, 55–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

D. R. Gough and T. G. Cotter, “Hydrogen peroxide: a Jekyll and Hyde signaling molecule,” Cell Death Disease 2, e213 (2011).

O. Kepp, L. Galluzzi, M. Lipinski, J. Yuan, and G. Kroemer, “Cell death assays for drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 10(3), 221–237 (2011).
[PubMed]

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging – modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Invited Review Article: Current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared Milli. TeraHz. Waves 32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).

2010 (1)

S. Fulda, A. M. Gorman, O. Hori, and A. Samali, “Cellular stress responses: cell survival and cell death,” Int. J. Cell Biol. 2010, 214074 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

N. Driessens, S. Versteyhe, C. Ghaddhab, A. Burniat, X. De Deken, J. Van Sande, J. E. Dumont, F. Miot, and B. Corvilain, “Hydrogen peroxide induces DNA single- and double-strand breaks in thyroid cells and is therefore a potential mutagen for this organ,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer 16(3), 845–856 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (2)

D. V. Krysko, T. Vanden Berghe, K. D’Herde, and P. Vandenabeele, “Apoptosis and necrosis: Detection, discrimination and phagocytosis,” Methods 44(3), 205–221 (2008).
[PubMed]

D. Trachootham, W. Lu, M. A. Ogasawara, R. D. Nilsa, and P. Huang, “Redox regulation of cell survival,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10(8), 1343–1374 (2008).
[PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. B. Masson, M. P. Sauviat, J. L. Martin, and G. Gallot, “Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(13), 4808–4812 (2006).
[PubMed]

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Gomes, E. Fernandes, and J. L. Lima, “Fluorescence probes used for detection of reactive oxygen species,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 65(2-3), 45–80 (2005).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

G. Denecker, D. Vercammen, W. Declercq, and P. Vandenabeele, “Apoptotic and necrotic cell death induced by death domain receptors,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58(3), 356–370 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

T. Finkel and N. J. Holbrook, “Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing,” Nature 408(6809), 239–247 (2000).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

G. Kroemer, B. Dallaporta, and M. Resche-Rigon, “The mitochondrial death/life regulator in apoptosis and necrosis,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 60, 619–642 (1998).
[PubMed]

1989 (1)

Amin, M.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Anderson, C.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Arnold, R. S.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Barros, M. H.

T. R. Figueira, M. H. Barros, A. A. Camargo, R. F. Castilho, J. C. B. Ferreira, A. J. Kowaltowski, F. E. Sluse, N. C. Souza-Pinto, and A. E. Vercesi, “Mitochondria as a source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: from molecular mechanisms to human health,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18(16), 2029–2074 (2013).
[PubMed]

Burniat, A.

N. Driessens, S. Versteyhe, C. Ghaddhab, A. Burniat, X. De Deken, J. Van Sande, J. E. Dumont, F. Miot, and B. Corvilain, “Hydrogen peroxide induces DNA single- and double-strand breaks in thyroid cells and is therefore a potential mutagen for this organ,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer 16(3), 845–856 (2009).
[PubMed]

Busch, S. F.

A. Soltani, L. Duschek, S. F. Busch, T. Probst, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “A novel accurate method for attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (2014)

Camargo, A. A.

T. R. Figueira, M. H. Barros, A. A. Camargo, R. F. Castilho, J. C. B. Ferreira, A. J. Kowaltowski, F. E. Sluse, N. C. Souza-Pinto, and A. E. Vercesi, “Mitochondria as a source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: from molecular mechanisms to human health,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18(16), 2029–2074 (2013).
[PubMed]

Castilho, R. F.

T. R. Figueira, M. H. Barros, A. A. Camargo, R. F. Castilho, J. C. B. Ferreira, A. J. Kowaltowski, F. E. Sluse, N. C. Souza-Pinto, and A. E. Vercesi, “Mitochondria as a source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: from molecular mechanisms to human health,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18(16), 2029–2074 (2013).
[PubMed]

Castro-Camus, E.

A. Soltani, L. Duschek, S. F. Busch, T. Probst, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “A novel accurate method for attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (2014)

Chen, M.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
[PubMed]

Chen, T.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
[PubMed]

Chung, L. W.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Cinque, G.

K. Wehbe, J. Filik, M. D. Frogley, and G. Cinque, “The effect of optical substrates on micro-FTIR analysis of single mammalian cells,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(4), 1311–1324 (2013).
[PubMed]

Cooke, D. G.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging – modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).

Corvilain, B.

