Abstract

We achieved human retinal imaging using visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT) guided by an integrated scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO). We adapted a spectral domain OCT configuration and used a supercontinuum laser as the illumating source. The center wavelength was 564 nm and the bandwidth was 115 nm, which provided a 0.97 µm axial resolution measured in air. We characterized the sensitivity to be 86 dB with 226 µW incidence power on the pupil. We also integrated an SLO that shared the same optical path of the vis-OCT sample arm for alignment purposes. We demonstrated the retinal imaging from both systems centered at the fovea and optic nerve head with 20° × 20° and 10° × 10° field of view. We observed similar anatomical structures in vis-OCT and NIR-OCT. The contrast appeared different from vis-OCT to NIR-OCT, including slightly weaker signal from intra-retinal layers, and increased visibility and contrast of anatomical layers in the outer retina.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [PubMed]

2015 (3)

2014 (2)

P. Y. Teng, J. Wanek, N. P. Blair, and M. Shahidi, “Response of Inner Retinal Oxygen Extraction Fraction to Light Flicker Under Normoxia and Hypoxia in Rat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6055–6058 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

T. Klein, W. Wieser, L. Reznicek, A. Neubauer, A. Kampik, and R. Huber, “Multi-MHz retinal OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 1890–1908 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. A. Newman, “Functional hyperemia and mechanisms of neurovascular coupling in the retinal vasculature,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(11), 1685–1695 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

J. Kur, E. A. Newman, and T. Chan-Ling, “Cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying blood flow regulation in the retina and choroid in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 31(5), 377–406 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of absolute blood flow velocity and blood flow in the human retina by dual-beam bidirectional Doppler fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

2010 (4)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

2000 (1)

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, B. L. Petrig, and B. Falsini, “Effect of dark adaptation on retinal blood flow,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 216(5), 309–310 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

R. D. Braun, R. A. Linsenmeier, and T. K. Goldstick, “Oxygen consumption in the inner and outer retina of the cat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 542–554 (1995).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adler, D. C.

Akiba, M.

An, L.

Apolonski, A.

Backman, V.

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. Fawzi, R. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl.In press.

Bailey, S. T.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumann, B.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bizheva, K.

Blair, N. P.

P. Y. Teng, J. Wanek, N. P. Blair, and M. Shahidi, “Response of Inner Retinal Oxygen Extraction Fraction to Light Flicker Under Normoxia and Hypoxia in Rat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6055–6058 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boas, D. A.

Boltz, A.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of absolute blood flow velocity and blood flow in the human retina by dual-beam bidirectional Doppler fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bouma, B.

Bower, B. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Braun, R. D.

R. D. Braun, R. A. Linsenmeier, and T. K. Goldstick, “Oxygen consumption in the inner and outer retina of the cat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 542–554 (1995).
[PubMed]

Cable, A. E.

Cense, B.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chan-Ling, T.

J. Kur, E. A. Newman, and T. Chan-Ling, “Cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying blood flow regulation in the retina and choroid in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 31(5), 377–406 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, J. Yi, and H. F. Zhang, “Measuring oxygen saturation in retinal and choroidal circulations in rats using visible light optical coherence tomography angiography,” Biomed. Opt. Express 6(8), 2840–2853 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. Fawzi, R. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl.In press.

Chen, T.

Chong, S. P.

Chowdhury, S.

de Boer, J.

de Boer, J. F.

Delori, F. C.

Dragostinoff, N.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of absolute blood flow velocity and blood flow in the human retina by dual-beam bidirectional Doppler fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Duker, J. S.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

Falsini, B.

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, B. L. Petrig, and B. Falsini, “Effect of dark adaptation on retinal blood flow,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 216(5), 309–310 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fawzi, A.

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. Fawzi, R. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl.In press.

Fercher, A. F.

Flaxel, C. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Francis, P.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Garhöfer, G.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of absolute blood flow velocity and blood flow in the human retina by dual-beam bidirectional Doppler fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldstick, T. K.

R. D. Braun, R. A. Linsenmeier, and T. K. Goldstick, “Oxygen consumption in the inner and outer retina of the cat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 542–554 (1995).
[PubMed]

Gorczynska, I.

