Abstract

Preservation of prostatic nerves is critical to recovery of a man’s sexual potency after radical prostatectomy. A real-time imaging method of prostatic nerves will be helpful for nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP). Polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), which provides both structural and birefringent information of tissue, was applied for detection of prostatic nerves in both rat and human prostate specimens, ex vivo. PS-OCT imaging of rat prostate specimens visualized highly scattering and birefringent fibrous structures superficially, and these birefringent structures were confirmed to be nerves by histology or multiphoton microscopy (MPM). PS-OCT could easily distinguish these birefringent structures from surrounding other tissue compartments such as prostatic glands and fats. PS-OCT imaging of human prostatectomy specimens visualized two different birefringent structures, appearing fibrous and sheet-like. The fibrous ones were confirmed to be nerves by histology, and the sheet-like ones were considered to be fascias surrounding the human prostate. PS-OCT imaging of human prostatectomy specimens along the perimeter showed spatial variation in the amount of birefringent fibrous structures which was consistent with anatomy. These results demonstrate the feasibility of PS-OCT for detection of prostatic nerves, and this study will provide a basis for intraoperative use of PS-OCT.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (2)

R. Li, E. Phillips, P. Wang, C. J. Goergen, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free in vivo imaging of peripheral nerve by multispectral photoacoustic tomography,” J. Biophotonics 9(1-2), 124–128 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Yoon, W. K. Chung, H. Tchah, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “In vivo 3D measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distributions in the mouse cornea using multiphoton microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25339 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (4)

F. P. Henry, Y. Wang, C. L. Rodriguez, M. A. Randolph, E. A. Rust, J. M. Winograd, J. F. de Boer, and B. H. Park, “In vivo optical microscopy of peripheral nerve myelination with polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 046002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yoon, W. H. Jang, P. Xiao, B. Kim, T. Wang, Q. Li, J. Y. Lee, E. Chung, and K. H. Kim, “In vivo wide-field reflectance/fluorescence imaging and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of human oral cavity with a forward-viewing probe,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(2), 524–535 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yoon, Q. Li, V. H. Le, W. H. Jang, T. Wang, B. Kim, S. Son, W. K. Chung, C. Joo, and K. H. Kim, “Dark-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12874–12886 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried and A. L. Burnett, “Novel methods for mapping the cavernous nerves during radical prostatectomy,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 12(8), 451–460 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

T. P. Matthews, C. Zhang, D. K. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 016004 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

Q. T. Nguyen and R. Y. Tsien, “Fluorescence-guided surgery with live molecular navigation--a new cutting edge,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 13(9), 653–662 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Chaux, J. Eifler, S. Karram, T. Al-Hussain, S. Faraj, M. Pomper, R. Rodriguez, and G. J. Netto, “Focal positive prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in ganglionic tissues associated with prostate neurovascular bundle: implications for novel intraoperative PSMA-based fluorescent imaging techniques,” Urol. Oncol. 31(5), 572–575 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. H. Park, C. W. Jeong, and S. E. Lee, “A comprehensive review of neuroanatomy of the prostate,” Prostate Int. 1(4), 139–145 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

K. Ponnusamy, J. M. Sorger, and C. Mohr, “Nerve mapping for prostatectomies: novel technologies under development,” J. Endourol. 26(7), 769–777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rai, A. Srivastava, P. Sooriakumaran, and A. Tewari, “Advances in imaging the neurovascular bundle,” Curr. Opin. Urol. 22(2), 88–96 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, E. M. Kim, V. E. Cotero, A. Bajaj, V. P. Staudinger, C. A. Hehir, and S. Yazdanfar, “Dual-mode laparoscopic fluorescence image-guided surgery using a single camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(8), 1880–1890 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Islam, M. C. Oliveira, Y. Wang, F. P. Henry, M. A. Randolph, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Extracting structural features of rat sciatic nerve using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 056012 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (7)

K. H. Kim, B. H. Park, Y. Tu, T. Hasan, B. Lee, J. Li, and J. F. de Boer, “Polarization-sensitive optical frequency domain imaging based on unpolarized light,” Opt. Express 19(2), 552–561 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Gao, H. Zhou, M. J. Thrall, F. Li, Y. Yang, Z. Wang, P. Luo, K. K. Wong, G. S. Palapattu, and S. T. Wong, “Label-free high-resolution imaging of prostate glands and cavernous nerves using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(4), 915–926 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Gupta and M. Han, “Imaging guidance in minimally invasive prostatectomy,” Urol. Oncol. 29(3), 343–346 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, K. A. Nasr, K. M. Fish, O. Khullar, Y. Ashitate, T. M. Siclovan, B. F. Johnson, N. E. Barnhardt, C. A. Tan Hehir, and J. V. Frangioni, “Nerve-highlighting fluorescent contrast agents for image-guided surgery,” Mol. Imaging 10(2), 91–101 (2011).
[PubMed]

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nat. Biotechnol. 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Han, C. Kim, P. Mozer, F. Schäfer, S. Badaan, B. Vigaru, K. Tseng, D. Petrisor, B. Trock, and D. Stoianovici, “Tandem-robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to improve the neurovascular bundle visualization: a feasibility study,” Urology 77(2), 502–506 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Tewari, M. M. Shevchuk, J. Sterling, S. Grover, M. Herman, R. Yadav, K. Mudalair, A. Srivastava, M. A. Rubin, W. R. Zipfel, F. R. Maxfield, C. Xu, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy for structure identification in human prostate and periprostatic tissue: implications in prostate cancer surgery,” BJU Int. 108(9), 1421–1429 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

K. C. Lee, S. Sharma, J. B. Tuttle, and W. D. Steers, “Origin and characterization of retrograde labeled neurons supplying the rat urethra using fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy in vivo and immunohistochemistry,” J. Urol. 184(4), 1550–1554 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Walz, A. L. Burnett, A. J. Costello, J. A. Eastham, M. Graefen, B. Guillonneau, M. Menon, F. Montorsi, R. P. Myers, B. Rocco, and A. Villers, “A critical analysis of the current knowledge of surgical anatomy related to optimization of cancer control and preservation of continence and erection in candidates for radical prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 57(2), 179–192 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chitchian, T. P. Weldon, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Combined image-processing algorithms for improved optical coherence tomography of prostate nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chitchian, T. P. Weldon, and N. M. Fried, “Segmentation of optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044033 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Dangle, K. K. Shah, B. Kaffenberger, and V. R. Patel, “The Use of High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate Robotic Radical Prostatectomy Specimens,” Int. Braz. J. Urol. 35(3), 344–353 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kaiho, H. Nakagawa, H. Saito, A. Ito, S. Ishidoya, S. Saito, and Y. Arai, “Nerves at the ventral prostatic capsule contribute to erectile function: initial electrophysiological assessment in humans,” Eur. Urol. 55(1), 148–155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yadav, S. Mukherjee, M. Hermen, G. Tan, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and A. K. Tewari, “Multiphoton microscopy of prostate and periprostatic neural tissue: a promising imaging technique for improving nerve-sparing prostatectomy,” J. Endourol. 23(5), 861–867 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