N. Driessens, S. Versteyhe, C. Ghaddhab, A. Burniat, X. De Deken, J. Van Sande, J. E. Dumont, F. Miot, and B. Corvilain, “Hydrogen peroxide induces DNA single- and double-strand breaks in thyroid cells and is therefore a potential mutagen for this organ,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer 16(3), 845–856 (2009).
[PubMed]

Cotter, T. G.

D. R. Gough and T. G. Cotter, “Hydrogen peroxide: a Jekyll and Hyde signaling molecule,” Cell Death Disease 2, e213 (2011).

Cui, Y.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
[PubMed]

D’Herde, K.

D. V. Krysko, T. Vanden Berghe, K. D’Herde, and P. Vandenabeele, “Apoptosis and necrosis: Detection, discrimination and phagocytosis,” Methods 44(3), 205–221 (2008).
[PubMed]

Dallaporta, B.

G. Kroemer, B. Dallaporta, and M. Resche-Rigon, “The mitochondrial death/life regulator in apoptosis and necrosis,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 60, 619–642 (1998).
[PubMed]

Darzynkiewicz, Z.

D. Wlodkowic, W. Telford, J. Skommer, and Z. Darzynkiewicz, “Apoptosis and beyond: cytometry in studies of programmed cell death,” Methods Cell Biol. 103, 55–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

De Deken, X.

N. Driessens, S. Versteyhe, C. Ghaddhab, A. Burniat, X. De Deken, J. Van Sande, J. E. Dumont, F. Miot, and B. Corvilain, “Hydrogen peroxide induces DNA single- and double-strand breaks in thyroid cells and is therefore a potential mutagen for this organ,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer 16(3), 845–856 (2009).
[PubMed]

Declercq, W.

G. Denecker, D. Vercammen, W. Declercq, and P. Vandenabeele, “Apoptotic and necrotic cell death induced by death domain receptors,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58(3), 356–370 (2001).
[PubMed]

Denecker, G.

G. Denecker, D. Vercammen, W. Declercq, and P. Vandenabeele, “Apoptotic and necrotic cell death induced by death domain receptors,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58(3), 356–370 (2001).
[PubMed]

Driessens, N.

N. Driessens, S. Versteyhe, C. Ghaddhab, A. Burniat, X. De Deken, J. Van Sande, J. E. Dumont, F. Miot, and B. Corvilain, “Hydrogen peroxide induces DNA single- and double-strand breaks in thyroid cells and is therefore a potential mutagen for this organ,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer 16(3), 845–856 (2009).
[PubMed]

Du, L.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
[PubMed]

Dumont, J. E.

N. Driessens, S. Versteyhe, C. Ghaddhab, A. Burniat, X. De Deken, J. Van Sande, J. E. Dumont, F. Miot, and B. Corvilain, “Hydrogen peroxide induces DNA single- and double-strand breaks in thyroid cells and is therefore a potential mutagen for this organ,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer 16(3), 845–856 (2009).
[PubMed]

Duschek, L.

A. Soltani, L. Duschek, S. F. Busch, T. Probst, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “A novel accurate method for attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (2014)

Exter, M.

Fattinger, C.

Feng, H.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
[PubMed]

Fernandes, E.

A. Gomes, E. Fernandes, and J. L. Lima, “Fluorescence probes used for detection of reactive oxygen species,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 65(2-3), 45–80 (2005).
[PubMed]

Ferreira, J. C. B.

T. R. Figueira, M. H. Barros, A. A. Camargo, R. F. Castilho, J. C. B. Ferreira, A. J. Kowaltowski, F. E. Sluse, N. C. Souza-Pinto, and A. E. Vercesi, “Mitochondria as a source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: from molecular mechanisms to human health,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18(16), 2029–2074 (2013).
[PubMed]

Figueira, T. R.

T. R. Figueira, M. H. Barros, A. A. Camargo, R. F. Castilho, J. C. B. Ferreira, A. J. Kowaltowski, F. E. Sluse, N. C. Souza-Pinto, and A. E. Vercesi, “Mitochondria as a source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: from molecular mechanisms to human health,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18(16), 2029–2074 (2013).
[PubMed]

Filik, J.

K. Wehbe, J. Filik, M. D. Frogley, and G. Cinque, “The effect of optical substrates on micro-FTIR analysis of single mammalian cells,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(4), 1311–1324 (2013).
[PubMed]

Finkel, T.

T. Finkel and N. J. Holbrook, “Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing,” Nature 408(6809), 239–247 (2000).
[PubMed]

Frogley, M. D.