Grant, G.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gröschl, M.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of absolute blood flow velocity and blood flow in the human retina by dual-beam bidirectional Doppler fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hong, Y.

Hornegger, J.

Hu, J.

Huang, D.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, X.-R.

Huber, R.

Izatt, J. A.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaillon, F.

James, G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jia, Y.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiao, S.

Kampik, A.

Klein, M. L.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, T.

Knight, J. C.

Knighton, R. W.

Kolb, J. P.

Kowalczyk, A.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kraus, M. F.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kufner, C. L.

Kur, J.

J. Kur, E. A. Newman, and T. Chan-Ling, “Cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying blood flow regulation in the retina and choroid in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 31(5), 377–406 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leahy, C.

Lee, E. C.

Leitgeb, R.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leitgeb, R. A.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of absolute blood flow velocity and blood flow in the human retina by dual-beam bidirectional Doppler fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X.

Lim, H.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linsenmeier, R.

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. Fawzi, R. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl.In press.

Linsenmeier, R. A.

R. D. Braun, R. A. Linsenmeier, and T. K. Goldstick, “Oxygen consumption in the inner and outer retina of the cat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 542–554 (1995).
[PubMed]

Liu, J. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

J. Yi, Q. Wei, W. Liu, V. Backman, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible-light optical coherence tomography for retinal oximetry,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1796–1798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. Fawzi, R. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl.In press.

Logean, E.

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, B. L. Petrig, and B. Falsini, “Effect of dark adaptation on retinal blood flow,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 216(5), 309–310 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, C. D.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makita, S.

Merkle, C. W.

Miura, M.

Mujat, M.

Nassif, N.

Neubauer, A.

Neubauer, A. S.

Newman, E. A.

E. A. Newman, “Functional hyperemia and mechanisms of neurovascular coupling in the retinal vasculature,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(11), 1685–1695 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kur, E. A. Newman, and T. Chan-Ling, “Cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying blood flow regulation in the retina and choroid in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 31(5), 377–406 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palkovits, S.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of absolute blood flow velocity and blood flow in the human retina by dual-beam bidirectional Doppler fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B.

Petrig, B. L.

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, B. L. Petrig, and B. Falsini, “Effect of dark adaptation on retinal blood flow,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 216(5), 309–310 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pierce, M.

Potsaid, B.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Baumann, B. Potsaid, M. F. Kraus, J. J. Liu, D. Huang, J. Hornegger, A. E. Cable, J. S. Duker, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(6), 1539–1552 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Povazay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

X. Zhang, J. Hu, R. W. Knighton, X.-R. Huang, C. A. Puliafito, and S. Jiao, “Dual-band spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging the spectral contrasts of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19653–19659 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, H.

Reznicek, L.

Riva, C. E.

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, B. L. Petrig, and B. Falsini, “Effect of dark adaptation on retinal blood flow,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 216(5), 309–310 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robles, F. E.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. E. Robles, S. Chowdhury, and A. Wax, “Assessing hemoglobin concentration using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography for feasibility of tissue diagnostics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 310–317 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

Ruvinskaya, S.

Sakadzic, S.

Sattmann, H.

Scherzer, E.

Schmetterer, L.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of absolute blood flow velocity and blood flow in the human retina by dual-beam bidirectional Doppler fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shahidi, M.

P. Y. Teng, J. Wanek, N. P. Blair, and M. Shahidi, “Response of Inner Retinal Oxygen Extraction Fraction to Light Flicker Under Normoxia and Hypoxia in Rat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6055–6058 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sheibani, N.

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. Fawzi, R. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl.In press.

Sliney, D. H.

Sorenson, C. M.

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. Fawzi, R. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl.In press.

Srinivasan, V. J.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tan, O.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tearney, G.

Teng, P. Y.

P. Y. Teng, J. Wanek, N. P. Blair, and M. Shahidi, “Response of Inner Retinal Oxygen Extraction Fraction to Light Flicker Under Normoxia and Hypoxia in Rat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6055–6058 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Told, R.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of absolute blood flow velocity and blood flow in the human retina by dual-beam bidirectional Doppler fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

Vetterlein, M.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wanek, J.