S. Rais-Bahrami, A. W. Levinson, N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, A. Hristov, Y. Chuang, A. L. Burnett, and L. M. Su, “Optical coherence tomography of cavernous nerves: a step toward real-time intraoperative imaging during nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy,” Urology 72(1), 198–204 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Davila, M. Mamcarz, I. Nadelhaft, R. Salup, J. Lockhart, and R. E. Carrion, “Visualization of the neurovascular bundles and major pelvic ganglion with fluorescent tracers after penile injection in the rat,” BJU Int. 101(8), 1048–1051 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Ukimura, T. E. Ahlering, and I. S. Gill, “Transrectal ultrasound-guided, energy-free, nerve-sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy,” J. Endourol. 22(9), 1993–1996 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. Laible, B. Amend, D. Schilling, A. Anastasiadis, U. Kuehs, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The periprostatic autonomic nerves--bundle or layer?” Eur. Urol. 54(5), 1109–1117 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. G. Zotova, H. H. Schaumburg, C. S. Raine, B. Cannella, M. Tar, A. Melman, and J. C. Arezzo, “Effects of hyperglycemia on rat cavernous nerve axons: a functional and ultrastructural study,” Exp. Neurol. 213(2), 439–447 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, and Y. Yasuno, “Polarization-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography with continuous source polarization modulation,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5892–5906 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (8)

H. H. Schaumburg, E. Zotova, B. Cannella, C. S. Raine, J. Arezzo, M. Tar, and A. Melman, “Structural and functional investigations of the murine cavernosal nerve: a model system for serial spatio-temporal study of autonomic neuropathy,” BJU Int. 99(4), 916–924 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Boyette, M. A. Reardon, A. J. Mirelman, T. D. Kirkley, J. J. Lysiak, J. B. Tuttle, and W. D. Steers, “Fiberoptic imaging of cavernous nerves in vivo,” J. Urol. 178(6), 2694–2700 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Eichelberg, A. Erbersdobler, U. Michl, T. Schlomm, G. Salomon, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “Nerve distribution along the prostatic capsule,” Eur. Urol. 51, 105–110 (2007).

T. M. Kessler, F. C. Burkhard, and U. E. Studer, “Nerve-sparing open radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 51(1), 90–97 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Aron, J. H. Kaouk, N. J. Hegarty, J. R. Colombo, G. P. Haber, B. I. Chung, M. Zhou, and I. S. Gill, “Second prize: preliminary experience with the Niris optical coherence tomography system during laparoscopic and robotic prostatectomy,” J. Endourol. 21(8), 814–818 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried, S. Rais-Bahrami, G. A. Lagoda, A. Y. Chuang, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Identification and imaging of the nerves responsible for erectile function in rat prostate, in vivo, using optical nerve stimulation and optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1641–1645 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. M. Fried, S. Rais-Bahrami, G. A. Lagoda, Y. Chuang, A. L. Burnett, and L. M. Su, “Imaging the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(1), 36–41 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

O. Ukimura, C. Magi-Galluzzi, and I. S. Gill, “Real-time transrectal ultrasound guidance during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: impact on surgical margins,” J. Urol. 175(4), 1304–1310 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Ukimura and I. S. Gill, “Real-time transrectal ultrasound guidance during nerve sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: pictorial essay,” J. Urol. 175(4), 1311–1319 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yamanari, S. Makita, V. D. Madjarova, T. Yatagai, and Y. Yasuno, “Fiber-based polarization-sensitive Fourier domain optical coherence tomography using B-scan-oriented polarization modulation method,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6502–6515 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

F. Montorsi, A. Salonia, N. Suardi, A. Gallina, G. Zanni, A. Briganti, F. Deho’, R. Naspro, E. Farina, and P. Rigatti, “Improving the preservation of the urethral sphincter and neurovascular bundles during open radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 48(6), 938–945 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Lunacek, C. Schwentner, H. Fritsch, G. Bartsch, and H. Strasser, “Anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy: ‘curtain dissection’ of the neurovascular bundle,” BJU Int. 95(9), 1226–1231 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (7)

A. J. Costello, M. Brooks, and O. J. Cole, “Anatomical studies of the neurovascular bundle and cavernosal nerves,” BJU Int. 94(7), 1071–1076 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Takenaka, G. Murakami, H. Soga, S. H. Han, Y. Arai, and M. Fujisawa, “Anatomical analysis of the neurovascular bundle supplying penile cavernous tissue to ensure a reliable nerve graft after radical prostatectomy,” J. Urol. 172(3), 1032–1035 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 94–102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

A. A. Sattar, J. C. Noël, J. J. Vanderhaeghen, C. C. Schulman, and E. Wespes, “Prostate capsule: computerized morphometric analysis of its components,” Urology 46(2), 178–181 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

J. R. Keast, A. M. Booth, and W. C. de Groat, “Distribution of neurons in the major pelvic ganglion of the rat which supply the bladder, colon or penis,” Cell Tissue Res. 256(1), 105–112 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

B. J. Gantz, “Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring,” Am. J. Otol. 6, 58–61 (1985).
[PubMed]

J. M. Kartush, J. K. Niparko, S. C. Bledsoe, M. D. Graham, and J. L. Kemink, “Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring: a comparison of stimulating electrodes,” Laryngoscope 95(12), 1536–1540 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

P. C. Walsh and P. J. Donker, “Impotence following radical prostatectomy: insight into etiology and prevention,” J. Urol. 128(3), 492–497 (1982).
[PubMed]

Ahlering, T. E.

O. Ukimura, T. E. Ahlering, and I. S. Gill, “Transrectal ultrasound-guided, energy-free, nerve-sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy,” J. Endourol. 22(9), 1993–1996 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Al-Hussain, T.

A. Chaux, J. Eifler, S. Karram, T. Al-Hussain, S. Faraj, M. Pomper, R. Rodriguez, and G. J. Netto, “Focal positive prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in ganglionic tissues associated with prostate neurovascular bundle: implications for novel intraoperative PSMA-based fluorescent imaging techniques,” Urol. Oncol. 31(5), 572–575 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amend, B.

