Abstract

Intraoperative peripheral nerve lesions are common complications due to misidentification and limitations of surgical nerve identification. This study validates a real-time non-invasive intraoperative method of nerve identification. Long working distance collimated polarized light imaging (CPLi) was used to identify peripheral radial nerve branches in a human cadaver hand by their nerve specific anisotropic optical reflection. Seven ex situ and six in situ samples were examined for nerves, resulting after histological validation, in a 100% positive correct score (CPLi) versus 77% (surgeon). Nerves were visible during a clinical in vivo observation using CPLi. Therefore CPLi is a promising technique for intraoperative nerve identification.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. G. Antoniadis, T. Kretschmer, M. T. Pedro, R. W. König, C. P. Heinen, and H. P. Richter, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 111(16), 273–279 (2014).
    [PubMed]
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  4. R. Y. Chandawarkar, A. L. Cervino, and G. A. Pennington, “Management of iatrogenic injury to the spinal accessory nerve,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 111(2), 611–619 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  7. A. Zyluk and P. Janowski, “Results of the treatment of major, complex hand injuries,” Pol. Przegl. Chir. 83(2), 87–94 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  8. S. O. Rogers, A. A. Gawande, M. Kwaan, A. L. Puopolo, C. Yoon, T. A. Brennan, and D. M. Studdert, “Analysis of surgical errors in closed malpractice claims at 4 liability insurers,” Surgery 140(1), 25–33 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. S. P. Johnson, J. M. Adkinson, and K. C. Chung, “Addressing medical errors in hand surgery,” J. Hand Surg. Am. 39(9), 1877–1882 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. M. Ilyas, M. Ast, A. A. Schaffer, and J. Thoder, “De quervain tenosynovitis of the wrist,” J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 15(12), 757–764 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. A. Deniwar, E. Kandil, and G. Randolph, “Electrophysiological neural monitoring of the laryngeal nerves in thyroid surgery: review of the current literature,” Gland Surg. 4(5), 368–375 (2015).
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  12. A. Grayev, S. Reeder, and A. Hanna, “Use of chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) for high resolution fat-suppressed imaging of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses,” Eur. J. Radiol. 85(6), 1199–1207 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Manoliu, M. Ho, D. Nanz, M. Piccirelli, E. Dappa, M. Klarhöfer, F. Del Grande, and F. P. Kuhn, “Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Lumbar Nerve Roots: Comparison Between Fast Readout-Segmented and Selective-Excitation Acquisitions,” Invest. Radiol. 51(8), 499–504 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. R. W. Koenig, T. E. Schmidt, C. P. Heinen, C. R. Wirtz, T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, and M. T. Pedro, “Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound: a new technique in the management of peripheral nerve disorders,” J. Neurosurg. 114(2), 514–521 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. T. Hussain, L. T. Nguyen, M. Whitney, J. Hasselmann, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Improved facial nerve identification during parotidectomy with fluorescently labeled peptide,” Laryngoscope 126(12), 2711–2717 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: technology and applications for neuroimaging,” Psychophysiology 40(4), 529–541 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. I. Ducic, L. A. Seiboth, and M. L. Iorio, “Chronic postoperative breast pain: danger zones for nerve injuries,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 127(1), 41–46 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Clinical implications of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in cancer,” Future Oncol. 5(9), 1501–1511 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. Finke, S. Kantelhardt, A. Schlaefer, R. Bruder, E. Lankenau, A. Giese, and A. Schweikard, “Automatic scanning of large tissue areas in neurosurgery using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Med. Robot. 8(3), 327–336 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. K. W. T. K. Chin, A. Meijerink, and P. T. K. Chin, “Interventional nerve visualization via the intrinsic anisotropic optical properties of the nerves,” Proc. SPIE 9540, 95400O (2015).
    [Crossref]
  24. R. Oldenbourg, E. D. Salmon, and P. T. Tran, “Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules,” Biophys. J. 74(1), 645–654 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. H. T. Meryman, “Mechanics of freezing in living cells and tissues,” Science 124(3221), 515–521 (1956).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  26. Z. Zhu, L. Qiao, Y. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Optimal freezing and thawing for the survival of peripheral nerves in severed rabbit limbs,” Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol. 7(11), 7801–7805 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  27. L. J. Menz, “Structural changes and impairment of function associated with freezing and thawing in muscle, nerve, and leucocytes,” Cryobiology 8(1), 1–13 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. K. Tohyama, C. Ide, and T. Osawa, “Nerve regeneration through the cryoinjured allogeneic nerve graft in the rabbit,” Acta Neuropathol. 80(2), 138–144 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Grayev, S. Reeder, and A. Hanna, “Use of chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) for high resolution fat-suppressed imaging of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses,” Eur. J. Radiol. 85(6), 1199–1207 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Manoliu, M. Ho, D. Nanz, M. Piccirelli, E. Dappa, M. Klarhöfer, F. Del Grande, and F. P. Kuhn, “Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Lumbar Nerve Roots: Comparison Between Fast Readout-Segmented and Selective-Excitation Acquisitions,” Invest. Radiol. 51(8), 499–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Poggio, G. Claret, A. M. López, C. Medrano, E. Tornero, and J. Asunción, “Correlation Between Visual Inspection and Ultrasonography to Identify the Distal Branches of the Superficial Peroneal Nerve: A Cadaveric Study,” J. Foot Ankle Surg. 55(3), 492–495 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hussain, L. T. Nguyen, M. Whitney, J. Hasselmann, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Improved facial nerve identification during parotidectomy with fluorescently labeled peptide,” Laryngoscope 126(12), 2711–2717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (2)

