Abstract

Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) provides label-free three-dimensional (3D) refractive index (RI) measurement of biological samples. However, due to the nature of the RI values of biological specimens, ODT has limited access to molecular specific information. Here, we present an optical setup combining ODT with three-channel 3D fluorescence microscopy, to enhance the molecular specificity of the 3D RI measurement. The 3D RI distribution and 3D deconvoluted fluorescence images of HeLa cells and NIH-3T3 cells are measured, and the cross-correlative analysis between RI and fluorescence of live cells are presented.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (12)

P. P. Laissue, R. A. Alghamdi, P. Tomancak, E. G. Reynaud, and H. Shroff, “Assessing phototoxicity in live fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 657–661 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. A. Yang, J. Yoon, K. Kim, and Y. Park, “Measurements of Morphological and Biophysical Alterations in Individual Neuron Cells Associated with Early Neurotoxic Effects in Parkinson’s Disease,” Cytometry A 91(5), 510–518 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Lee, H. Park, K. Kim, Y. Sohn, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of red blood cells from patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1039 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Hur, K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Melittin-induced alterations in morphology and deformability of human red blood cells using quantitative phase imaging techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9306 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Kim, N. Oh, K. Kim, S. Lee, C.-G. Pack, J.-H. Park, and Y. Park, “Label-free high-resolution 3-D imaging of gold nanoparticles inside live cells using optical diffraction tomography,” Methods 17, S1046 (2017).
[PubMed]

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[PubMed]

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, R. Savoia, M. Mugnano, A. Fontana, G. D’ippolito, A. Sardo, A. Iolascon, and A. Gambale, “Tomographic flow cytometry by digital holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16241 (2017).

S. Lee, K. Lee, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Generalized image deconvolution by exploiting the transmission matrix of an optical imaging system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8961 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Kim and Y. Park, “Tomographic active optical trapping of arbitrarily shaped objects by exploiting 3D refractive index maps,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15340 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, G. Kim, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Time-multiplexed structured illumination using a DMD for optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Lett. 42(5), 999–1002 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Jin, R. Zhou, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Tomographic phase microscopy: principles and applications in bioimaging [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, B64–B77 (2017).

S. Chowdhury, W. J. Eldridge, A. Wax, and J. A. Izatt, “Structured illumination multimodal 3D-resolved quantitative phase and fluorescence sub-diffraction microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 8(5), 2496–2518 (2017).
[PubMed]

2016 (9)

J. Jung, K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Hyperspectral optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2006–2012 (2016).
[PubMed]

R. Horstmeyer, J. Chung, X. Ou, G. Zheng, and C. Yang, “Diffraction tomography with Fourier ptychography,” Optica 3(8), 827–835 (2016).
[PubMed]

T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1068–1076 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, K. Choe, I. Park, P. Kim, and Y. Park, “Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33084 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

H. Park, S. Lee, M. Ji, K. Kim, Y. Son, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34257 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Shin, S. Lee, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology,” J. Biomed. Photonics Eng. 2, 020201 (2016).

2015 (6)

2014 (3)

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

2013 (3)

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[PubMed]

2011 (3)

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic tomography on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161109 (2011).
[PubMed]

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
[PubMed]

H. Zhao, P. H. Brown, and P. Schuck, “On the Distribution of Protein Refractive Index Increments,” Biophys. J. 100(9), 2309–2317 (2011).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (2)

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[PubMed]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Synthetic aperture tomographic phase microscopy for 3D imaging of live cells in translational motion,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16240–16246 (2008).
[PubMed]

2007 (1)

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, “Light microscopy techniques for live cell Imaging,” Science 300(5616), 82–86 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (1)

V. Lauer, “New approach to optical diffraction tomography yielding a vector equation of diffraction tomography and a novel tomographic microscope,” J. Microsc. 205(Pt 2), 165–176 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (2)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(Pt 2), 82–87 (2000).
[PubMed]

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin-image elimination in digital off-axis holography,” Appl. Opt. 39(23), 4070–4075 (2000).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, and T. Hamano, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).

1996 (1)

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Müller, “The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(3), 369–382 (1996).
[PubMed]

1988 (1)

P. M. Sloot, A. G. Hoekstra, and C. G. Figdor, “Osmotic response of lymphocytes measured by means of forward light scattering: theoretical considerations,” Cytometry 9(6), 636–641 (1988).
[PubMed]

1982 (1)

1979 (1)

1969 (1)

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1, 153–156 (1969).

1953 (1)

R. Barer, “Determination of dry mass, thickness, solid and water concentration in living cells,” Nature 172(4389), 1097–1098 (1953).
[PubMed]

Alghamdi, R. A.

P. P. Laissue, R. A. Alghamdi, P. Tomancak, E. G. Reynaud, and H. Shroff, “Assessing phototoxicity in live fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 657–661 (2017).
[PubMed]

Allan, V. J.

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, “Light microscopy techniques for live cell Imaging,” Science 300(5616), 82–86 (2003).
[PubMed]

Babacan, S. D.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Backman, V.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, and T. Hamano, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).

Badizadegan, K.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[PubMed]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Synthetic aperture tomographic phase microscopy for 3D imaging of live cells in translational motion,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16240–16246 (2008).
[PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

Barer, R.