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. Laible, B. Amend, D. Schilling, A. Anastasiadis, U. Kuehs, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The periprostatic autonomic nerves--bundle or layer?” Eur. Urol. 54(5), 1109–1117 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anastasiadis, A.

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. Laible, B. Amend, D. Schilling, A. Anastasiadis, U. Kuehs, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The periprostatic autonomic nerves--bundle or layer?” Eur. Urol. 54(5), 1109–1117 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arai, Y.

Y. Kaiho, H. Nakagawa, H. Saito, A. Ito, S. Ishidoya, S. Saito, and Y. Arai, “Nerves at the ventral prostatic capsule contribute to erectile function: initial electrophysiological assessment in humans,” Eur. Urol. 55(1), 148–155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Takenaka, G. Murakami, H. Soga, S. H. Han, Y. Arai, and M. Fujisawa, “Anatomical analysis of the neurovascular bundle supplying penile cavernous tissue to ensure a reliable nerve graft after radical prostatectomy,” J. Urol. 172(3), 1032–1035 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arezzo, J.

H. H. Schaumburg, E. Zotova, B. Cannella, C. S. Raine, J. Arezzo, M. Tar, and A. Melman, “Structural and functional investigations of the murine cavernosal nerve: a model system for serial spatio-temporal study of autonomic neuropathy,” BJU Int. 99(4), 916–924 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arezzo, J. C.

E. G. Zotova, H. H. Schaumburg, C. S. Raine, B. Cannella, M. Tar, A. Melman, and J. C. Arezzo, “Effects of hyperglycemia on rat cavernous nerve axons: a functional and ultrastructural study,” Exp. Neurol. 213(2), 439–447 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aron, M.

M. Aron, J. H. Kaouk, N. J. Hegarty, J. R. Colombo, G. P. Haber, B. I. Chung, M. Zhou, and I. S. Gill, “Second prize: preliminary experience with the Niris optical coherence tomography system during laparoscopic and robotic prostatectomy,” J. Endourol. 21(8), 814–818 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ashitate, Y.

S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, K. A. Nasr, K. M. Fish, O. Khullar, Y. Ashitate, T. M. Siclovan, B. F. Johnson, N. E. Barnhardt, C. A. Tan Hehir, and J. V. Frangioni, “Nerve-highlighting fluorescent contrast agents for image-guided surgery,” Mol. Imaging 10(2), 91–101 (2011).
[PubMed]

Badaan, S.

M. Han, C. Kim, P. Mozer, F. Schäfer, S. Badaan, B. Vigaru, K. Tseng, D. Petrisor, B. Trock, and D. Stoianovici, “Tandem-robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to improve the neurovascular bundle visualization: a feasibility study,” Urology 77(2), 502–506 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajaj, A.

Barnhardt, N. E.

S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, K. A. Nasr, K. M. Fish, O. Khullar, Y. Ashitate, T. M. Siclovan, B. F. Johnson, N. E. Barnhardt, C. A. Tan Hehir, and J. V. Frangioni, “Nerve-highlighting fluorescent contrast agents for image-guided surgery,” Mol. Imaging 10(2), 91–101 (2011).
[PubMed]

Bartsch, G.

A. Lunacek, C. Schwentner, H. Fritsch, G. Bartsch, and H. Strasser, “Anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy: ‘curtain dissection’ of the neurovascular bundle,” BJU Int. 95(9), 1226–1231 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bledsoe, S. C.

J. M. Kartush, J. K. Niparko, S. C. Bledsoe, M. D. Graham, and J. L. Kemink, “Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring: a comparison of stimulating electrodes,” Laryngoscope 95(12), 1536–1540 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, A. M.

J. R. Keast, A. M. Booth, and W. C. de Groat, “Distribution of neurons in the major pelvic ganglion of the rat which supply the bladder, colon or penis,” Cell Tissue Res. 256(1), 105–112 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyette, L. B.

L. B. Boyette, M. A. Reardon, A. J. Mirelman, T. D. Kirkley, J. J. Lysiak, J. B. Tuttle, and W. D. Steers, “Fiberoptic imaging of cavernous nerves in vivo,” J. Urol. 178(6), 2694–2700 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bressner, J. E.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Briganti, A.

F. Montorsi, A. Salonia, N. Suardi, A. Gallina, G. Zanni, A. Briganti, F. Deho’, R. Naspro, E. Farina, and P. Rigatti, “Improving the preservation of the urethral sphincter and neurovascular bundles during open radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 48(6), 938–945 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brooks, M.

A. J. Costello, M. Brooks, and O. J. Cole, “Anatomical studies of the neurovascular bundle and cavernosal nerves,” BJU Int. 94(7), 1071–1076 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burkhard, F. C.

T. M. Kessler, F. C. Burkhard, and U. E. Studer, “Nerve-sparing open radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 51(1), 90–97 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, A. L.

N. M. Fried and A. L. Burnett, “Novel methods for mapping the cavernous nerves during radical prostatectomy,” Nat. Rev. Urol. 12(8), 451–460 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Walz, A. L. Burnett, A. J. Costello, J. A. Eastham, M. Graefen, B. Guillonneau, M. Menon, F. Montorsi, R. P. Myers, B. Rocco, and A. Villers, “A critical analysis of the current knowledge of surgical anatomy related to optimization of cancer control and preservation of continence and erection in candidates for radical prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 57(2), 179–192 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rais-Bahrami, A. W. Levinson, N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, A. Hristov, Y. Chuang, A. L. Burnett, and L. M. Su, “Optical coherence tomography of cavernous nerves: a step toward real-time intraoperative imaging during nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy,” Urology 72(1), 198–204 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried, S. Rais-Bahrami, G. A. Lagoda, A. Y. Chuang, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Identification and imaging of the nerves responsible for erectile function in rat prostate, in vivo, using optical nerve stimulation and optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1641–1645 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. M. Fried, S. Rais-Bahrami, G. A. Lagoda, Y. Chuang, A. L. Burnett, and L. M. Su, “Imaging the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(1), 36–41 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cannella, B.

E. G. Zotova, H. H. Schaumburg, C. S. Raine, B. Cannella, M. Tar, A. Melman, and J. C. Arezzo, “Effects of hyperglycemia on rat cavernous nerve axons: a functional and ultrastructural study,” Exp. Neurol. 213(2), 439–447 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Schaumburg, E. Zotova, B. Cannella, C. S. Raine, J. Arezzo, M. Tar, and A. Melman, “Structural and functional investigations of the murine cavernosal nerve: a model system for serial spatio-temporal study of autonomic neuropathy,” BJU Int. 99(4), 916–924 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrion, R. E.