A. Deniwar, E. Kandil, and G. Randolph, “Electrophysiological neural monitoring of the laryngeal nerves in thyroid surgery: review of the current literature,” Gland Surg. 4(5), 368–375 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. W. T. K. Chin, A. Meijerink, and P. T. K. Chin, “Interventional nerve visualization via the intrinsic anisotropic optical properties of the nerves,” Proc. SPIE 9540, 95400O (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

Z. Zhu, L. Qiao, Y. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Optimal freezing and thawing for the survival of peripheral nerves in severed rabbit limbs,” Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol. 7(11), 7801–7805 (2014).
[PubMed]

S. P. Johnson, J. M. Adkinson, and K. C. Chung, “Addressing medical errors in hand surgery,” J. Hand Surg. Am. 39(9), 1877–1882 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Antoniadis, T. Kretschmer, M. T. Pedro, R. W. König, C. P. Heinen, and H. P. Richter, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 111(16), 273–279 (2014).
[PubMed]

2012 (1)

M. Finke, S. Kantelhardt, A. Schlaefer, R. Bruder, E. Lankenau, A. Giese, and A. Schweikard, “Automatic scanning of large tissue areas in neurosurgery using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Med. Robot. 8(3), 327–336 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

I. Ducic, L. A. Seiboth, and M. L. Iorio, “Chronic postoperative breast pain: danger zones for nerve injuries,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 127(1), 41–46 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Wu and S. N. Raja, “Treatment of acute postoperative pain,” Lancet 377(9784), 2215–2225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Zyluk and P. Janowski, “Results of the treatment of major, complex hand injuries,” Pol. Przegl. Chir. 83(2), 87–94 (2011).
[PubMed]

F. C. Lee, H. Singh, L. N. Nazarian, and J. K. Ratliff, “High-resolution ultrasonography in the diagnosis and intraoperative management of peripheral nerve lesions,” J. Neurosurg. 114(1), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Koenig, T. E. Schmidt, C. P. Heinen, C. R. Wirtz, T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, and M. T. Pedro, “Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound: a new technique in the management of peripheral nerve disorders,” J. Neurosurg. 114(2), 514–521 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Clinical implications of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in cancer,” Future Oncol. 5(9), 1501–1511 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

A. J. Robson, M. S. See, and H. Ellis, “Applied anatomy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve,” Clin. Anat. 21(1), 38–45 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. M. Ilyas, M. Ast, A. A. Schaffer, and J. Thoder, “De quervain tenosynovitis of the wrist,” J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 15(12), 757–764 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. O. Rogers, A. A. Gawande, M. Kwaan, A. L. Puopolo, C. Yoon, T. A. Brennan, and D. M. Studdert, “Analysis of surgical errors in closed malpractice claims at 4 liability insurers,” Surgery 140(1), 25–33 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

R. Y. Chandawarkar, A. L. Cervino, and G. A. Pennington, “Management of iatrogenic injury to the spinal accessory nerve,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 111(2), 611–619 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: technology and applications for neuroimaging,” Psychophysiology 40(4), 529–541 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, V. Braun, S. A. Rath, and H. P. Richter, “Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma,” J. Neurosurg. 94(6), 905–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

R. Oldenbourg, E. D. Salmon, and P. T. Tran, “Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules,” Biophys. J. 74(1), 645–654 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

D. McGeorge, M. Sturzenegger, and U. Buchler, “Tibial nerve mistakenly used as a tendon graft. Reports of three cases,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 74(3), 365–366 (1992).
[PubMed]

1990 (1)

K. Tohyama, C. Ide, and T. Osawa, “Nerve regeneration through the cryoinjured allogeneic nerve graft in the rabbit,” Acta Neuropathol. 80(2), 138–144 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

L. J. Menz, “Structural changes and impairment of function associated with freezing and thawing in muscle, nerve, and leucocytes,” Cryobiology 8(1), 1–13 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1956 (1)

H. T. Meryman, “Mechanics of freezing in living cells and tissues,” Science 124(3221), 515–521 (1956).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adkinson, J. M.

S. P. Johnson, J. M. Adkinson, and K. C. Chung, “Addressing medical errors in hand surgery,” J. Hand Surg. Am. 39(9), 1877–1882 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Antoniadis, G.