P. Y. Teng, J. Wanek, N. P. Blair, and M. Shahidi, “Response of Inner Retinal Oxygen Extraction Fraction to Light Flicker Under Normoxia and Hypoxia in Rat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6055–6058 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. K.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wax, A.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. E. Robles, S. Chowdhury, and A. Wax, “Assessing hemoglobin concentration using spectroscopic optical coherence tomography for feasibility of tissue diagnostics,” Biomed. Opt. Express 1(1), 310–317 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Wei, Q.

Werkmeister, R. M.

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of absolute blood flow velocity and blood flow in the human retina by dual-beam bidirectional Doppler fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, B.

Wieser, W.

Wilson, C.

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wilson, D. J.

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. K. Wang, L. An, P. Francis, and D. J. Wilson, “Depth-resolved imaging of capillary networks in retina and choroid using ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1467–1469 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

Yamanari, M.

Yasuno, Y.

Yatagai, T.

Yi, J.

Yun, S. H.

Zhang, H. F.

Zhang, X.

Biomed. Opt. Express (6)

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (3)

P. Y. Teng, J. Wanek, N. P. Blair, and M. Shahidi, “Response of Inner Retinal Oxygen Extraction Fraction to Light Flicker Under Normoxia and Hypoxia in Rat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 55(9), 6055–6058 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Werkmeister, N. Dragostinoff, S. Palkovits, R. Told, A. Boltz, R. A. Leitgeb, M. Gröschl, G. Garhöfer, and L. Schmetterer, “Measurement of absolute blood flow velocity and blood flow in the human retina by dual-beam bidirectional Doppler fourier-domain optical coherence tomography,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 53(10), 6062–6071 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. D. Braun, R. A. Linsenmeier, and T. K. Goldstick, “Oxygen consumption in the inner and outer retina of the cat,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36(3), 542–554 (1995).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

Y. Wang, B. A. Bower, J. A. Izatt, O. Tan, and D. Huang, “In vivo total retinal blood flow measurement by Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(4), 041215 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, R. Leitgeb, A. Kowalczyk, T. Bajraszewski, and A. F. Fercher, “In vivo human retinal imaging by Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(3), 457–463 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

E. A. Newman, “Functional hyperemia and mechanisms of neurovascular coupling in the retinal vasculature,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 33(11), 1685–1695 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. (1)

C. E. Riva, E. Logean, B. L. Petrig, and B. Falsini, “Effect of dark adaptation on retinal blood flow,” Klin. Monatsbl. Augenheilkd. 216(5), 309–310 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. E. Robles, C. Wilson, G. Grant, and A. Wax, “Molecular imaging true-colour spectroscopic optical coherence tomography,” Nat. Photonics 5(12), 744–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ophthalmology (1)

Y. Jia, S. T. Bailey, D. J. Wilson, O. Tan, M. L. Klein, C. J. Flaxel, B. Potsaid, J. J. Liu, C. D. Lu, M. F. Kraus, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. Huang, “Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Ophthalmology 121(7), 1435–1444 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

S. Makita, F. Jaillon, M. Yamanari, M. Miura, and Y. Yasuno, “Comprehensive in vivo micro-vascular imaging of the human eye by dual-beam-scan Doppler optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1271–1283 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. White, M. Pierce, N. Nassif, B. Cense, B. Park, G. Tearney, B. Bouma, T. Chen, and J. de Boer, “In vivo dynamic human retinal blood flow imaging using ultra-high-speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(25), 3490–3497 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. C. Lee, J. F. de Boer, M. Mujat, H. Lim, and S. H. Yun, “In vivo optical frequency domain imaging of human retina and choroid,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4403–4411 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yasuno, Y. Hong, S. Makita, M. Yamanari, M. Akiba, M. Miura, and T. Yatagai, “In vivo high-contrast imaging of deep posterior eye by 1- um swept source optical coherence tomography and scattering optical coherence angiography,” Opt. Express 15(10), 6121–6139 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Klein, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, B. R. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “Megahertz OCT for ultrawide-field retinal imaging with a 1050 nm Fourier domain mode-locked laser,” Opt. Express 19(4), 3044–3062 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Srinivasan, S. Sakadzić, I. Gorczynska, S. Ruvinskaya, W. Wu, J. G. Fujimoto, and D. A. Boas, “Quantitative cerebral blood flow with optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2477–2494 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, J. Hu, R. W. Knighton, X.-R. Huang, C. A. Puliafito, and S. Jiao, “Dual-band spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging the spectral contrasts of the retinal nerve fiber layer,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19653–19659 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