K. Wehbe, J. Filik, M. D. Frogley, and G. Cinque, “The effect of optical substrates on micro-FTIR analysis of single mammalian cells,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(4), 1311–1324 (2013).
[PubMed]

Fu, W.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[PubMed]

Fulda, S.

S. Fulda, A. M. Gorman, O. Hori, and A. Samali, “Cellular stress responses: cell survival and cell death,” Int. J. Cell Biol. 2010, 214074 (2010).
[PubMed]

Gallot, G.

M. Grognot and G. Gallot, “Quantitative measurement of permeabilizattion of living cells by terahertz attenuated total reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 103702 (2015).

J. B. Masson, M. P. Sauviat, J. L. Martin, and G. Gallot, “Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(13), 4808–4812 (2006).
[PubMed]

Galluzzi, L.

O. Kepp, L. Galluzzi, M. Lipinski, J. Yuan, and G. Kroemer, “Cell death assays for drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 10(3), 221–237 (2011).
[PubMed]

Ghaddhab, C.

N. Driessens, S. Versteyhe, C. Ghaddhab, A. Burniat, X. De Deken, J. Van Sande, J. E. Dumont, F. Miot, and B. Corvilain, “Hydrogen peroxide induces DNA single- and double-strand breaks in thyroid cells and is therefore a potential mutagen for this organ,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer 16(3), 845–856 (2009).
[PubMed]

Gomes, A.

A. Gomes, E. Fernandes, and J. L. Lima, “Fluorescence probes used for detection of reactive oxygen species,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 65(2-3), 45–80 (2005).
[PubMed]

Gorman, A. M.

S. Fulda, A. M. Gorman, O. Hori, and A. Samali, “Cellular stress responses: cell survival and cell death,” Int. J. Cell Biol. 2010, 214074 (2010).
[PubMed]

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D. R. Gough and T. G. Cotter, “Hydrogen peroxide: a Jekyll and Hyde signaling molecule,” Cell Death Disease 2, e213 (2011).

Grischkowsky, D.

Grognot, M.

M. Grognot and G. Gallot, “Quantitative measurement of permeabilizattion of living cells by terahertz attenuated total reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 103702 (2015).

Grundt, J. E.

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Invited Review Article: Current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared Milli. TeraHz. Waves 32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).

Holbrook, N. J.

T. Finkel and N. J. Holbrook, “Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing,” Nature 408(6809), 239–247 (2000).
[PubMed]

Hori, O.

S. Fulda, A. M. Gorman, O. Hori, and A. Samali, “Cellular stress responses: cell survival and cell death,” Int. J. Cell Biol. 2010, 214074 (2010).
[PubMed]

Huang, P.

D. Trachootham, W. Lu, M. A. Ogasawara, R. D. Nilsa, and P. Huang, “Redox regulation of cell survival,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10(8), 1343–1374 (2008).
[PubMed]

Imamura, M.

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 35, 493–502 (2014).

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053702 (2013).

Irisawa, A.

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 35, 493–502 (2014).

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053702 (2013).

Jepsen, P. U.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging – modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).

Johnstone, P.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Kepp, O.

O. Kepp, L. Galluzzi, M. Lipinski, J. Yuan, and G. Kroemer, “Cell death assays for drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 10(3), 221–237 (2011).
[PubMed]

Koch, M.

P. U. Jepsen, D. G. Cooke, and M. Koch, “Terahertz spectroscopy and imaging – modern techniques and applications,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(1), 124–166 (2011).

A. Soltani, L. Duschek, S. F. Busch, T. Probst, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “A novel accurate method for attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (2014)

Konaka, H.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Kondo, N.

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 253701 (2015).

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 35, 493–502 (2014).

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053702 (2013).

Kowaltowski, A. J.

T. R. Figueira, M. H. Barros, A. A. Camargo, R. F. Castilho, J. C. B. Ferreira, A. J. Kowaltowski, F. E. Sluse, N. C. Souza-Pinto, and A. E. Vercesi, “Mitochondria as a source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: from molecular mechanisms to human health,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18(16), 2029–2074 (2013).
[PubMed]

Krengel, U.

U. Krengel and S. Törnroth-Horsefield, “Coping with oxidative stress,” Science 347(6218), 125–126 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kroemer, G.