G. Antoniadis, T. Kretschmer, M. T. Pedro, R. W. König, C. P. Heinen, and H. P. Richter, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 111(16), 273–279 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. W. Koenig, T. E. Schmidt, C. P. Heinen, C. R. Wirtz, T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, and M. T. Pedro, “Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound: a new technique in the management of peripheral nerve disorders,” J. Neurosurg. 114(2), 514–521 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, V. Braun, S. A. Rath, and H. P. Richter, “Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma,” J. Neurosurg. 94(6), 905–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ast, M.

A. M. Ilyas, M. Ast, A. A. Schaffer, and J. Thoder, “De quervain tenosynovitis of the wrist,” J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 15(12), 757–764 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Asunción, J.

D. Poggio, G. Claret, A. M. López, C. Medrano, E. Tornero, and J. Asunción, “Correlation Between Visual Inspection and Ultrasonography to Identify the Distal Branches of the Superficial Peroneal Nerve: A Cadaveric Study,” J. Foot Ankle Surg. 55(3), 492–495 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, T.

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berry, W. R.

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

S. A. Boppart, “Optical coherence tomography: technology and applications for neuroimaging,” Psychophysiology 40(4), 529–541 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, V.

T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, V. Braun, S. A. Rath, and H. P. Richter, “Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma,” J. Neurosurg. 94(6), 905–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brennan, T. A.

S. O. Rogers, A. A. Gawande, M. Kwaan, A. L. Puopolo, C. Yoon, T. A. Brennan, and D. M. Studdert, “Analysis of surgical errors in closed malpractice claims at 4 liability insurers,” Surgery 140(1), 25–33 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bruder, R.

M. Finke, S. Kantelhardt, A. Schlaefer, R. Bruder, E. Lankenau, A. Giese, and A. Schweikard, “Automatic scanning of large tissue areas in neurosurgery using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Med. Robot. 8(3), 327–336 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchler, U.

D. McGeorge, M. Sturzenegger, and U. Buchler, “Tibial nerve mistakenly used as a tendon graft. Reports of three cases,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 74(3), 365–366 (1992).
[PubMed]

Cervino, A. L.

R. Y. Chandawarkar, A. L. Cervino, and G. A. Pennington, “Management of iatrogenic injury to the spinal accessory nerve,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 111(2), 611–619 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chandawarkar, R. Y.

R. Y. Chandawarkar, A. L. Cervino, and G. A. Pennington, “Management of iatrogenic injury to the spinal accessory nerve,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 111(2), 611–619 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chao, T. E.

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin, K. W. T. K.

K. W. T. K. Chin, A. Meijerink, and P. T. K. Chin, “Interventional nerve visualization via the intrinsic anisotropic optical properties of the nerves,” Proc. SPIE 9540, 95400O (2015).
[Crossref]

Chin, P. T. K.

K. W. T. K. Chin, A. Meijerink, and P. T. K. Chin, “Interventional nerve visualization via the intrinsic anisotropic optical properties of the nerves,” Proc. SPIE 9540, 95400O (2015).
[Crossref]

Choyke, P. L.

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Clinical implications of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in cancer,” Future Oncol. 5(9), 1501–1511 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chung, K. C.

S. P. Johnson, J. M. Adkinson, and K. C. Chung, “Addressing medical errors in hand surgery,” J. Hand Surg. Am. 39(9), 1877–1882 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Claret, G.

D. Poggio, G. Claret, A. M. López, C. Medrano, E. Tornero, and J. Asunción, “Correlation Between Visual Inspection and Ultrasonography to Identify the Distal Branches of the Superficial Peroneal Nerve: A Cadaveric Study,” J. Foot Ankle Surg. 55(3), 492–495 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dappa, E.

A. Manoliu, M. Ho, D. Nanz, M. Piccirelli, E. Dappa, M. Klarhöfer, F. Del Grande, and F. P. Kuhn, “Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Lumbar Nerve Roots: Comparison Between Fast Readout-Segmented and Selective-Excitation Acquisitions,” Invest. Radiol. 51(8), 499–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Del Grande, F.

A. Manoliu, M. Ho, D. Nanz, M. Piccirelli, E. Dappa, M. Klarhöfer, F. Del Grande, and F. P. Kuhn, “Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Lumbar Nerve Roots: Comparison Between Fast Readout-Segmented and Selective-Excitation Acquisitions,” Invest. Radiol. 51(8), 499–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deniwar, A.

A. Deniwar, E. Kandil, and G. Randolph, “Electrophysiological neural monitoring of the laryngeal nerves in thyroid surgery: review of the current literature,” Gland Surg. 4(5), 368–375 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ducic, I.

I. Ducic, L. A. Seiboth, and M. L. Iorio, “Chronic postoperative breast pain: danger zones for nerve injuries,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 127(1), 41–46 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ellis, H.

A. J. Robson, M. S. See, and H. Ellis, “Applied anatomy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve,” Clin. Anat. 21(1), 38–45 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esquivel, M. M.

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Finke, M.

M. Finke, S. Kantelhardt, A. Schlaefer, R. Bruder, E. Lankenau, A. Giese, and A. Schweikard, “Automatic scanning of large tissue areas in neurosurgery using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Med. Robot. 8(3), 327–336 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fu, R.

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gawande, A. A.