H. H. Davila, M. Mamcarz, I. Nadelhaft, R. Salup, J. Lockhart, and R. E. Carrion, “Visualization of the neurovascular bundles and major pelvic ganglion with fluorescent tracers after penile injection in the rat,” BJU Int. 101(8), 1048–1051 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cense, B.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Invivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chaux, A.

A. Chaux, J. Eifler, S. Karram, T. Al-Hussain, S. Faraj, M. Pomper, R. Rodriguez, and G. J. Netto, “Focal positive prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in ganglionic tissues associated with prostate neurovascular bundle: implications for novel intraoperative PSMA-based fluorescent imaging techniques,” Urol. Oncol. 31(5), 572–575 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, T. C.

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Invivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. E. Saxer, J. F. de Boer, B. H. Park, Y. Zhao, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “High-speed fiber based polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography of in vivo human skin,” Opt. Lett. 25(18), 1355–1357 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

R. Li, E. Phillips, P. Wang, C. J. Goergen, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free in vivo imaging of peripheral nerve by multispectral photoacoustic tomography,” J. Biophotonics 9(1-2), 124–128 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chitchian, S.

S. Chitchian, T. P. Weldon, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Combined image-processing algorithms for improved optical coherence tomography of prostate nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046014 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chitchian, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves via wavelet shrinkage using dual-tree complex wavelet transform,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(1), 014031 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chitchian, T. P. Weldon, and N. M. Fried, “Segmentation of optical coherence tomography images for differentiation of the cavernous nerves from the prostate gland,” J. Biomed. Opt. 14(4), 044033 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chitchian, M. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Wavelet denoising during optical coherence tomography of the prostate nerves using the complex wavelet transform,” in Proc. of IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology, 3016–3019 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chuang, A. Y.

N. M. Fried, S. Rais-Bahrami, G. A. Lagoda, A. Y. Chuang, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Identification and imaging of the nerves responsible for erectile function in rat prostate, in vivo, using optical nerve stimulation and optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1641–1645 (2007).
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Chuang, Y.

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Hitzenberger, C. K.

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C. Eichelberg, A. Erbersdobler, U. Michl, T. Schlomm, G. Salomon, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “Nerve distribution along the prostatic capsule,” Eur. Urol. 51, 105–110 (2007).

Hyle Park, B.

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
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F. Montorsi, A. Salonia, N. Suardi, A. Gallina, G. Zanni, A. Briganti, F. Deho’, R. Naspro, E. Farina, and P. Rigatti, “Improving the preservation of the urethral sphincter and neurovascular bundles during open radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 48(6), 938–945 (2005).
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S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, K. A. Nasr, K. M. Fish, O. Khullar, Y. Ashitate, T. M. Siclovan, B. F. Johnson, N. E. Barnhardt, C. A. Tan Hehir, and J. V. Frangioni, “Nerve-highlighting fluorescent contrast agents for image-guided surgery,” Mol. Imaging 10(2), 91–101 (2011).
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J. M. Kartush, J. K. Niparko, S. C. Bledsoe, M. D. Graham, and J. L. Kemink, “Intraoperative facial nerve monitoring: a comparison of stimulating electrodes,” Laryngoscope 95(12), 1536–1540 (1985).
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S. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Yoon, W. K. Chung, H. Tchah, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “In vivo 3D measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distributions in the mouse cornea using multiphoton microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25339 (2016).
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Y. H. Park, C. W. Jeong, and S. E. Lee, “A comprehensive review of neuroanatomy of the prostate,” Prostate Int. 1(4), 139–145 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Patel, V. R.

P. P. Dangle, K. K. Shah, B. Kaffenberger, and V. R. Patel, “The Use of High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate Robotic Radical Prostatectomy Specimens,” Int. Braz. J. Urol. 35(3), 344–353 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Petrisor, D.

M. Han, C. Kim, P. Mozer, F. Schäfer, S. Badaan, B. Vigaru, K. Tseng, D. Petrisor, B. Trock, and D. Stoianovici, “Tandem-robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to improve the neurovascular bundle visualization: a feasibility study,” Urology 77(2), 502–506 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, E.

R. Li, E. Phillips, P. Wang, C. J. Goergen, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free in vivo imaging of peripheral nerve by multispectral photoacoustic tomography,” J. Biophotonics 9(1-2), 124–128 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Jones matrix analysis for a polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography system using fiber-optic components,” Opt. Lett. 29(21), 2512–2514 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “In vivo birefringence and thickness measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 121–125 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cense, T. C. Chen, B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, and J. F. de Boer, “Invivo depth-resolved birefringence measurements of the human retinal nerve fiber layer by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(18), 1610–1612 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pircher, M.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 94–102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pomper, M.

A. Chaux, J. Eifler, S. Karram, T. Al-Hussain, S. Faraj, M. Pomper, R. Rodriguez, and G. J. Netto, “Focal positive prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in ganglionic tissues associated with prostate neurovascular bundle: implications for novel intraoperative PSMA-based fluorescent imaging techniques,” Urol. Oncol. 31(5), 572–575 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ponnusamy, K.

K. Ponnusamy, J. M. Sorger, and C. Mohr, “Nerve mapping for prostatectomies: novel technologies under development,” J. Endourol. 26(7), 769–777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rai, S.

S. Rai, A. Srivastava, P. Sooriakumaran, and A. Tewari, “Advances in imaging the neurovascular bundle,” Curr. Opin. Urol. 22(2), 88–96 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raine, C. S.

E. G. Zotova, H. H. Schaumburg, C. S. Raine, B. Cannella, M. Tar, A. Melman, and J. C. Arezzo, “Effects of hyperglycemia on rat cavernous nerve axons: a functional and ultrastructural study,” Exp. Neurol. 213(2), 439–447 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Schaumburg, E. Zotova, B. Cannella, C. S. Raine, J. Arezzo, M. Tar, and A. Melman, “Structural and functional investigations of the murine cavernosal nerve: a model system for serial spatio-temporal study of autonomic neuropathy,” BJU Int. 99(4), 916–924 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rais-Bahrami, S.

S. Rais-Bahrami, A. W. Levinson, N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, A. Hristov, Y. Chuang, A. L. Burnett, and L. M. Su, “Optical coherence tomography of cavernous nerves: a step toward real-time intraoperative imaging during nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy,” Urology 72(1), 198–204 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried, S. Rais-Bahrami, G. A. Lagoda, Y. Chuang, A. L. Burnett, and L. M. Su, “Imaging the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(1), 36–41 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried, S. Rais-Bahrami, G. A. Lagoda, A. Y. Chuang, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Identification and imaging of the nerves responsible for erectile function in rat prostate, in vivo, using optical nerve stimulation and optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1641–1645 (2007).
[Crossref]

Randolph, M. A.