O. Kepp, L. Galluzzi, M. Lipinski, J. Yuan, and G. Kroemer, “Cell death assays for drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 10(3), 221–237 (2011).
[PubMed]

G. Kroemer, B. Dallaporta, and M. Resche-Rigon, “The mitochondrial death/life regulator in apoptosis and necrosis,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 60, 619–642 (1998).
[PubMed]

Krysko, D. V.

D. V. Krysko, T. Vanden Berghe, K. D’Herde, and P. Vandenabeele, “Apoptosis and necrosis: Detection, discrimination and phagocytosis,” Methods 44(3), 205–221 (2008).
[PubMed]

Kubo, H.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Li, J.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lima, J. L.

A. Gomes, E. Fernandes, and J. L. Lima, “Fluorescence probes used for detection of reactive oxygen species,” J. Biochem. Biophys. Methods 65(2-3), 45–80 (2005).
[PubMed]

Lipinski, M.

O. Kepp, L. Galluzzi, M. Lipinski, J. Yuan, and G. Kroemer, “Cell death assays for drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 10(3), 221–237 (2011).
[PubMed]

Liu, Q.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
[PubMed]

Liu, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[PubMed]

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[PubMed]

Logani, S.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Lu, W.

D. Trachootham, W. Lu, M. A. Ogasawara, R. D. Nilsa, and P. Huang, “Redox regulation of cell survival,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10(8), 1343–1374 (2008).
[PubMed]

Luo, Y.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[PubMed]

Marshall, F. F.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Martin, J. L.

J. B. Masson, M. P. Sauviat, J. L. Martin, and G. Gallot, “Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(13), 4808–4812 (2006).
[PubMed]

Masson, J. B.

J. B. Masson, M. P. Sauviat, J. L. Martin, and G. Gallot, “Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(13), 4808–4812 (2006).
[PubMed]

Meng, K.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
[PubMed]

Miot, F.

N. Driessens, S. Versteyhe, C. Ghaddhab, A. Burniat, X. De Deken, J. Van Sande, J. E. Dumont, F. Miot, and B. Corvilain, “Hydrogen peroxide induces DNA single- and double-strand breaks in thyroid cells and is therefore a potential mutagen for this organ,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer 16(3), 845–856 (2009).
[PubMed]

Mousses, S.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Nakagawa, M.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Nilsa, R. D.

D. Trachootham, W. Lu, M. A. Ogasawara, R. D. Nilsa, and P. Huang, “Redox regulation of cell survival,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10(8), 1343–1374 (2008).
[PubMed]

Ogasawara, M. A.

D. Trachootham, W. Lu, M. A. Ogasawara, R. D. Nilsa, and P. Huang, “Redox regulation of cell survival,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10(8), 1343–1374 (2008).
[PubMed]

Ogawa, Y.

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 253701 (2015).

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 35, 493–502 (2014).

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053702 (2013).

Oin, J.

J. Oin, Y. Ying, and L. Xie, “The detection of agricultural products and food using terahertz spectroscopy: a review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(6), 439–457 (2013).

Petros, J. A.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Probst, T.

A. Soltani, L. Duschek, S. F. Busch, T. Probst, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “A novel accurate method for attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (2014)

Resche-Rigon, M.

G. Kroemer, B. Dallaporta, and M. Resche-Rigon, “The mitochondrial death/life regulator in apoptosis and necrosis,” Annu. Rev. Physiol. 60, 619–642 (1998).
[PubMed]

Samali, A.

S. Fulda, A. M. Gorman, O. Hori, and A. Samali, “Cellular stress responses: cell survival and cell death,” Int. J. Cell Biol. 2010, 214074 (2010).
[PubMed]

Sauviat, M. P.

J. B. Masson, M. P. Sauviat, J. L. Martin, and G. Gallot, “Ionic contrast terahertz near-field imaging of axonal water fluxes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(13), 4808–4812 (2006).
[PubMed]

Shigemura, K.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Shiraga, K.

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 253701 (2015).

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 35, 493–502 (2014).

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053702 (2013).

Skommer, J.

D. Wlodkowic, W. Telford, J. Skommer, and Z. Darzynkiewicz, “Apoptosis and beyond: cytometry in studies of programmed cell death,” Methods Cell Biol. 103, 55–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sluse, F. E.

T. R. Figueira, M. H. Barros, A. A. Camargo, R. F. Castilho, J. C. B. Ferreira, A. J. Kowaltowski, F. E. Sluse, N. C. Souza-Pinto, and A. E. Vercesi, “Mitochondria as a source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: from molecular mechanisms to human health,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18(16), 2029–2074 (2013).
[PubMed]

Soltani, A.