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Rogers, A. A. Gawande, M. Kwaan, A. L. Puopolo, C. Yoon, T. A. Brennan, and D. M. Studdert, “Analysis of surgical errors in closed malpractice claims at 4 liability insurers,” Surgery 140(1), 25–33 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giese, A.

M. Finke, S. Kantelhardt, A. Schlaefer, R. Bruder, E. Lankenau, A. Giese, and A. Schweikard, “Automatic scanning of large tissue areas in neurosurgery using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Med. Robot. 8(3), 327–336 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grayev, A.

A. Grayev, S. Reeder, and A. Hanna, “Use of chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) for high resolution fat-suppressed imaging of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses,” Eur. J. Radiol. 85(6), 1199–1207 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hanna, A.

A. Grayev, S. Reeder, and A. Hanna, “Use of chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) for high resolution fat-suppressed imaging of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses,” Eur. J. Radiol. 85(6), 1199–1207 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasselmann, J.

T. Hussain, L. T. Nguyen, M. Whitney, J. Hasselmann, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Improved facial nerve identification during parotidectomy with fluorescently labeled peptide,” Laryngoscope 126(12), 2711–2717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Haynes, A. B.

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinen, C. P.

G. Antoniadis, T. Kretschmer, M. T. Pedro, R. W. König, C. P. Heinen, and H. P. Richter, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 111(16), 273–279 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. W. Koenig, T. E. Schmidt, C. P. Heinen, C. R. Wirtz, T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, and M. T. Pedro, “Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound: a new technique in the management of peripheral nerve disorders,” J. Neurosurg. 114(2), 514–521 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ho, M.

A. Manoliu, M. Ho, D. Nanz, M. Piccirelli, E. Dappa, M. Klarhöfer, F. Del Grande, and F. P. Kuhn, “Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Lumbar Nerve Roots: Comparison Between Fast Readout-Segmented and Selective-Excitation Acquisitions,” Invest. Radiol. 51(8), 499–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hussain, T.

T. Hussain, L. T. Nguyen, M. Whitney, J. Hasselmann, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Improved facial nerve identification during parotidectomy with fluorescently labeled peptide,” Laryngoscope 126(12), 2711–2717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ide, C.

K. Tohyama, C. Ide, and T. Osawa, “Nerve regeneration through the cryoinjured allogeneic nerve graft in the rabbit,” Acta Neuropathol. 80(2), 138–144 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ilyas, A. M.

A. M. Ilyas, M. Ast, A. A. Schaffer, and J. Thoder, “De quervain tenosynovitis of the wrist,” J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 15(12), 757–764 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iorio, M. L.

I. Ducic, L. A. Seiboth, and M. L. Iorio, “Chronic postoperative breast pain: danger zones for nerve injuries,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 127(1), 41–46 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Janowski, P.

A. Zyluk and P. Janowski, “Results of the treatment of major, complex hand injuries,” Pol. Przegl. Chir. 83(2), 87–94 (2011).
[PubMed]

Johnson, S. P.

S. P. Johnson, J. M. Adkinson, and K. C. Chung, “Addressing medical errors in hand surgery,” J. Hand Surg. Am. 39(9), 1877–1882 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kandil, E.

A. Deniwar, E. Kandil, and G. Randolph, “Electrophysiological neural monitoring of the laryngeal nerves in thyroid surgery: review of the current literature,” Gland Surg. 4(5), 368–375 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kantelhardt, S.

M. Finke, S. Kantelhardt, A. Schlaefer, R. Bruder, E. Lankenau, A. Giese, and A. Schweikard, “Automatic scanning of large tissue areas in neurosurgery using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Med. Robot. 8(3), 327–336 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klarhöfer, M.

A. Manoliu, M. Ho, D. Nanz, M. Piccirelli, E. Dappa, M. Klarhöfer, F. Del Grande, and F. P. Kuhn, “Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Lumbar Nerve Roots: Comparison Between Fast Readout-Segmented and Selective-Excitation Acquisitions,” Invest. Radiol. 51(8), 499–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, H.

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Clinical implications of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in cancer,” Future Oncol. 5(9), 1501–1511 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koenig, R. W.

R. W. Koenig, T. E. Schmidt, C. P. Heinen, C. R. Wirtz, T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, and M. T. Pedro, “Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound: a new technique in the management of peripheral nerve disorders,” J. Neurosurg. 114(2), 514–521 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

König, R. W.

G. Antoniadis, T. Kretschmer, M. T. Pedro, R. W. König, C. P. Heinen, and H. P. Richter, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 111(16), 273–279 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kosaka, N.

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Clinical implications of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in cancer,” Future Oncol. 5(9), 1501–1511 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kretschmer, T.

G. Antoniadis, T. Kretschmer, M. T. Pedro, R. W. König, C. P. Heinen, and H. P. Richter, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 111(16), 273–279 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. W. Koenig, T. E. Schmidt, C. P. Heinen, C. R. Wirtz, T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, and M. T. Pedro, “Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound: a new technique in the management of peripheral nerve disorders,” J. Neurosurg. 114(2), 514–521 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, V. Braun, S. A. Rath, and H. P. Richter, “Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma,” J. Neurosurg. 94(6), 905–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuhn, F. P.