F. P. Henry, Y. Wang, C. L. Rodriguez, M. A. Randolph, E. A. Rust, J. M. Winograd, J. F. de Boer, and B. H. Park, “In vivo optical microscopy of peripheral nerve myelination with polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 046002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Islam, M. C. Oliveira, Y. Wang, F. P. Henry, M. A. Randolph, B. H. Park, and J. F. de Boer, “Extracting structural features of rat sciatic nerve using polarization-sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(5), 056012 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reardon, M. A.

L. B. Boyette, M. A. Reardon, A. J. Mirelman, T. D. Kirkley, J. J. Lysiak, J. B. Tuttle, and W. D. Steers, “Fiberoptic imaging of cavernous nerves in vivo,” J. Urol. 178(6), 2694–2700 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rigatti, P.

F. Montorsi, A. Salonia, N. Suardi, A. Gallina, G. Zanni, A. Briganti, F. Deho’, R. Naspro, E. Farina, and P. Rigatti, “Improving the preservation of the urethral sphincter and neurovascular bundles during open radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 48(6), 938–945 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rocco, B.

J. Walz, A. L. Burnett, A. J. Costello, J. A. Eastham, M. Graefen, B. Guillonneau, M. Menon, F. Montorsi, R. P. Myers, B. Rocco, and A. Villers, “A critical analysis of the current knowledge of surgical anatomy related to optimization of cancer control and preservation of continence and erection in candidates for radical prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 57(2), 179–192 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, C. L.

F. P. Henry, Y. Wang, C. L. Rodriguez, M. A. Randolph, E. A. Rust, J. M. Winograd, J. F. de Boer, and B. H. Park, “In vivo optical microscopy of peripheral nerve myelination with polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 046002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, R.

A. Chaux, J. Eifler, S. Karram, T. Al-Hussain, S. Faraj, M. Pomper, R. Rodriguez, and G. J. Netto, “Focal positive prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) expression in ganglionic tissues associated with prostate neurovascular bundle: implications for novel intraoperative PSMA-based fluorescent imaging techniques,” Urol. Oncol. 31(5), 572–575 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rubin, M. A.

A. K. Tewari, M. M. Shevchuk, J. Sterling, S. Grover, M. Herman, R. Yadav, K. Mudalair, A. Srivastava, M. A. Rubin, W. R. Zipfel, F. R. Maxfield, C. Xu, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy for structure identification in human prostate and periprostatic tissue: implications in prostate cancer surgery,” BJU Int. 108(9), 1421–1429 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rust, E. A.

F. P. Henry, Y. Wang, C. L. Rodriguez, M. A. Randolph, E. A. Rust, J. M. Winograd, J. F. de Boer, and B. H. Park, “In vivo optical microscopy of peripheral nerve myelination with polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 20(4), 046002 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, H.

Y. Kaiho, H. Nakagawa, H. Saito, A. Ito, S. Ishidoya, S. Saito, and Y. Arai, “Nerves at the ventral prostatic capsule contribute to erectile function: initial electrophysiological assessment in humans,” Eur. Urol. 55(1), 148–155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saito, S.

Y. Kaiho, H. Nakagawa, H. Saito, A. Ito, S. Ishidoya, S. Saito, and Y. Arai, “Nerves at the ventral prostatic capsule contribute to erectile function: initial electrophysiological assessment in humans,” Eur. Urol. 55(1), 148–155 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salomon, G.

C. Eichelberg, A. Erbersdobler, U. Michl, T. Schlomm, G. Salomon, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “Nerve distribution along the prostatic capsule,” Eur. Urol. 51, 105–110 (2007).

Salonia, A.

F. Montorsi, A. Salonia, N. Suardi, A. Gallina, G. Zanni, A. Briganti, F. Deho’, R. Naspro, E. Farina, and P. Rigatti, “Improving the preservation of the urethral sphincter and neurovascular bundles during open radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 48(6), 938–945 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salup, R.

H. H. Davila, M. Mamcarz, I. Nadelhaft, R. Salup, J. Lockhart, and R. E. Carrion, “Visualization of the neurovascular bundles and major pelvic ganglion with fluorescent tracers after penile injection in the rat,” BJU Int. 101(8), 1048–1051 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sattar, A. A.

A. A. Sattar, J. C. Noël, J. J. Vanderhaeghen, C. C. Schulman, and E. Wespes, “Prostate capsule: computerized morphometric analysis of its components,” Urology 46(2), 178–181 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saxer, C. E.

Schäfer, F.

M. Han, C. Kim, P. Mozer, F. Schäfer, S. Badaan, B. Vigaru, K. Tseng, D. Petrisor, B. Trock, and D. Stoianovici, “Tandem-robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to improve the neurovascular bundle visualization: a feasibility study,” Urology 77(2), 502–506 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaumburg, H. H.

E. G. Zotova, H. H. Schaumburg, C. S. Raine, B. Cannella, M. Tar, A. Melman, and J. C. Arezzo, “Effects of hyperglycemia on rat cavernous nerve axons: a functional and ultrastructural study,” Exp. Neurol. 213(2), 439–447 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Schaumburg, E. Zotova, B. Cannella, C. S. Raine, J. Arezzo, M. Tar, and A. Melman, “Structural and functional investigations of the murine cavernosal nerve: a model system for serial spatio-temporal study of autonomic neuropathy,” BJU Int. 99(4), 916–924 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schilling, D.

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. Laible, B. Amend, D. Schilling, A. Anastasiadis, U. Kuehs, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The periprostatic autonomic nerves--bundle or layer?” Eur. Urol. 54(5), 1109–1117 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schlomm, T.

C. Eichelberg, A. Erbersdobler, U. Michl, T. Schlomm, G. Salomon, M. Graefen, and H. Huland, “Nerve distribution along the prostatic capsule,” Eur. Urol. 51, 105–110 (2007).

Schulman, C. C.

A. A. Sattar, J. C. Noël, J. J. Vanderhaeghen, C. C. Schulman, and E. Wespes, “Prostate capsule: computerized morphometric analysis of its components,” Urology 46(2), 178–181 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwentner, C.

A. Lunacek, C. Schwentner, H. Fritsch, G. Bartsch, and H. Strasser, “Anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy: ‘curtain dissection’ of the neurovascular bundle,” BJU Int. 95(9), 1226–1231 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shah, K. K.