A. Soltani, L. Duschek, S. F. Busch, T. Probst, E. Castro-Camus, and M. Koch, “A novel accurate method for attenuated total reflection spectroscopy,” International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, (2014)

Souza-Pinto, N. C.

T. R. Figueira, M. H. Barros, A. A. Camargo, R. F. Castilho, J. C. B. Ferreira, A. J. Kowaltowski, F. E. Sluse, N. C. Souza-Pinto, and A. E. Vercesi, “Mitochondria as a source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: from molecular mechanisms to human health,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18(16), 2029–2074 (2013).
[PubMed]

Sung, S. Y.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
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Suzuki, T.

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 253701 (2015).

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Characterization of dielectric responses of human cancer cells in the terahertz region,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 35, 493–502 (2014).

K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053702 (2013).

Tanaka, K.

K. Shiraga, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, K. Tanaka, and Y. Ogawa, “Hydration state inside HeLa cell monolayer investigated with terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 253701 (2015).

Tang, P.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
[PubMed]

Telford, W.

D. Wlodkowic, W. Telford, J. Skommer, and Z. Darzynkiewicz, “Apoptosis and beyond: cytometry in studies of programmed cell death,” Methods Cell Biol. 103, 55–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

Törnroth-Horsefield, S.

U. Krengel and S. Törnroth-Horsefield, “Coping with oxidative stress,” Science 347(6218), 125–126 (2015).
[PubMed]

Trachootham, D.

D. Trachootham, W. Lu, M. A. Ogasawara, R. D. Nilsa, and P. Huang, “Redox regulation of cell survival,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 10(8), 1343–1374 (2008).
[PubMed]

Van Sande, J.

N. Driessens, S. Versteyhe, C. Ghaddhab, A. Burniat, X. De Deken, J. Van Sande, J. E. Dumont, F. Miot, and B. Corvilain, “Hydrogen peroxide induces DNA single- and double-strand breaks in thyroid cells and is therefore a potential mutagen for this organ,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer 16(3), 845–856 (2009).
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Vanden Berghe, T.

D. V. Krysko, T. Vanden Berghe, K. D’Herde, and P. Vandenabeele, “Apoptosis and necrosis: Detection, discrimination and phagocytosis,” Methods 44(3), 205–221 (2008).
[PubMed]

Vandenabeele, P.

D. V. Krysko, T. Vanden Berghe, K. D’Herde, and P. Vandenabeele, “Apoptosis and necrosis: Detection, discrimination and phagocytosis,” Methods 44(3), 205–221 (2008).
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G. Denecker, D. Vercammen, W. Declercq, and P. Vandenabeele, “Apoptotic and necrotic cell death induced by death domain receptors,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58(3), 356–370 (2001).
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G. Denecker, D. Vercammen, W. Declercq, and P. Vandenabeele, “Apoptotic and necrotic cell death induced by death domain receptors,” Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 58(3), 356–370 (2001).
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Vercesi, A. E.

T. R. Figueira, M. H. Barros, A. A. Camargo, R. F. Castilho, J. C. B. Ferreira, A. J. Kowaltowski, F. E. Sluse, N. C. Souza-Pinto, and A. E. Vercesi, “Mitochondria as a source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: from molecular mechanisms to human health,” Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18(16), 2029–2074 (2013).
[PubMed]

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N. Driessens, S. Versteyhe, C. Ghaddhab, A. Burniat, X. De Deken, J. Van Sande, J. E. Dumont, F. Miot, and B. Corvilain, “Hydrogen peroxide induces DNA single- and double-strand breaks in thyroid cells and is therefore a potential mutagen for this organ,” Endocr. Relat. Cancer 16(3), 845–856 (2009).
[PubMed]

Wang, R.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
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K. Wehbe, J. Filik, M. D. Frogley, and G. Cinque, “The effect of optical substrates on micro-FTIR analysis of single mammalian cells,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(4), 1311–1324 (2013).
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Wilmink, G. J.

G. J. Wilmink and J. E. Grundt, “Invited Review Article: Current state of research on biological effects of terahertz radiation,” J. Infrared Milli. TeraHz. Waves 32(10), 1074–1122 (2011).

Wlodkowic, D.

D. Wlodkowic, W. Telford, J. Skommer, and Z. Darzynkiewicz, “Apoptosis and beyond: cytometry in studies of programmed cell death,” Methods Cell Biol. 103, 55–98 (2011).
[PubMed]

Xie, L.