A. Manoliu, M. Ho, D. Nanz, M. Piccirelli, E. Dappa, M. Klarhöfer, F. Del Grande, and F. P. Kuhn, “Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Lumbar Nerve Roots: Comparison Between Fast Readout-Segmented and Selective-Excitation Acquisitions,” Invest. Radiol. 51(8), 499–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwaan, M.

S. O. Rogers, A. A. Gawande, M. Kwaan, A. L. Puopolo, C. Yoon, T. A. Brennan, and D. M. Studdert, “Analysis of surgical errors in closed malpractice claims at 4 liability insurers,” Surgery 140(1), 25–33 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lankenau, E.

M. Finke, S. Kantelhardt, A. Schlaefer, R. Bruder, E. Lankenau, A. Giese, and A. Schweikard, “Automatic scanning of large tissue areas in neurosurgery using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Med. Robot. 8(3), 327–336 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, F. C.

F. C. Lee, H. Singh, L. N. Nazarian, and J. K. Ratliff, “High-resolution ultrasonography in the diagnosis and intraoperative management of peripheral nerve lesions,” J. Neurosurg. 114(1), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipsitz, S. R.

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

López, A. M.

D. Poggio, G. Claret, A. M. López, C. Medrano, E. Tornero, and J. Asunción, “Correlation Between Visual Inspection and Ultrasonography to Identify the Distal Branches of the Superficial Peroneal Nerve: A Cadaveric Study,” J. Foot Ankle Surg. 55(3), 492–495 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manoliu, A.

A. Manoliu, M. Ho, D. Nanz, M. Piccirelli, E. Dappa, M. Klarhöfer, F. Del Grande, and F. P. Kuhn, “Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Lumbar Nerve Roots: Comparison Between Fast Readout-Segmented and Selective-Excitation Acquisitions,” Invest. Radiol. 51(8), 499–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McGeorge, D.

D. McGeorge, M. Sturzenegger, and U. Buchler, “Tibial nerve mistakenly used as a tendon graft. Reports of three cases,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 74(3), 365–366 (1992).
[PubMed]

Medrano, C.

D. Poggio, G. Claret, A. M. López, C. Medrano, E. Tornero, and J. Asunción, “Correlation Between Visual Inspection and Ultrasonography to Identify the Distal Branches of the Superficial Peroneal Nerve: A Cadaveric Study,” J. Foot Ankle Surg. 55(3), 492–495 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meijerink, A.

K. W. T. K. Chin, A. Meijerink, and P. T. K. Chin, “Interventional nerve visualization via the intrinsic anisotropic optical properties of the nerves,” Proc. SPIE 9540, 95400O (2015).
[Crossref]

Menz, L. J.

L. J. Menz, “Structural changes and impairment of function associated with freezing and thawing in muscle, nerve, and leucocytes,” Cryobiology 8(1), 1–13 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meryman, H. T.

H. T. Meryman, “Mechanics of freezing in living cells and tissues,” Science 124(3221), 515–521 (1956).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Molina, G.

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanz, D.

A. Manoliu, M. Ho, D. Nanz, M. Piccirelli, E. Dappa, M. Klarhöfer, F. Del Grande, and F. P. Kuhn, “Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Lumbar Nerve Roots: Comparison Between Fast Readout-Segmented and Selective-Excitation Acquisitions,” Invest. Radiol. 51(8), 499–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nazarian, L. N.

F. C. Lee, H. Singh, L. N. Nazarian, and J. K. Ratliff, “High-resolution ultrasonography in the diagnosis and intraoperative management of peripheral nerve lesions,” J. Neurosurg. 114(1), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, L. T.

T. Hussain, L. T. Nguyen, M. Whitney, J. Hasselmann, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Improved facial nerve identification during parotidectomy with fluorescently labeled peptide,” Laryngoscope 126(12), 2711–2717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nguyen, Q. T.

T. Hussain, L. T. Nguyen, M. Whitney, J. Hasselmann, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Improved facial nerve identification during parotidectomy with fluorescently labeled peptide,” Laryngoscope 126(12), 2711–2717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogawa, M.

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Clinical implications of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in cancer,” Future Oncol. 5(9), 1501–1511 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oldenbourg, R.

R. Oldenbourg, E. D. Salmon, and P. T. Tran, “Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules,” Biophys. J. 74(1), 645–654 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osawa, T.

K. Tohyama, C. Ide, and T. Osawa, “Nerve regeneration through the cryoinjured allogeneic nerve graft in the rabbit,” Acta Neuropathol. 80(2), 138–144 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pedro, M. T.

G. Antoniadis, T. Kretschmer, M. T. Pedro, R. W. König, C. P. Heinen, and H. P. Richter, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 111(16), 273–279 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. W. Koenig, T. E. Schmidt, C. P. Heinen, C. R. Wirtz, T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, and M. T. Pedro, “Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound: a new technique in the management of peripheral nerve disorders,” J. Neurosurg. 114(2), 514–521 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pennington, G. A.