P. P. Dangle, K. K. Shah, B. Kaffenberger, and V. R. Patel, “The Use of High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography to Evaluate Robotic Radical Prostatectomy Specimens,” Int. Braz. J. Urol. 35(3), 344–353 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sharma, S.

K. C. Lee, S. Sharma, J. B. Tuttle, and W. D. Steers, “Origin and characterization of retrograde labeled neurons supplying the rat urethra using fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy in vivo and immunohistochemistry,” J. Urol. 184(4), 1550–1554 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheridan, R. L.

M. C. Pierce, R. L. Sheridan, B. Hyle Park, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, “Collagen denaturation can be quantified in burned human skin using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Burns 30(6), 511–517 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shevchuk, M. M.

A. K. Tewari, M. M. Shevchuk, J. Sterling, S. Grover, M. Herman, R. Yadav, K. Mudalair, A. Srivastava, M. A. Rubin, W. R. Zipfel, F. R. Maxfield, C. Xu, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy for structure identification in human prostate and periprostatic tissue: implications in prostate cancer surgery,” BJU Int. 108(9), 1421–1429 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siclovan, T. M.

S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, K. A. Nasr, K. M. Fish, O. Khullar, Y. Ashitate, T. M. Siclovan, B. F. Johnson, N. E. Barnhardt, C. A. Tan Hehir, and J. V. Frangioni, “Nerve-highlighting fluorescent contrast agents for image-guided surgery,” Mol. Imaging 10(2), 91–101 (2011).
[PubMed]

Sievert, K. D.

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. Laible, B. Amend, D. Schilling, A. Anastasiadis, U. Kuehs, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The periprostatic autonomic nerves--bundle or layer?” Eur. Urol. 54(5), 1109–1117 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soga, H.

A. Takenaka, G. Murakami, H. Soga, S. H. Han, Y. Arai, and M. Fujisawa, “Anatomical analysis of the neurovascular bundle supplying penile cavernous tissue to ensure a reliable nerve graft after radical prostatectomy,” J. Urol. 172(3), 1032–1035 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Son, S.

Sooriakumaran, P.

S. Rai, A. Srivastava, P. Sooriakumaran, and A. Tewari, “Advances in imaging the neurovascular bundle,” Curr. Opin. Urol. 22(2), 88–96 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorger, J. M.

K. Ponnusamy, J. M. Sorger, and C. Mohr, “Nerve mapping for prostatectomies: novel technologies under development,” J. Endourol. 26(7), 769–777 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivas, S. M.

S. M. Srinivas, J. F. de Boer, H. Park, K. Keikhanzadeh, H. E. Huang, J. Zhang, W. Q. Jung, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, “Determination of burn depth by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 207–212 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srivastava, A.

S. Rai, A. Srivastava, P. Sooriakumaran, and A. Tewari, “Advances in imaging the neurovascular bundle,” Curr. Opin. Urol. 22(2), 88–96 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. K. Tewari, M. M. Shevchuk, J. Sterling, S. Grover, M. Herman, R. Yadav, K. Mudalair, A. Srivastava, M. A. Rubin, W. R. Zipfel, F. R. Maxfield, C. Xu, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy for structure identification in human prostate and periprostatic tissue: implications in prostate cancer surgery,” BJU Int. 108(9), 1421–1429 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staudinger, V. P.

Steers, W. D.

K. C. Lee, S. Sharma, J. B. Tuttle, and W. D. Steers, “Origin and characterization of retrograde labeled neurons supplying the rat urethra using fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy in vivo and immunohistochemistry,” J. Urol. 184(4), 1550–1554 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. B. Boyette, M. A. Reardon, A. J. Mirelman, T. D. Kirkley, J. J. Lysiak, J. B. Tuttle, and W. D. Steers, “Fiberoptic imaging of cavernous nerves in vivo,” J. Urol. 178(6), 2694–2700 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steinbach, P.

M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nat. Biotechnol. 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stenzl, A.

K. D. Sievert, J. Hennenlotter, I. Laible, B. Amend, D. Schilling, A. Anastasiadis, U. Kuehs, U. Nagele, and A. Stenzl, “The periprostatic autonomic nerves--bundle or layer?” Eur. Urol. 54(5), 1109–1117 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sterling, J.

A. K. Tewari, M. M. Shevchuk, J. Sterling, S. Grover, M. Herman, R. Yadav, K. Mudalair, A. Srivastava, M. A. Rubin, W. R. Zipfel, F. R. Maxfield, C. Xu, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy for structure identification in human prostate and periprostatic tissue: implications in prostate cancer surgery,” BJU Int. 108(9), 1421–1429 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sticker, M.

E. Götzinger, M. Pircher, M. Sticker, A. F. Fercher, and C. K. Hitzenberger, “Measurement and imaging of birefringent properties of the human cornea with phase-resolved, polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9(1), 94–102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Hitzenberger, E. Goetzinger, M. Sticker, M. Pircher, and A. Fercher, “Measurement and imaging of birefringence and optic axis orientation by phase resolved polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 9(13), 780–790 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoianovici, D.

M. Han, C. Kim, P. Mozer, F. Schäfer, S. Badaan, B. Vigaru, K. Tseng, D. Petrisor, B. Trock, and D. Stoianovici, “Tandem-robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to improve the neurovascular bundle visualization: a feasibility study,” Urology 77(2), 502–506 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strasser, H.

A. Lunacek, C. Schwentner, H. Fritsch, G. Bartsch, and H. Strasser, “Anatomical radical retropubic prostatectomy: ‘curtain dissection’ of the neurovascular bundle,” BJU Int. 95(9), 1226–1231 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Studer, U. E.

T. M. Kessler, F. C. Burkhard, and U. E. Studer, “Nerve-sparing open radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 51(1), 90–97 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, L. M.

S. Rais-Bahrami, A. W. Levinson, N. M. Fried, G. A. Lagoda, A. Hristov, Y. Chuang, A. L. Burnett, and L. M. Su, “Optical coherence tomography of cavernous nerves: a step toward real-time intraoperative imaging during nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy,” Urology 72(1), 198–204 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. M. Fried, S. Rais-Bahrami, G. A. Lagoda, A. Y. Chuang, L. M. Su, and A. L. Burnett, “Identification and imaging of the nerves responsible for erectile function in rat prostate, in vivo, using optical nerve stimulation and optical coherence tomography,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(6), 1641–1645 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. M. Fried, S. Rais-Bahrami, G. A. Lagoda, Y. Chuang, A. L. Burnett, and L. M. Su, “Imaging the cavernous nerves in the rat prostate using optical coherence tomography,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(1), 36–41 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suardi, N.