R. Barer, “Determination of dry mass, thickness, solid and water concentration in living cells,” Nature 172(4389), 1097–1098 (1953).
[PubMed]

Best-Popescu, C.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[PubMed]

Beuthan, J.

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Müller, “The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(3), 369–382 (1996).
[PubMed]

Bishara, W.

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M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1068–1076 (2016).
[PubMed]

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R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
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K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
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P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
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K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
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Cho, S. H.

H. Park, S. H. Hong, K. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. J. Lee, Y. Kim, S. E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
[PubMed]

Choe, K.

K. Kim, K. Choe, I. Park, P. Kim, and Y. Park, “Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33084 (2016).
[PubMed]

Choi, C.

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Yoon, K. Kim, H. Park, C. Choi, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3865–3875 (2015).
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T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
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Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 014002 (2014).
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Chung, J.

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Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).

Cuche, E.

D’ippolito, G.

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, R. Savoia, M. Mugnano, A. Fontana, G. D’ippolito, A. Sardo, A. Iolascon, and A. Gambale, “Tomographic flow cytometry by digital holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16241 (2017).

Dao, M.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
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R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
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Dasari, R. R.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
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Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 014002 (2014).
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N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Synthetic aperture tomographic phase microscopy for 3D imaging of live cells in translational motion,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16240–16246 (2008).
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G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
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W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
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Deflores, L.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
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Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin-image elimination in digital off-axis holography,” Appl. Opt. 39(23), 4070–4075 (2000).
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K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
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R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
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Fang-Yen, C.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
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Feld, M. S.

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
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N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Synthetic aperture tomographic phase microscopy for 3D imaging of live cells in translational motion,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16240–16246 (2008).
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W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
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P. M. Sloot, A. G. Hoekstra, and C. G. Figdor, “Osmotic response of lymphocytes measured by means of forward light scattering: theoretical considerations,” Cytometry 9(6), 636–641 (1988).
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F. Merola, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, R. Savoia, M. Mugnano, A. Fontana, G. D’ippolito, A. Sardo, A. Iolascon, and A. Gambale, “Tomographic flow cytometry by digital holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16241 (2017).

Gambale, A.

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, R. Savoia, M. Mugnano, A. Fontana, G. D’ippolito, A. Sardo, A. Iolascon, and A. Gambale, “Tomographic flow cytometry by digital holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16241 (2017).

Gilboa, B.

Girardo, S.

M. Schürmann, G. Cojoc, S. Girardo, E. Ulbricht, J. Guck, and P. Müller, “3D correlative single-cell imaging utilizing fluorescence and refractive index tomography,” J. Biophotonics in press (2017).

Goddard, L. L.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Griffis, E. R.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
[PubMed]

Guck, J.

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1068–1076 (2016).
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M. Schürmann, G. Cojoc, S. Girardo, E. Ulbricht, J. Guck, and P. Müller, “3D correlative single-cell imaging utilizing fluorescence and refractive index tomography,” J. Biophotonics in press (2017).

Gustafsson, M. G. L.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
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T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
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Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 014002 (2014).
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K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
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T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
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J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Müller, “The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(3), 369–382 (1996).
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P. M. Sloot, A. G. Hoekstra, and C. G. Figdor, “Osmotic response of lymphocytes measured by means of forward light scattering: theoretical considerations,” Cytometry 9(6), 636–641 (1988).
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S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

Hong, S. H.

H. Park, S. H. Hong, K. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. J. Lee, Y. Kim, S. E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
[PubMed]

Horstmeyer, R.

Hur, J.

J. Hur, K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Melittin-induced alterations in morphology and deformability of human red blood cells using quantitative phase imaging techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9306 (2017).
[PubMed]

Ina, H.

Iolascon, A.

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, R. Savoia, M. Mugnano, A. Fontana, G. D’ippolito, A. Sardo, A. Iolascon, and A. Gambale, “Tomographic flow cytometry by digital holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16241 (2017).

Irimia, D.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

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S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic tomography on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161109 (2011).
[PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

Jang, S.

S. Lee, H. Park, K. Kim, Y. Sohn, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of red blood cells from patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1039 (2017).
[PubMed]

H. Park, S. Lee, M. Ji, K. Kim, Y. Son, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34257 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Yoon, K. Kim, H. Park, C. Choi, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3865–3875 (2015).
[PubMed]

Ji, M.

H. Park, S. Lee, M. Ji, K. Kim, Y. Son, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34257 (2016).
[PubMed]

Jin, D.

Jin, K. H.

Jo, Y.

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[PubMed]

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Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).

Jung, J.

J. Jung, K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Hyperspectral optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2006–2012 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
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T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
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T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kim, C.-H.

T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kim, D.

D. Kim, N. Oh, K. Kim, S. Lee, C.-G. Pack, J.-H. Park, and Y. Park, “Label-free high-resolution 3-D imaging of gold nanoparticles inside live cells using optical diffraction tomography,” Methods 17, S1046 (2017).
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D. Kim, S. Lee, M. Lee, J. Oh, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index as an intrinsic imaging contrast for 3-D label-free live cell imaging,” bioRxiv, 106328 (2017).

Kim, G.