S. L. Jacques, “Optical properties of biological tissues: a review,” Phys. Med. Biol. 58(11), R37–R61 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prog. Retin. Eye Res. (1)

J. Kur, E. A. Newman, and T. Chan-Ling, “Cellular and physiological mechanisms underlying blood flow regulation in the retina and choroid in health and disease,” Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 31(5), 377–406 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and G. James, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, Optical coherence tomography: technology and applications (Springer Science & Business Media, 2008).

J. P. Kolb, T. Klein, W. Wieser, W. Draxinger, and R. Huber, “Full volumetric video rate OCT of the posterior eye with up to 195.2 volumes/s,” SPIE BiOS. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 931202–931207 (2015).

R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, and S. L. Eddins, Digital image processing using MATLAB (Pearson Education India, 2004).

J. Yi, W. Liu, S. Chen, V. Backman, N. Sheibani, C. M. Sorenson, A. Fawzi, R. Linsenmeier, and H. F. Zhang, “Visible light optical coherence tomography measures retinal oxygen metabolic response to systemic oxygenation,” Light Sci. Appl.In press.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the vis-OCT system for humans; (b) photograph of the system. SC: Supercontinuum laser source; SF: Single-mode fiber; SM: Spectrometer; Ref: Reference arm; FM: Motorized flip mirror; MS: Motorized beam stop; GM: Galvometer mirror; MF: Multimode fiber; APD: Avalanche photodiode; MR: Mirror; ND: Neutral density filter. In (a), the ND and MR were placed at the position of eye ball to characterize the system performance. In (b), a blue arrow points to the three-dimensional translational chin rest for adjusting eye position; a yellow arrow points to the stational optics board.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System characterization. (a) Normalized spectrum measured by the spectrometer; (b) The relative standard deviation over 1,000 spectra acquired subsequently; (c) Measurements of axial resolution, system sensitivity, and sensitivity roll off.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SLO and vis-OCT images centered at the fovea. (a-b) En face images of SLO and vis-OCT; (c-d) Contrast-adjusted images from the squared area in (a) and (b); (e) Cross-sectional vis-OCT image from the position highlighted in (b) with all anatomical structures labeled. ILM: Inner-limiting membrane; NFL: Neural fiber layer; GCL: Ganglion cell layer; IPL: Inner plexiform layer; INL: Inner nuclear layer; OPL: Outer plexiform layer; ONL: Outer nuclear layer; IS/OS: Inner/outer segment junction; OS: Outer segment of photoreceptor; RPE: Retinal pigmented epithelium; BM: Bruch’s membrane. (f) Single cross-sectional image using a commercial NIR-OCT system. (g) Averaged vis-OCT image from eight consecutive B-scans. The motion artifact was removed by aligning the adjacent B-scans.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SLO and vis-OCT images centered at ONH. (a-b) En face images from SLO and vis-OCT; (c-d) Contrast-adjusted images from the squared area in (a) and (b); (e) Cross-sectional vis-OCT image from the location highlighted in (b); Arrows points to the signal from blood within major retinal vessels.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Cross-sectional vis-OCT image around ONH. The inset at the botton-right corner shows the en face vis-OCT image where the B-scan is taken from. (b-c) Magnified images from the squared areas in (a). Arrow points to the signal from the choriocapillaris immediately beneath Bruch’s membrane. The anatomical structures in the outer retina are labeled in (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Original 10° × 10° field of view images. (a-d) original images for Fig. 3(c), 3(d) and Fig. 4(c), 4(d).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Magnified images of RPE/BM structures from vis-OCT and NIR OCT. (a-b) Replots of Fig. 3(e) and 3(f). (c-d) 4x magnified images from the squared areas in (a) and (b).

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