F. Montorsi, A. Salonia, N. Suardi, A. Gallina, G. Zanni, A. Briganti, F. Deho’, R. Naspro, E. Farina, and P. Rigatti, “Improving the preservation of the urethral sphincter and neurovascular bundles during open radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 48(6), 938–945 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sutoh, Y.

Takenaka, A.

A. Takenaka, G. Murakami, H. Soga, S. H. Han, Y. Arai, and M. Fujisawa, “Anatomical analysis of the neurovascular bundle supplying penile cavernous tissue to ensure a reliable nerve graft after radical prostatectomy,” J. Urol. 172(3), 1032–1035 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, G.

R. Yadav, S. Mukherjee, M. Hermen, G. Tan, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and A. K. Tewari, “Multiphoton microscopy of prostate and periprostatic neural tissue: a promising imaging technique for improving nerve-sparing prostatectomy,” J. Endourol. 23(5), 861–867 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan Hehir, C. A.

S. L. Gibbs-Strauss, K. A. Nasr, K. M. Fish, O. Khullar, Y. Ashitate, T. M. Siclovan, B. F. Johnson, N. E. Barnhardt, C. A. Tan Hehir, and J. V. Frangioni, “Nerve-highlighting fluorescent contrast agents for image-guided surgery,” Mol. Imaging 10(2), 91–101 (2011).
[PubMed]

Tar, M.

E. G. Zotova, H. H. Schaumburg, C. S. Raine, B. Cannella, M. Tar, A. Melman, and J. C. Arezzo, “Effects of hyperglycemia on rat cavernous nerve axons: a functional and ultrastructural study,” Exp. Neurol. 213(2), 439–447 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Schaumburg, E. Zotova, B. Cannella, C. S. Raine, J. Arezzo, M. Tar, and A. Melman, “Structural and functional investigations of the murine cavernosal nerve: a model system for serial spatio-temporal study of autonomic neuropathy,” BJU Int. 99(4), 916–924 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tchah, H.

S. Lee, J. H. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Yoon, W. K. Chung, H. Tchah, M. J. Kim, and K. H. Kim, “In vivo 3D measurement of moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin distributions in the mouse cornea using multiphoton microscopy,” Sci. Rep. 6, 25339 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

S. K. Nadkarni, M. C. Pierce, B. H. Park, J. F. de Boer, P. Whittaker, B. E. Bouma, J. E. Bressner, E. Halpern, S. L. Houser, and G. J. Tearney, “Measurement of collagen and smooth muscle cell content in atherosclerotic plaques using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49(13), 1474–1481 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tewari, A.

S. Rai, A. Srivastava, P. Sooriakumaran, and A. Tewari, “Advances in imaging the neurovascular bundle,” Curr. Opin. Urol. 22(2), 88–96 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tewari, A. K.

A. K. Tewari, M. M. Shevchuk, J. Sterling, S. Grover, M. Herman, R. Yadav, K. Mudalair, A. Srivastava, M. A. Rubin, W. R. Zipfel, F. R. Maxfield, C. Xu, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy for structure identification in human prostate and periprostatic tissue: implications in prostate cancer surgery,” BJU Int. 108(9), 1421–1429 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Yadav, S. Mukherjee, M. Hermen, G. Tan, F. R. Maxfield, W. W. Webb, and A. K. Tewari, “Multiphoton microscopy of prostate and periprostatic neural tissue: a promising imaging technique for improving nerve-sparing prostatectomy,” J. Endourol. 23(5), 861–867 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thrall, M. J.

Trock, B.

M. Han, C. Kim, P. Mozer, F. Schäfer, S. Badaan, B. Vigaru, K. Tseng, D. Petrisor, B. Trock, and D. Stoianovici, “Tandem-robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to improve the neurovascular bundle visualization: a feasibility study,” Urology 77(2), 502–506 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tseng, K.

M. Han, C. Kim, P. Mozer, F. Schäfer, S. Badaan, B. Vigaru, K. Tseng, D. Petrisor, B. Trock, and D. Stoianovici, “Tandem-robot assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy to improve the neurovascular bundle visualization: a feasibility study,” Urology 77(2), 502–506 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsien, R. Y.

Q. T. Nguyen and R. Y. Tsien, “Fluorescence-guided surgery with live molecular navigation--a new cutting edge,” Nat. Rev. Cancer 13(9), 653–662 (2013).
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M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nat. Biotechnol. 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
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K. C. Lee, S. Sharma, J. B. Tuttle, and W. D. Steers, “Origin and characterization of retrograde labeled neurons supplying the rat urethra using fiberoptic confocal fluorescent microscopy in vivo and immunohistochemistry,” J. Urol. 184(4), 1550–1554 (2010).
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O. Ukimura, T. E. Ahlering, and I. S. Gill, “Transrectal ultrasound-guided, energy-free, nerve-sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy,” J. Endourol. 22(9), 1993–1996 (2008).
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O. Ukimura and I. S. Gill, “Real-time transrectal ultrasound guidance during nerve sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: pictorial essay,” J. Urol. 175(4), 1311–1319 (2006).
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T. P. Matthews, C. Zhang, D. K. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 016004 (2014).
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S. Chitchian, T. P. Weldon, M. A. Fiddy, and N. M. Fried, “Combined image-processing algorithms for improved optical coherence tomography of prostate nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 15(4), 046014 (2010).
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A. A. Sattar, J. C. Noël, J. J. Vanderhaeghen, C. C. Schulman, and E. Wespes, “Prostate capsule: computerized morphometric analysis of its components,” Urology 46(2), 178–181 (1995).
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M. A. Whitney, J. L. Crisp, L. T. Nguyen, B. Friedman, L. A. Gross, P. Steinbach, R. Y. Tsien, and Q. T. Nguyen, “Fluorescent peptides highlight peripheral nerves during surgery in mice,” Nat. Biotechnol. 29(4), 352–356 (2011).
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Yang, Y.

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T. P. Matthews, C. Zhang, D. K. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 016004 (2014).
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Yazdanfar, S.