K. Lee, K. Kim, G. Kim, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Time-multiplexed structured illumination using a DMD for optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Lett. 42(5), 999–1002 (2017).
[PubMed]

G. Kim, M. Lee, S. Youn, E. Lee, D. Kwon, J. Shin, S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Measurements of three-dimensional refractive index tomography and membrane deformability of live erythrocytes from Pelophylax nigromaculatus,” bioRxiv, 206821 (2017).

Kim, J. M.

T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kim, K.

S. A. Yang, J. Yoon, K. Kim, and Y. Park, “Measurements of Morphological and Biophysical Alterations in Individual Neuron Cells Associated with Early Neurotoxic Effects in Parkinson’s Disease,” Cytometry A 91(5), 510–518 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, G. Kim, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Time-multiplexed structured illumination using a DMD for optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Lett. 42(5), 999–1002 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Kim, N. Oh, K. Kim, S. Lee, C.-G. Pack, J.-H. Park, and Y. Park, “Label-free high-resolution 3-D imaging of gold nanoparticles inside live cells using optical diffraction tomography,” Methods 17, S1046 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Kim and Y. Park, “Tomographic active optical trapping of arbitrarily shaped objects by exploiting 3D refractive index maps,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15340 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Lee, H. Park, K. Kim, Y. Sohn, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of red blood cells from patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1039 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Hur, K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Melittin-induced alterations in morphology and deformability of human red blood cells using quantitative phase imaging techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9306 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Jung, K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Hyperspectral optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2006–2012 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, K. Choe, I. Park, P. Kim, and Y. Park, “Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33084 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Shin, S. Lee, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology,” J. Biomed. Photonics Eng. 2, 020201 (2016).

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Park, S. Lee, M. Ji, K. Kim, Y. Son, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34257 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Shin, K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Active illumination using a digital micromirror device for quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5407–5410 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Simultaneous 3D visualization and position tracking of optically trapped particles using optical diffraction tomography,” Optica 2, 343–346 (2015).

H. Park, S. H. Hong, K. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. J. Lee, Y. Kim, S. E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Yoon, K. Kim, H. Park, C. Choi, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3865–3875 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

Kim, P.

K. Kim, K. Choe, I. Park, P. Kim, and Y. Park, “Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33084 (2016).
[PubMed]

Kim, T.

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Kim, Y.

H. Park, S. H. Hong, K. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. J. Lee, Y. Kim, S. E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
[PubMed]

Kner, P.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kobayashi, S.

Kwon, D.

G. Kim, M. Lee, S. Youn, E. Lee, D. Kwon, J. Shin, S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Measurements of three-dimensional refractive index tomography and membrane deformability of live erythrocytes from Pelophylax nigromaculatus,” bioRxiv, 206821 (2017).

Kyung, T.

T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
[PubMed]

Laissue, P. P.

P. P. Laissue, R. A. Alghamdi, P. Tomancak, E. G. Reynaud, and H. Shroff, “Assessing phototoxicity in live fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 657–661 (2017).
[PubMed]

Lauer, V.

V. Lauer, “New approach to optical diffraction tomography yielding a vector equation of diffraction tomography and a novel tomographic microscope,” J. Microsc. 205(Pt 2), 165–176 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lee, E.

G. Kim, M. Lee, S. Youn, E. Lee, D. Kwon, J. Shin, S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Measurements of three-dimensional refractive index tomography and membrane deformability of live erythrocytes from Pelophylax nigromaculatus,” bioRxiv, 206821 (2017).

Lee, G.

T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
[PubMed]

Lee, K.

K. Lee, K. Kim, G. Kim, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Time-multiplexed structured illumination using a DMD for optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Lett. 42(5), 999–1002 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Lee, K. Lee, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Generalized image deconvolution by exploiting the transmission matrix of an optical imaging system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8961 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Lim, K. Lee, K. H. Jin, S. Shin, S. Lee, Y. Park, and J. C. Ye, “Comparative study of iterative reconstruction algorithms for missing cone problems in optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16933–16948 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lee, M.

D. Kim, S. Lee, M. Lee, J. Oh, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index as an intrinsic imaging contrast for 3-D label-free live cell imaging,” bioRxiv, 106328 (2017).

G. Kim, M. Lee, S. Youn, E. Lee, D. Kwon, J. Shin, S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Measurements of three-dimensional refractive index tomography and membrane deformability of live erythrocytes from Pelophylax nigromaculatus,” bioRxiv, 206821 (2017).

Lee, S.

S. Lee, K. Lee, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Generalized image deconvolution by exploiting the transmission matrix of an optical imaging system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8961 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Hur, K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Melittin-induced alterations in morphology and deformability of human red blood cells using quantitative phase imaging techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9306 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Lee, H. Park, K. Kim, Y. Sohn, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of red blood cells from patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1039 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Kim, N. Oh, K. Kim, S. Lee, C.-G. Pack, J.-H. Park, and Y. Park, “Label-free high-resolution 3-D imaging of gold nanoparticles inside live cells using optical diffraction tomography,” Methods 17, S1046 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Shin, S. Lee, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology,” J. Biomed. Photonics Eng. 2, 020201 (2016).