R. Y. Chandawarkar, A. L. Cervino, and G. A. Pennington, “Management of iatrogenic injury to the spinal accessory nerve,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 111(2), 611–619 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piccirelli, M.

A. Manoliu, M. Ho, D. Nanz, M. Piccirelli, E. Dappa, M. Klarhöfer, F. Del Grande, and F. P. Kuhn, “Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Lumbar Nerve Roots: Comparison Between Fast Readout-Segmented and Selective-Excitation Acquisitions,” Invest. Radiol. 51(8), 499–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poggio, D.

D. Poggio, G. Claret, A. M. López, C. Medrano, E. Tornero, and J. Asunción, “Correlation Between Visual Inspection and Ultrasonography to Identify the Distal Branches of the Superficial Peroneal Nerve: A Cadaveric Study,” J. Foot Ankle Surg. 55(3), 492–495 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Puopolo, A. L.

S. O. Rogers, A. A. Gawande, M. Kwaan, A. L. Puopolo, C. Yoon, T. A. Brennan, and D. M. Studdert, “Analysis of surgical errors in closed malpractice claims at 4 liability insurers,” Surgery 140(1), 25–33 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, L.

Z. Zhu, L. Qiao, Y. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Optimal freezing and thawing for the survival of peripheral nerves in severed rabbit limbs,” Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol. 7(11), 7801–7805 (2014).
[PubMed]

Raja, S. N.

C. L. Wu and S. N. Raja, “Treatment of acute postoperative pain,” Lancet 377(9784), 2215–2225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Randolph, G.

A. Deniwar, E. Kandil, and G. Randolph, “Electrophysiological neural monitoring of the laryngeal nerves in thyroid surgery: review of the current literature,” Gland Surg. 4(5), 368–375 (2015).
[PubMed]

Rath, S. A.

T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, V. Braun, S. A. Rath, and H. P. Richter, “Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma,” J. Neurosurg. 94(6), 905–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ratliff, J. K.

F. C. Lee, H. Singh, L. N. Nazarian, and J. K. Ratliff, “High-resolution ultrasonography in the diagnosis and intraoperative management of peripheral nerve lesions,” J. Neurosurg. 114(1), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reeder, S.

A. Grayev, S. Reeder, and A. Hanna, “Use of chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) for high resolution fat-suppressed imaging of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses,” Eur. J. Radiol. 85(6), 1199–1207 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richter, H. P.

G. Antoniadis, T. Kretschmer, M. T. Pedro, R. W. König, C. P. Heinen, and H. P. Richter, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 111(16), 273–279 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, V. Braun, S. A. Rath, and H. P. Richter, “Evaluation of iatrogenic lesions in 722 surgically treated cases of peripheral nerve trauma,” J. Neurosurg. 94(6), 905–912 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robson, A. J.

A. J. Robson, M. S. See, and H. Ellis, “Applied anatomy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve,” Clin. Anat. 21(1), 38–45 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, S. O.

S. O. Rogers, A. A. Gawande, M. Kwaan, A. L. Puopolo, C. Yoon, T. A. Brennan, and D. M. Studdert, “Analysis of surgical errors in closed malpractice claims at 4 liability insurers,” Surgery 140(1), 25–33 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salmon, E. D.

R. Oldenbourg, E. D. Salmon, and P. T. Tran, “Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules,” Biophys. J. 74(1), 645–654 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaffer, A. A.

A. M. Ilyas, M. Ast, A. A. Schaffer, and J. Thoder, “De quervain tenosynovitis of the wrist,” J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 15(12), 757–764 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlaefer, A.

M. Finke, S. Kantelhardt, A. Schlaefer, R. Bruder, E. Lankenau, A. Giese, and A. Schweikard, “Automatic scanning of large tissue areas in neurosurgery using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Med. Robot. 8(3), 327–336 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, T. E.

R. W. Koenig, T. E. Schmidt, C. P. Heinen, C. R. Wirtz, T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, and M. T. Pedro, “Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound: a new technique in the management of peripheral nerve disorders,” J. Neurosurg. 114(2), 514–521 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schweikard, A.

M. Finke, S. Kantelhardt, A. Schlaefer, R. Bruder, E. Lankenau, A. Giese, and A. Schweikard, “Automatic scanning of large tissue areas in neurosurgery using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Med. Robot. 8(3), 327–336 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

See, M. S.

A. J. Robson, M. S. See, and H. Ellis, “Applied anatomy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve,” Clin. Anat. 21(1), 38–45 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seiboth, L. A.

I. Ducic, L. A. Seiboth, and M. L. Iorio, “Chronic postoperative breast pain: danger zones for nerve injuries,” Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 127(1), 41–46 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Singh, H.

F. C. Lee, H. Singh, L. N. Nazarian, and J. K. Ratliff, “High-resolution ultrasonography in the diagnosis and intraoperative management of peripheral nerve lesions,” J. Neurosurg. 114(1), 206–211 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Studdert, D. M.