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F. Montorsi, A. Salonia, N. Suardi, A. Gallina, G. Zanni, A. Briganti, F. Deho’, R. Naspro, E. Farina, and P. Rigatti, “Improving the preservation of the urethral sphincter and neurovascular bundles during open radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Eur. Urol. 48(6), 938–945 (2005).
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T. P. Matthews, C. Zhang, D. K. Yao, K. Maslov, and L. V. Wang, “Label-free photoacoustic microscopy of peripheral nerves,” J. Biomed. Opt. 19(1), 016004 (2014).
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A. K. Tewari, M. M. Shevchuk, J. Sterling, S. Grover, M. Herman, R. Yadav, K. Mudalair, A. Srivastava, M. A. Rubin, W. R. Zipfel, F. R. Maxfield, C. Xu, W. W. Webb, and S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton microscopy for structure identification in human prostate and periprostatic tissue: implications in prostate cancer surgery,” BJU Int. 108(9), 1421–1429 (2011).
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R. Li, E. Phillips, P. Wang, C. J. Goergen, and J. X. Cheng, “Label-free in vivo imaging of peripheral nerve by multispectral photoacoustic tomography,” J. Biophotonics 9(1-2), 124–128 (2016).
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O. Ukimura, C. Magi-Galluzzi, and I. S. Gill, “Real-time transrectal ultrasound guidance during laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: impact on surgical margins,” J. Urol. 175(4), 1304–1310 (2006).
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Supplementary Material (10)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MOV (4850 KB)      3D PS-OCT images of rat prostate MPG, displaying frontal images in the x-y plane with step-wise increment in the z direction.
» Visualization 2: MOV (4849 KB)      3D PS-OCT images of rat prostate MPG, displaying cross-sectional images in the x-z plane with step-wise increment in the y direction.
» Visualization 3: MOV (4269 KB)      3D PS-OCT images of rat prostate CN, displaying frontal images in the x-y plane with step-wise increment in the z direction.
» Visualization 4: MOV (4978 KB)      3D PS-OCT images of rat prostate CN, displaying cross-sectional images in the x-z plane with step-wise increment in the y direction.
» Visualization 5: MOV (4887 KB)      3D PS-OCT images of the representative human prostatectomy specimen at 5 o’clock site, displaying frontal images in the x-y plane with step-wise increment in the z direction.
» Visualization 6: MOV (5479 KB)      3D PS-OCT images of the representative human prostatectomy specimen at 5 o’clock site, displaying cross-sectional images in the x-z plane with step-wise increment in the y direction.
» Visualization 7: MOV (4447 KB)      3D PS-OCT images of the representative human prostatectomy specimen at 3 o’clock site, displaying frontal images in the x-y plane with step-wise increment in the z direction.
» Visualization 8: MOV (5371 KB)      3D PS-OCT images of the representative human prostatectomy specimen at 3 o’clock site, displaying cross-sectional images in the x-z plane with step-wise increment in the y direction.
» Visualization 9: MOV (4453 KB)      3D PS-OCT images of the representative human prostatectomy specimen at 12 o’clock site, displaying frontal images in the x-y plane with step-wise increment in the z direction.
» Visualization 10: MOV (5347 KB)      3D PS-OCT images of the representative human prostatectomy specimen at 12 o’clock site, displaying cross-sectional images in the x-z plane with step-wise increment in the y direction.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 A picture of radical prostatectomy specimen with orientation. Orientation of the prostatectomy specimen was numbered counterclockwise with respect to the urethral opening, and 12 o’clock and 6 o’clock were numbered to the anterior and posterior sides, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 System configuration of PS-OCT. PC: polarization controller, FBG: fiber Bragg grating, CM: collimator, CIR: fiber circulator, FC: fiber coupler, PBS: polarizing beam splitter, PD: photodetector, PDD: polarization diverse detection, M: mirror, SM: scanning mirror, L: 5x OCT scan lens (EF = 36 mm).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 PS-OCT images and histological images of rat MPG site ex vivo. (a, b) Intensity OCT and PS-OCT images in the en face x-y plane (Visualization 1) and (c-f) in the cross-sectional x-z planes (Visualization 2). (g) An immunofluorescence stained histological image. Dashed line I and II indicate locations of the cross-sections (c, d) and (e, f) respectively. A star (*), double stars (**) and arrows indicate periprostatic fats, prostatic glands and birefringent fibrous structures, respectively. All scale bars are 1 mm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 PS-OCT images and histological images of rat CN site ex vivo. (a, b) Intensity OCT and PS-OCT images in the en face x-y plane (Visualization 3) and (c-f) in the cross-sectional x-z planes (Visualization 4). (g) An immunofluorescence stained histological image. Dashed line I and II indicate locations of the cross-sections (c, d) and (e, f) respectively. A star (*), double stars (**) and arrows indicate periprostatic fats, prostatic glands and birefringent fibrous structures, respectively. All scale bars are 1 mm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 PS-OCT images and mosaic MPM image of rat periprostatic nerves surrounding MPG ex vivo. (a, b) Intensity OCT and PS-OCT images in the en face x-y plane. Scale bar is 1 mm. (c) Mosaic MPM image consisting of 18 images in dashed box region in (a, b). Scale bar is 500 μm. A star (*) and arrows indicate prostatic glands and nerves, respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 PS-OCT images and histological images of the human prostatectomy specimen at 5 o’clock site. (a, b) Intensity OCT and PS-OCT images in the en face x-y plane (Visualization 5) and (c-f) in the cross-sectional x-z plane (Visualization 6). (g) An immunofluorescence stained histological image. Dashed line I and II indicate locations of the cross-sections (c, d) and (e, f) respectively. Double stars (**) and arrows indicate periprostatic fats and birefringent fibrous structures respectively. All scale bars are 1 mm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 PS-OCT images and histological images of the human prostatectomy specimen at 3 o’clock site. (a, b) Intensity OCT and PS-OCT images in the en face x-y plane (Visualization 7) and (c-f) in the cross-sectional x-z plane (Visualization 8). (g) An immunofluorescence stained histological image. Dashed line I and II indicate locations of the cross-sections (c, d) and (e, f) respectively. Double stars (**), arrows and arrow heads indicate periprostatic fats, birefringent fibrous structures and birefringent sheet-like structures, respectively. All scale bars are 1 mm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 PS-OCT images and histological images of the human prostatectomy specimen at 12 o’clock site. (a, b) Intensity OCT and PS-OCT images in the en face x-y plane (Visualization 9) and (c-f) in the cross-sectional x-z plane (Visualization 10). (g) An immunofluorescence stained histological image. Dashed line I and II indicate locations of the cross-sections (c, d) and (e, f) respectively. Arrow heads indicate birefringent sheet-like structures. All scale bars are 1 mm.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Various PS-OCT images of rat and human prostatic nerves in the en face (x-y) plane. (a-e) Rat prostates and (f-j) human prostates. A star (*) and double stars (**) indicate prostatic glands and periprostatic fats respectively. Arrows indicate the birefringent fibrous structures of nerves. All scale bars are 1 mm.

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