H. Park, S. Lee, M. Ji, K. Kim, Y. Son, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34257 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Lim, K. Lee, K. H. Jin, S. Shin, S. Lee, Y. Park, and J. C. Ye, “Comparative study of iterative reconstruction algorithms for missing cone problems in optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16933–16948 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[PubMed]

D. Kim, S. Lee, M. Lee, J. Oh, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index as an intrinsic imaging contrast for 3-D label-free live cell imaging,” bioRxiv, 106328 (2017).

G. Kim, M. Lee, S. Youn, E. Lee, D. Kwon, J. Shin, S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Measurements of three-dimensional refractive index tomography and membrane deformability of live erythrocytes from Pelophylax nigromaculatus,” bioRxiv, 206821 (2017).

Lee, S. E.

H. Park, S. H. Hong, K. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. J. Lee, Y. Kim, S. E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lee, W. J.

H. Park, S. H. Hong, K. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. J. Lee, Y. Kim, S. E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lee, W.-H.

Lee, Y. S.

G. Kim, M. Lee, S. Youn, E. Lee, D. Kwon, J. Shin, S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Measurements of three-dimensional refractive index tomography and membrane deformability of live erythrocytes from Pelophylax nigromaculatus,” bioRxiv, 206821 (2017).

Li, A.

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
[PubMed]

Liew, K.

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
[PubMed]

Lim, C. T.

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
[PubMed]

Lim, J.

Lima, C.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, and T. Hamano, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).

Lue, N.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Synthetic aperture tomographic phase microscopy for 3D imaging of live cells in translational motion,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16240–16246 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

Lui, L.

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
[PubMed]

Magistretti, P.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).

Manoharan, R.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, and T. Hamano, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).

Marquet, P.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).

E. Cuche, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Spatial filtering for zero-order and twin-image elimination in digital off-axis holography,” Appl. Opt. 39(23), 4070–4075 (2000).
[PubMed]

Martel, J.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

Memmolo, P.

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, R. Savoia, M. Mugnano, A. Fontana, G. D’ippolito, A. Sardo, A. Iolascon, and A. Gambale, “Tomographic flow cytometry by digital holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16241 (2017).

Merola, F.

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, R. Savoia, M. Mugnano, A. Fontana, G. D’ippolito, A. Sardo, A. Iolascon, and A. Gambale, “Tomographic flow cytometry by digital holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16241 (2017).

Meyer, T.

T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
[PubMed]

Miccio, L.

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, R. Savoia, M. Mugnano, A. Fontana, G. D’ippolito, A. Sardo, A. Iolascon, and A. Gambale, “Tomographic flow cytometry by digital holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16241 (2017).

Minet, O.

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Müller, “The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(3), 369–382 (1996).
[PubMed]

Mir, M.

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Mugnano, M.

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, R. Savoia, M. Mugnano, A. Fontana, G. D’ippolito, A. Sardo, A. Iolascon, and A. Gambale, “Tomographic flow cytometry by digital holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16241 (2017).

Müller, G.

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Müller, “The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(3), 369–382 (1996).
[PubMed]

Müller, P.

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1068–1076 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Schürmann, G. Cojoc, S. Girardo, E. Ulbricht, J. Guck, and P. Müller, “3D correlative single-cell imaging utilizing fluorescence and refractive index tomography,” J. Biophotonics in press (2017).

Nguyen, T. H.

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[PubMed]

Nguyen, T. T. T.

T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
[PubMed]

Nusrat, A.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, and T. Hamano, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).

Oh, J.

D. Kim, S. Lee, M. Lee, J. Oh, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index as an intrinsic imaging contrast for 3-D label-free live cell imaging,” bioRxiv, 106328 (2017).

Oh, N.

D. Kim, N. Oh, K. Kim, S. Lee, C.-G. Pack, J.-H. Park, and Y. Park, “Label-free high-resolution 3-D imaging of gold nanoparticles inside live cells using optical diffraction tomography,” Methods 17, S1046 (2017).
[PubMed]

Oh, S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

Oh, Y.

T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
[PubMed]

Ou, X.

Ozcan, A.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic tomography on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161109 (2011).
[PubMed]

Pack, C.-G.

D. Kim, N. Oh, K. Kim, S. Lee, C.-G. Pack, J.-H. Park, and Y. Park, “Label-free high-resolution 3-D imaging of gold nanoparticles inside live cells using optical diffraction tomography,” Methods 17, S1046 (2017).
[PubMed]

Park, B. O.

T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
[PubMed]

Park, H.

J. Hur, K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Melittin-induced alterations in morphology and deformability of human red blood cells using quantitative phase imaging techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9306 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Lee, H. Park, K. Kim, Y. Sohn, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of red blood cells from patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1039 (2017).
[PubMed]

H. Park, S. Lee, M. Ji, K. Kim, Y. Son, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34257 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Park, S. H. Hong, K. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. J. Lee, Y. Kim, S. E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Yoon, K. Kim, H. Park, C. Choi, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3865–3875 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[PubMed]

Park, I.

K. Kim, K. Choe, I. Park, P. Kim, and Y. Park, “Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33084 (2016).
[PubMed]

Park, J.

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

Park, J.-H.

D. Kim, N. Oh, K. Kim, S. Lee, C.-G. Pack, J.-H. Park, and Y. Park, “Label-free high-resolution 3-D imaging of gold nanoparticles inside live cells using optical diffraction tomography,” Methods 17, S1046 (2017).
[PubMed]

Park, W. S.