S. O. Rogers, A. A. Gawande, M. Kwaan, A. L. Puopolo, C. Yoon, T. A. Brennan, and D. M. Studdert, “Analysis of surgical errors in closed malpractice claims at 4 liability insurers,” Surgery 140(1), 25–33 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sturzenegger, M.

D. McGeorge, M. Sturzenegger, and U. Buchler, “Tibial nerve mistakenly used as a tendon graft. Reports of three cases,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 74(3), 365–366 (1992).
[PubMed]

Thoder, J.

A. M. Ilyas, M. Ast, A. A. Schaffer, and J. Thoder, “De quervain tenosynovitis of the wrist,” J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 15(12), 757–764 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tohyama, K.

K. Tohyama, C. Ide, and T. Osawa, “Nerve regeneration through the cryoinjured allogeneic nerve graft in the rabbit,” Acta Neuropathol. 80(2), 138–144 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tornero, E.

D. Poggio, G. Claret, A. M. López, C. Medrano, E. Tornero, and J. Asunción, “Correlation Between Visual Inspection and Ultrasonography to Identify the Distal Branches of the Superficial Peroneal Nerve: A Cadaveric Study,” J. Foot Ankle Surg. 55(3), 492–495 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tran, P. T.

R. Oldenbourg, E. D. Salmon, and P. T. Tran, “Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules,” Biophys. J. 74(1), 645–654 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uribe-Leitz, T.

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weiser, T. G.

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Whitney, M.

T. Hussain, L. T. Nguyen, M. Whitney, J. Hasselmann, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Improved facial nerve identification during parotidectomy with fluorescently labeled peptide,” Laryngoscope 126(12), 2711–2717 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wirtz, C. R.

R. W. Koenig, T. E. Schmidt, C. P. Heinen, C. R. Wirtz, T. Kretschmer, G. Antoniadis, and M. T. Pedro, “Intraoperative high-resolution ultrasound: a new technique in the management of peripheral nerve disorders,” J. Neurosurg. 114(2), 514–521 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, C. L.

C. L. Wu and S. N. Raja, “Treatment of acute postoperative pain,” Lancet 377(9784), 2215–2225 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, C.

S. O. Rogers, A. A. Gawande, M. Kwaan, A. L. Puopolo, C. Yoon, T. A. Brennan, and D. M. Studdert, “Analysis of surgical errors in closed malpractice claims at 4 liability insurers,” Surgery 140(1), 25–33 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

Z. Zhu, L. Qiao, Y. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Optimal freezing and thawing for the survival of peripheral nerves in severed rabbit limbs,” Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol. 7(11), 7801–7805 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Z. Zhu, L. Qiao, Y. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Optimal freezing and thawing for the survival of peripheral nerves in severed rabbit limbs,” Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol. 7(11), 7801–7805 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhu, Z.

Z. Zhu, L. Qiao, Y. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Optimal freezing and thawing for the survival of peripheral nerves in severed rabbit limbs,” Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol. 7(11), 7801–7805 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zyluk, A.

A. Zyluk and P. Janowski, “Results of the treatment of major, complex hand injuries,” Pol. Przegl. Chir. 83(2), 87–94 (2011).
[PubMed]

Acta Neuropathol. (1)

K. Tohyama, C. Ide, and T. Osawa, “Nerve regeneration through the cryoinjured allogeneic nerve graft in the rabbit,” Acta Neuropathol. 80(2), 138–144 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

R. Oldenbourg, E. D. Salmon, and P. T. Tran, “Birefringence of single and bundled microtubules,” Biophys. J. 74(1), 645–654 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bull. World Health Organ. (1)

T. G. Weiser, A. B. Haynes, G. Molina, S. R. Lipsitz, M. M. Esquivel, T. Uribe-Leitz, R. Fu, T. Azad, T. E. Chao, W. R. Berry, and A. A. Gawande, “Size and distribution of the global volume of surgery in 2012,” Bull. World Health Organ. 94(3), 201–209 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clin. Anat. (1)

A. J. Robson, M. S. See, and H. Ellis, “Applied anatomy of the superficial branch of the radial nerve,” Clin. Anat. 21(1), 38–45 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cryobiology (1)

L. J. Menz, “Structural changes and impairment of function associated with freezing and thawing in muscle, nerve, and leucocytes,” Cryobiology 8(1), 1–13 (1971).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. (1)

G. Antoniadis, T. Kretschmer, M. T. Pedro, R. W. König, C. P. Heinen, and H. P. Richter, “Iatrogenic nerve injuries: prevalence, diagnosis and treatment,” Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. 111(16), 273–279 (2014).
[PubMed]

Eur. J. Radiol. (1)

A. Grayev, S. Reeder, and A. Hanna, “Use of chemical shift encoded magnetic resonance imaging (CSE-MRI) for high resolution fat-suppressed imaging of the brachial and lumbosacral plexuses,” Eur. J. Radiol. 85(6), 1199–1207 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Future Oncol. (1)

N. Kosaka, M. Ogawa, P. L. Choyke, and H. Kobayashi, “Clinical implications of near-infrared fluorescence imaging in cancer,” Future Oncol. 5(9), 1501–1511 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gland Surg. (1)