J. Oin, Y. Ying, and L. Xie, “The detection of agricultural products and food using terahertz spectroscopy: a review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(6), 439–457 (2013).

Yang, K.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ying, Y.

J. Oin, Y. Ying, and L. Xie, “The detection of agricultural products and food using terahertz spectroscopy: a review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(6), 439–457 (2013).

Yuan, J.

O. Kepp, L. Galluzzi, M. Lipinski, J. Yuan, and G. Kroemer, “Cell death assays for drug discovery,” Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 10(3), 221–237 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zhao, J.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
[PubMed]

Zhao, X.

X. Yang, X. Zhao, K. Yang, Y. Liu, Y. Liu, W. Fu, and Y. Luo, “Biomedical applications of terahertz spectroscopy and imaging,” Trends Biotechnol. 34(10), 810–824 (2016).
[PubMed]

Zhau, H. E.

S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
[PubMed]

Zhu, L. G.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
[PubMed]

Zou, Y.

Y. Zou, J. Li, Y. Cui, P. Tang, L. Du, T. Chen, K. Meng, Q. Liu, H. Feng, J. Zhao, M. Chen, and L. G. Zhu, “Terahertz spectroscopic diagnosis of myelin deficit brain in mice and rhesus monkey with chemometric techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 5176 (2017).
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K. Wehbe, J. Filik, M. D. Frogley, and G. Cinque, “The effect of optical substrates on micro-FTIR analysis of single mammalian cells,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 405(4), 1311–1324 (2013).
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K. Shiraga, Y. Ogawa, T. Suzuki, N. Kondo, A. Irisawa, and M. Imamura, “Determination of the complex dielectric constant of an epithelial cell monolayer in the terahertz region,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 053702 (2013).

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J. Oin, Y. Ying, and L. Xie, “The detection of agricultural products and food using terahertz spectroscopy: a review,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 48(6), 439–457 (2013).

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S. Y. Sung, H. Kubo, K. Shigemura, R. S. Arnold, S. Logani, R. Wang, H. Konaka, M. Nakagawa, S. Mousses, M. Amin, C. Anderson, P. Johnstone, J. A. Petros, F. F. Marshall, H. E. Zhau, and L. W. Chung, “Oxidative Stress Induces ADAM9 Protein Expression in Human Prostate Cancer Cells,” Cancer Res. 66(19), 9519–9526 (2006).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic diagram of THz-ATR spectroscopy measurement. (b) Comparison between measurements of refractive index obtained by single-ATR and double-ATR method for LCIS. (c) Sample ATR prism. (d) Conventional cell culture on polystyrene and (e) cell culture on our Si based sample ATR prism.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Averaged THz time-domain waveforms reflected by Live Cells Imaging Solution (LCIS, green), MCF10A cells cultured in LCIS (red) and the reference ATR prism without sample (black dash). (b) Fourier-transformed spectrum of THz time-domain waveforms in (a). (c) Dielectric constant and (d) dielectric loss of LCIS (red empty square) and MCF10A cells cultured in LCIS (green circular dot). Data represent mean ± SD, n = 3.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Dielectric constant and (b) dielectric loss of living cell after exposure to 10mM H2O2 at 0 (red), 1hr (green) and 2hr (blue) were compared to the LCIS without cells added the same concentration of H2O2 (black). The inset shows the close-up of complex dielectric constants between 0.3 and 0.5 THz. Data represent mean ± SD, n = 3.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fluorescence microscopy of MCF10A cells after treated with 10mM H2O2 for 1 hour.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Flow cytometric analysis of MCF10A cells at different time point after exposed to 10mM H2O2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Normalized cell death rate (blue squares) and normalized THz contrast (1-∆, red rounds) after treatment of 10 mM H2O2 at time t = 0. Data represent mean ± SEM, n≥3.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The results for all flow cytometric analysis.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Cell death rate

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H(ω)= E cell (ω) E ref (ω) = r cell r ref ,
r ref = cos(θ) n p 1 n p 2 sin 2 (θ) cos(θ)+ n p 1 n p 2 sin 2 (θ) ,
r cell = n ˜ s 2 cos(θ) n p n ˜ s 2 n p 2 sin 2 (θ) n ˜ s 2 cos(θ)+ n p n ˜ s 2 n p 2 sin 2 (θ) ,
ε s (ω)= n s 2 κ s 2 ,
ε s (ω)=2 n s κ s
Δ rel = (P A cellt P A ref )/ P A ref ,
Δ= Δ rel (t)/ Δ rel (t=0) .

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