T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
[PubMed]

Park, Y.

S. A. Yang, J. Yoon, K. Kim, and Y. Park, “Measurements of Morphological and Biophysical Alterations in Individual Neuron Cells Associated with Early Neurotoxic Effects in Parkinson’s Disease,” Cytometry A 91(5), 510–518 (2017).
[PubMed]

D. Kim, N. Oh, K. Kim, S. Lee, C.-G. Pack, J.-H. Park, and Y. Park, “Label-free high-resolution 3-D imaging of gold nanoparticles inside live cells using optical diffraction tomography,” Methods 17, S1046 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, G. Kim, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Time-multiplexed structured illumination using a DMD for optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Lett. 42(5), 999–1002 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Kim and Y. Park, “Tomographic active optical trapping of arbitrarily shaped objects by exploiting 3D refractive index maps,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15340 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Lee, H. Park, K. Kim, Y. Sohn, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of red blood cells from patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1039 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Hur, K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Melittin-induced alterations in morphology and deformability of human red blood cells using quantitative phase imaging techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9306 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Lee, K. Lee, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Generalized image deconvolution by exploiting the transmission matrix of an optical imaging system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8961 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Jung, K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Hyperspectral optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2006–2012 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, K. Choe, I. Park, P. Kim, and Y. Park, “Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33084 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Shin, S. Lee, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology,” J. Biomed. Photonics Eng. 2, 020201 (2016).

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Park, S. Lee, M. Ji, K. Kim, Y. Son, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34257 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Shin, K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Active illumination using a digital micromirror device for quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5407–5410 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Lim, K. Lee, K. H. Jin, S. Shin, S. Lee, Y. Park, and J. C. Ye, “Comparative study of iterative reconstruction algorithms for missing cone problems in optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16933–16948 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Simultaneous 3D visualization and position tracking of optically trapped particles using optical diffraction tomography,” Optica 2, 343–346 (2015).

J. Yoon, K. Kim, H. Park, C. Choi, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3865–3875 (2015).
[PubMed]

H. Park, S. H. Hong, K. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. J. Lee, Y. Kim, S. E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, K. S. Kim, H. Park, J. C. Ye, and Y. Park, “Real-time visualization of 3-D dynamic microscopic objects using optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 21(26), 32269–32278 (2013).
[PubMed]

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
[PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[PubMed]

D. Kim, S. Lee, M. Lee, J. Oh, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index as an intrinsic imaging contrast for 3-D label-free live cell imaging,” bioRxiv, 106328 (2017).

G. Kim, M. Lee, S. Youn, E. Lee, D. Kwon, J. Shin, S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Measurements of three-dimensional refractive index tomography and membrane deformability of live erythrocytes from Pelophylax nigromaculatus,” bioRxiv, 206821 (2017).

Pavillon, N.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).

Perelman, L.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, and T. Hamano, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).

Popescu, G.

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[PubMed]

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

N. Lue, W. Choi, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Synthetic aperture tomographic phase microscopy for 3D imaging of live cells in translational motion,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16240–16246 (2008).
[PubMed]

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[PubMed]

Preiser, P. R.

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
[PubMed]

Quinn, D.

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
[PubMed]

Reynaud, E. G.

P. P. Laissue, R. A. Alghamdi, P. Tomancak, E. G. Reynaud, and H. Shroff, “Assessing phototoxicity in live fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 657–661 (2017).
[PubMed]

Roichman, Y.

Rubessa, M.

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[PubMed]

Sardo, A.

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, R. Savoia, M. Mugnano, A. Fontana, G. D’ippolito, A. Sardo, A. Iolascon, and A. Gambale, “Tomographic flow cytometry by digital holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16241 (2017).

Savoia, R.

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, R. Savoia, M. Mugnano, A. Fontana, G. D’ippolito, A. Sardo, A. Iolascon, and A. Gambale, “Tomographic flow cytometry by digital holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16241 (2017).

Scholze, J.

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1068–1076 (2016).
[PubMed]

Schuck, P.

H. Zhao, P. H. Brown, and P. Schuck, “On the Distribution of Protein Refractive Index Increments,” Biophys. J. 100(9), 2309–2317 (2011).
[PubMed]

Schürmann, M.

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1068–1076 (2016).
[PubMed]

M. Schürmann, G. Cojoc, S. Girardo, E. Ulbricht, J. Guck, and P. Müller, “3D correlative single-cell imaging utilizing fluorescence and refractive index tomography,” J. Biophotonics in press (2017).

Seiler, M.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, and T. Hamano, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).

Shaked, N. T.

Shields, S.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, and T. Hamano, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).

Shin, J.

G. Kim, M. Lee, S. Youn, E. Lee, D. Kwon, J. Shin, S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Measurements of three-dimensional refractive index tomography and membrane deformability of live erythrocytes from Pelophylax nigromaculatus,” bioRxiv, 206821 (2017).

Shin, S.

S. Lee, K. Lee, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Generalized image deconvolution by exploiting the transmission matrix of an optical imaging system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8961 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Lee, K. Kim, G. Kim, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Time-multiplexed structured illumination using a DMD for optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Lett. 42(5), 999–1002 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Shin, S. Lee, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology,” J. Biomed. Photonics Eng. 2, 020201 (2016).