A. Deniwar, E. Kandil, and G. Randolph, “Electrophysiological neural monitoring of the laryngeal nerves in thyroid surgery: review of the current literature,” Gland Surg. 4(5), 368–375 (2015).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol. (1)

Z. Zhu, L. Qiao, Y. Zhao, and S. Zhang, “Optimal freezing and thawing for the survival of peripheral nerves in severed rabbit limbs,” Int. J. Clin. Exp. Pathol. 7(11), 7801–7805 (2014).
[PubMed]

Int. J. Med. Robot. (1)

M. Finke, S. Kantelhardt, A. Schlaefer, R. Bruder, E. Lankenau, A. Giese, and A. Schweikard, “Automatic scanning of large tissue areas in neurosurgery using optical coherence tomography,” Int. J. Med. Robot. 8(3), 327–336 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Invest. Radiol. (1)

A. Manoliu, M. Ho, D. Nanz, M. Piccirelli, E. Dappa, M. Klarhöfer, F. Del Grande, and F. P. Kuhn, “Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Lumbar Nerve Roots: Comparison Between Fast Readout-Segmented and Selective-Excitation Acquisitions,” Invest. Radiol. 51(8), 499–504 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. (1)

A. M. Ilyas, M. Ast, A. A. Schaffer, and J. Thoder, “De quervain tenosynovitis of the wrist,” J. Am. Acad. Orthop. Surg. 15(12), 757–764 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. (1)

D. McGeorge, M. Sturzenegger, and U. Buchler, “Tibial nerve mistakenly used as a tendon graft. Reports of three cases,” J. Bone Joint Surg. Br. 74(3), 365–366 (1992).
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Supplementary Material (3)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1       Superficial nerve tissue
» Visualization 2       Deep-lying nerve tissue
» Visualization 3       Larger nerve and tendon

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The stereo microscope with the polarization unit attached underneath (red box). (1) The outer rim of the polarizer disk with a linear polarizer that is aligned perpendicular to the inner linear polarizer (2). 3W Cree LEDs are mounted on each side (3) both equipped with an adjustable collimation lens (4). On top the microscope camera (5) is mounted on the site of the left ocular.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the tabatière region in the human hand.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A-F. The incision exposes the subcutaneous tissue at the dorsoradial part of a human hand near the tabatière region. (A,D): Using conventional surgical illumination, the blood vessel can be clearly distinguished from other (connective) tissue, at the exposed superficial and deep-lying subcutaneous tissue. (B,E): Observing the same ROI using CPLi (see Visualization 1 and Visualization 2), reveals a bright white reflection of the nerves (black arrows) which are less than 1 mm in width. (C,F): The cross polarizers are rotated 45° with respect to the position of the cross polarizers in figures B and E. This results in a reduction of the optical reflection of the nerve tissue depicted in B and E, representing the ‘switched off state’ (yellow arrows). In contrast other nerves are now visible in C and F (black arrows) because of their different orientation relative to the orientation of the polarizers in B and E. At the blue and red arrows no clear difference is observed which indicates the absence of nerve tissue. Figure 3G. The two elongated structures are shown at the articulatio radiocarpea on the dorsoradial hand. Under conventional illumination, the two elongated tissue structures designated with the yellow arrows possess a nearly identical optical appearance. (H): Using CPLi (see Visualization 3) the upper elongated (blue arrow) structure reveals a pearlescent appearance and can be identified as the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis longus whilst the lower elongated structure (black arrow) shows an oriented white reflection which indicates a branch of the digital dorsal nerve of the radial nerve. (I): Compared to panel H the characteristic ‘on and off’ switching of the polarized reflection of the nerve tissue is apparent upon rotation of the polarizer unit, as the white reflection in panel I is reduced. The tendon however, retains the same pearlescent appearance. Figure 3J. The red arrow in both pictures marks the radial artery located between the thumb and the index finger. The radial artery at the red arrow in panel K shows no clear difference in optical reflection upon dynamic rotation of the polarization unit compared to panel L.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The blue arrow highlights a vertical structure (A), which appears whiter after rotating the polarizers (B). The opposite occurs at the oblique structure (green arrow) indicating nerve tissue.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(A) Prior to freezing, the structures marked with the black arrows appear white indicating that the nerves are oriented 45° to the cross polarizers. (B) The same areas marked with the yellow arrows now appear to be translucent, when aligned with either one of the cross polarizers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(A) The same region of interest after freezing and thawing, the structures marked with the black arrows appear to be bright white indicating that the nerves are oriented 45° to the cross polarizers. (B) The same areas marked with the yellow arrows now appear translucent, when aligned with either one of the cross polarizers. The tissue at the blue arrows in both images remains unchanged, indicating that it does not consist out of nerve tissue.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(A) A sample identified as a nerve under conventional polarized light microscopy. The nerve is parallel to one of the cross polarizers, therefore the polarized reflection is not visible. (B) The nerve is rotated 45° to the polarizers, revealing an orange appearance, i.e. the nerve specific anisotropic optical reflection.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison of the presence of nerve tissue

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