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

J. Lim, K. Lee, K. H. Jin, S. Shin, S. Lee, Y. Park, and J. C. Ye, “Comparative study of iterative reconstruction algorithms for missing cone problems in optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 23(13), 16933–16948 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. Shin, K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Active illumination using a digital micromirror device for quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5407–5410 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shroff, H.

P. P. Laissue, R. A. Alghamdi, P. Tomancak, E. G. Reynaud, and H. Shroff, “Assessing phototoxicity in live fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 657–661 (2017).
[PubMed]

Sloot, P. M.

P. M. Sloot, A. G. Hoekstra, and C. G. Figdor, “Osmotic response of lymphocytes measured by means of forward light scattering: theoretical considerations,” Cytometry 9(6), 636–641 (1988).
[PubMed]

So, P.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

So, P. T. C.

Sohn, Y.

S. Lee, H. Park, K. Kim, Y. Sohn, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of red blood cells from patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1039 (2017).
[PubMed]

Son, Y.

H. Park, S. Lee, M. Ji, K. Kim, Y. Son, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34257 (2016).
[PubMed]

Stephens, D. J.

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, “Light microscopy techniques for live cell Imaging,” Science 300(5616), 82–86 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sung, Y.

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
[PubMed]

Suresh, S.

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
[PubMed]

Takeda, M.

Tomancak, P.

P. P. Laissue, R. A. Alghamdi, P. Tomancak, E. G. Reynaud, and H. Shroff, “Assessing phototoxicity in live fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 657–661 (2017).
[PubMed]

Toy, F.

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).

Ulbricht, E.

M. Schürmann, G. Cojoc, S. Girardo, E. Ulbricht, J. Guck, and P. Müller, “3D correlative single-cell imaging utilizing fluorescence and refractive index tomography,” J. Biophotonics in press (2017).

Wallace, M.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, and T. Hamano, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).

Wax, A.

Wheeler, M. B.

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[PubMed]

Winoto, L.

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
[PubMed]

Wolf, E.

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1, 153–156 (1969).

Yang, C.

Yang, S. A.

S. A. Yang, J. Yoon, K. Kim, and Y. Park, “Measurements of Morphological and Biophysical Alterations in Individual Neuron Cells Associated with Early Neurotoxic Effects in Parkinson’s Disease,” Cytometry A 91(5), 510–518 (2017).
[PubMed]

Yang, S.-A.

K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Shin, S. Lee, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology,” J. Biomed. Photonics Eng. 2, 020201 (2016).

D. Kim, S. Lee, M. Lee, J. Oh, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index as an intrinsic imaging contrast for 3-D label-free live cell imaging,” bioRxiv, 106328 (2017).

Yaqoob, Z.

D. Jin, R. Zhou, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Tomographic phase microscopy: principles and applications in bioimaging [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, B64–B77 (2017).

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ye, J. C.

Yoon, H.

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

Yoon, J.

S. A. Yang, J. Yoon, K. Kim, and Y. Park, “Measurements of Morphological and Biophysical Alterations in Individual Neuron Cells Associated with Early Neurotoxic Effects in Parkinson’s Disease,” Cytometry A 91(5), 510–518 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Shin, S. Lee, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology,” J. Biomed. Photonics Eng. 2, 020201 (2016).

J. Jung, K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Hyperspectral optical diffraction tomography,” Opt. Express 24(3), 2006–2012 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Yoon, K. Kim, H. Park, C. Choi, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Label-free characterization of white blood cells by measuring 3D refractive index maps,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(10), 3865–3875 (2015).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Simultaneous 3D visualization and position tracking of optically trapped particles using optical diffraction tomography,” Optica 2, 343–346 (2015).

S. Shin, K. Kim, J. Yoon, and Y. Park, “Active illumination using a digital micromirror device for quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Lett. 40(22), 5407–5410 (2015).
[PubMed]

Youn, S.

G. Kim, M. Lee, S. Youn, E. Lee, D. Kwon, J. Shin, S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Measurements of three-dimensional refractive index tomography and membrane deformability of live erythrocytes from Pelophylax nigromaculatus,” bioRxiv, 206821 (2017).

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, P. H. Brown, and P. Schuck, “On the Distribution of Protein Refractive Index Increments,” Biophys. J. 100(9), 2309–2317 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zheng, G.

Zhou, R.

D. Jin, R. Zhou, Z. Yaqoob, and P. T. C. So, “Tomographic phase microscopy: principles and applications in bioimaging [Invited],” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 34, B64–B77 (2017).

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Zhu, H.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic tomography on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161109 (2011).
[PubMed]

Zonios, G.

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, and T. Hamano, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).

Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. (1)

G. Popescu, Y. Park, N. Lue, C. Best-Popescu, L. Deflores, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, and K. Badizadegan, “Optical imaging of cell mass and growth dynamics,” Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 295(2), C538–C544 (2008).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, H. Zhu, and A. Ozcan, “Optofluidic tomography on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(16), 161109 (2011).
[PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

Biophys. J. (1)

H. Zhao, P. H. Brown, and P. Schuck, “On the Distribution of Protein Refractive Index Increments,” Biophys. J. 100(9), 2309–2317 (2011).
[PubMed]

Cytometry (1)

P. M. Sloot, A. G. Hoekstra, and C. G. Figdor, “Osmotic response of lymphocytes measured by means of forward light scattering: theoretical considerations,” Cytometry 9(6), 636–641 (1988).
[PubMed]

Cytometry A (1)

S. A. Yang, J. Yoon, K. Kim, and Y. Park, “Measurements of Morphological and Biophysical Alterations in Individual Neuron Cells Associated with Early Neurotoxic Effects in Parkinson’s Disease,” Cytometry A 91(5), 510–518 (2017).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

K. Kim, H. Yoon, M. Diez-Silva, M. Dao, R. R. Dasari, and Y. Park, “High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum and in situ hemozoin crystals using optical diffraction tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 011005 (2014).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Photonics Eng. (1)

K. Kim, J. Yoon, S. Shin, S. Lee, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology,” J. Biomed. Photonics Eng. 2, 020201 (2016).

J. Biophotonics (1)

M. Schürmann, J. Scholze, P. Müller, J. Guck, and C. J. Chan, “Cell nuclei have lower refractive index and mass density than cytoplasm,” J. Biophotonics 9(10), 1068–1076 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Microsc. (2)

M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Surpassing the lateral resolution limit by a factor of two using structured illumination microscopy,” J. Microsc. 198(Pt 2), 82–87 (2000).
[PubMed]

V. Lauer, “New approach to optical diffraction tomography yielding a vector equation of diffraction tomography and a novel tomographic microscope,” J. Microsc. 205(Pt 2), 165–176 (2002).
[PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

F. Merola, P. Memmolo, L. Miccio, R. Savoia, M. Mugnano, A. Fontana, G. D’ippolito, A. Sardo, A. Iolascon, and A. Gambale, “Tomographic flow cytometry by digital holography,” Light Sci. Appl. 6, e16241 (2017).

Methods (1)

D. Kim, N. Oh, K. Kim, S. Lee, C.-G. Pack, J.-H. Park, and Y. Park, “Label-free high-resolution 3-D imaging of gold nanoparticles inside live cells using optical diffraction tomography,” Methods 17, S1046 (2017).
[PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (2)

T. H. Nguyen, M. E. Kandel, M. Rubessa, M. B. Wheeler, and G. Popescu, “Gradient light interference microscopy for 3D imaging of unlabeled specimens,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 210 (2017).
[PubMed]

K. Kim and Y. Park, “Tomographic active optical trapping of arbitrarily shaped objects by exploiting 3D refractive index maps,” Nat. Commun. 8, 15340 (2017).
[PubMed]

Nat. Methods (3)

P. Kner, B. B. Chhun, E. R. Griffis, L. Winoto, and M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Super-resolution video microscopy of live cells by structured illumination,” Nat. Methods 6(5), 339–342 (2009).
[PubMed]

P. P. Laissue, R. A. Alghamdi, P. Tomancak, E. G. Reynaud, and H. Shroff, “Assessing phototoxicity in live fluorescence imaging,” Nat. Methods 14(7), 657–661 (2017).
[PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

Y. Cotte, F. Toy, P. Jourdain, N. Pavillon, D. Boss, P. Magistretti, P. Marquet, and C. Depeursinge, “Marker-free phase nanoscopy,” Nat. Photonics 7, 113–117 (2013).

T. Kim, R. Zhou, M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, P. S. Carney, L. L. Goddard, and G. Popescu, “White-light diffraction tomography of unlabelled live cells,” Nat. Photonics 8, 256–263 (2014).

Nature (1)

R. Barer, “Determination of dry mass, thickness, solid and water concentration in living cells,” Nature 172(4389), 1097–1098 (1953).
[PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

E. Wolf, “Three-dimensional structure determination of semi-transparent objects from holographic data,” Opt. Commun. 1, 153–156 (1969).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Optica (2)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. Beuthan, O. Minet, J. Helfmann, M. Herrig, and G. Müller, “The spatial variation of the refractive index in biological cells,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41(3), 369–382 (1996).
[PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Appl. (1)

Y. Sung, N. Lue, B. Hamza, J. Martel, D. Irimia, R. R. Dasari, W. Choi, Z. Yaqoob, and P. So, “Three-dimensional holographic refractive-index measurement of continuously flowing cells in a microfluidic channel,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 1, 014002 (2014).
[PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

L. Perelman, V. Backman, M. Wallace, G. Zonios, R. Manoharan, A. Nusrat, S. Shields, M. Seiler, C. Lima, and T. Hamano, “Observation of periodic fine structure in reflectance from biological tissue: a new technique for measuring nuclear size distribution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 627 (1998).

PLoS One (1)

R. Chandramohanadas, Y. Park, L. Lui, A. Li, D. Quinn, K. Liew, M. Diez-Silva, Y. Sung, M. Dao, C. T. Lim, P. R. Preiser, and S. Suresh, “Biophysics of malarial parasite exit from infected erythrocytes,” PLoS One 6(6), e20869 (2011).
[PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

T. T. T. Nguyen, W. S. Park, B. O. Park, C. Y. Kim, Y. Oh, J. M. Kim, H. Choi, T. Kyung, C.-H. Kim, G. Lee, K. M. Hahn, T. Meyer, and W. D. Heo, “PLEKHG3 enhances polarized cell migration by activating actin filaments at the cell front,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 113(36), 10091–10096 (2016).
[PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Shin, K. Kim, T. Kim, J. Yoon, K. Hong, J. Park, and Y. Park, “Optical diffraction tomography using a digital micromirror device for stable measurements of 4D refractive index tomography of cells,” Proc. SPIE 9718, 971814 (2016).

Sci. Rep. (7)

K. Kim, S. Lee, J. Yoon, J. Heo, C. Choi, and Y. Park, “Three-dimensional label-free imaging and quantification of lipid droplets in live hepatocytes,” Sci. Rep. 6, 36815 (2016).
[PubMed]

K. Kim, K. Choe, I. Park, P. Kim, and Y. Park, “Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice,” Sci. Rep. 6, 33084 (2016).
[PubMed]

H. Park, S. H. Hong, K. Kim, S. H. Cho, W. J. Lee, Y. Kim, S. E. Lee, and Y. Park, “Characterizations of individual mouse red blood cells parasitized by Babesia microti using 3-D holographic microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 5, 10827 (2015).
[PubMed]

S. Lee, H. Park, K. Kim, Y. Sohn, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index tomograms and dynamic membrane fluctuations of red blood cells from patients with diabetes mellitus,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 1039 (2017).
[PubMed]

H. Park, S. Lee, M. Ji, K. Kim, Y. Son, S. Jang, and Y. Park, “Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging,” Sci. Rep. 6, 34257 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Hur, K. Kim, S. Lee, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Melittin-induced alterations in morphology and deformability of human red blood cells using quantitative phase imaging techniques,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 9306 (2017).
[PubMed]

S. Lee, K. Lee, S. Shin, and Y. Park, “Generalized image deconvolution by exploiting the transmission matrix of an optical imaging system,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 8961 (2017).
[PubMed]

Science (1)

D. J. Stephens and V. J. Allan, “Light microscopy techniques for live cell Imaging,” Science 300(5616), 82–86 (2003).
[PubMed]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

K. Lee, K. Kim, J. Jung, J. Heo, S. Cho, S. Lee, G. Chang, Y. Jo, H. Park, and Y. Park, “Quantitative phase imaging techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology: from principles to applications,” Sensors (Basel) 13(4), 4170–4191 (2013).
[PubMed]

Other (4)

D. Kim, S. Lee, M. Lee, J. Oh, S.-A. Yang, and Y. Park, “Refractive index as an intrinsic imaging contrast for 3-D label-free live cell imaging,” bioRxiv, 106328 (2017).

G. Popescu, Quantitative phase imaging of cells and tissues, McGraw-Hill biophotonics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2011).

G. Kim, M. Lee, S. Youn, E. Lee, D. Kwon, J. Shin, S. Lee, Y. S. Lee, and Y. Park, “Measurements of three-dimensional refractive index tomography and membrane deformability of live erythrocytes from Pelophylax nigromaculatus,” bioRxiv, 206821 (2017).

M. Schürmann, G. Cojoc, S. Girardo, E. Ulbricht, J. Guck, and P. Müller, “3D correlative single-cell imaging utilizing fluorescence and refractive index tomography,” J. Biophotonics in press (2017).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The combined optical setup for (a) optical diffraction tomography and (b) 3D epi-fluorescence microscopy. SMFC: single-mode fiber coupler, DMD: digital micromirror device, TL: tube lens, CL: condenser lens, OL: objective lens, M: mirror, DM: dichroic mirror, BS: beam splitter, P: polarizer, LED: light emitting diode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A schematic diagram of the ODT reconstruction (a-e) and correlative microscopy with 3D fluorescence imaging (f-h). (a) Raw holograms of an NIH-3T3 cell obtained with various illumination angles. (b) Amplitude and (c) phase map of the complex optical fields of the cell. (d) The cross-sectional slices and (e) the 3D rendered map of the reconstructed 3D RI distribution of the sample. (f) Axially stacked three-channel epi-fluorescence images of the same cell. (g) The fluorescence images of the cell after 3D deconvolution. (h) The fluorescence image merged with three-channel deconvoluted fluorescence images. (i) The 3D rendered map of the 3D RI distribution and three-channel fluorescence images for correlative analysis. Scale bar indicates 20 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a, c) The 3D rendered map of the 3D RI distribution and (b, d) 3D deconvoluted three-channel fluorescence image of a HeLa cell and an NIH-3T3 cell, respectively. Scale bar indicates 20 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-correlative analysis of 3D RI and 3D fluorescence images of (a-c) a HeLa cell and (d-f) an NIH-3T3 cell. (a, e) The cross-sectional slices and (b, f) the 3D rendered map of reconstructed 3D RI distribution of the samples. Scale bar indicates 20 μm. (c, g) The 3D deconvoluted fluorescence images of the samples stained with Hoechst (blue) and GFP-tubulin (green).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histograms of RI values in the nucleus and cytoplasm of HeLa cells (a) and NIH-3T3 cells (b) (n = 4 for HeLa cells, n = 6 for NIH-3T3 cells)