Abstract

This paper describes an endoscopic-inspired imaging system employing a micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) micromirror scanner to achieve beam scanning for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. Miniaturization of a scanning mirror using MEMS technology can allow a fully functional imaging probe to be contained in a package sufficiently small for utilization in a working channel of a standard gastroesophageal endoscope. This work employs advanced image processing techniques to enhance the images acquired using the MEMS scanner to correct non-idealities in mirror performance. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

M. C. Wu, O. Solgaard, and J. E. Ford, “Optical MEMS for lightwave communication,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4433–4454 (2006).
[Crossref]

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and A. I. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1–6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen and X. Li, “Dispersion management up to the third order for real-time optical coherence tomography involving a phase or frequency modulator,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5968–5978 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with new MEMS mirror,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 9–10 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

G. Berci and K. A. Forde, “History of endoscopy: what lessons have we learned from the past?” Surg. Endosc. 14(1), 5–15 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

P. Cignoni, C. Motani, and R. Scopigno, “DeWall: A fast divide and conquer Delaunay triangulation algorithm in Ed,” Comput. Aided Des. 30(5), 333–341 (1998).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

J. G. Fryer and D. C. Brown, “Lens distortion for close-range photogrammetry,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 52, 51–58 (1986).

Aguirre, A. D.

Bancu, M. G.

Baran, U.

S. T. S. Holmstrom, U. Baran, and H. Urey, “MEMS laser scanners: a review,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 23(2), 259–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berci, G.

G. Berci and K. A. Forde, “History of endoscopy: what lessons have we learned from the past?” Surg. Endosc. 14(1), 5–15 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, K.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bernstein, J. J.

Bonadeo, N. H.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bouma, B. E.

Brener, I.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brown, D. C.

J. G. Fryer and D. C. Brown, “Lens distortion for close-range photogrammetry,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 52, 51–58 (1986).

Cable, A. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chau, T.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choe, S.-W.

Choi, W.

Chou, M.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. B.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cignoni, P.

P. Cignoni, C. Motani, and R. Scopigno, “DeWall: A fast divide and conquer Delaunay triangulation algorithm in Ed,” Comput. Aided Des. 30(5), 333–341 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dadap, J. I.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

de Boer, J. F.

Dickensheets, D. L.

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and A. I. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1–6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Doran, R. A.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Duker, J. S.

Duma, V.-F.

Fan, L.

Fedder, G. K.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with new MEMS mirror,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 9–10 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Pan, H. Xie, and G. K. Fedder, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1966–1968 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ford, J. E.

Forde, K. A.

G. Berci and K. A. Forde, “History of endoscopy: what lessons have we learned from the past?” Surg. Endosc. 14(1), 5–15 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fryer, J. G.

J. G. Fryer and D. C. Brown, “Lens distortion for close-range photogrammetry,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 52, 51–58 (1986).

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gibson, R.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Goldstein, E. L.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gordon, M. L.

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and A. I. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1–6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Guo, S.

Harel, R.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hertz, P. R.

Himmer, P. A.

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and A. I. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1–6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Holmstrom, S. T. S.

S. T. S. Holmstrom, U. Baran, and H. Urey, “MEMS laser scanners: a review,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 23(2), 259–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hornegger, J.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, Y.

Jayaraman, V.

Johnson, J. J.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jung, W.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kang, J. U.

Kim, K. H.

Kraus, M. F.

Lee, C. D.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-S.

Lee, S.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, T. W.

Li, X.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, L. Y.

M. Strathman, Y. Liu, X. Li, and L. Y. Lin, “Dynamic focus-tracking MEMS scanning micromirror with low actuation voltages for endoscopic imaging,” Opt. Express 21(20), 23934–23941 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. J.

Liu, L.

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

Lu, C. D.

Maguluri, G. N.

McCormick, D. T.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Meemon, P.

Member, S.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Motani, C.

P. Cignoni, C. Motani, and R. Scopigno, “DeWall: A fast divide and conquer Delaunay triangulation algorithm in Ed,” Comput. Aided Des. 30(5), 333–341 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with new MEMS mirror,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 9–10 (2003).
[Crossref]

Y. Pan, H. Xie, and G. K. Fedder, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1966–1968 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B. H.

Park, S.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Peale, D. R.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Piyawattanametha, W.

Potsaid, B.

Pu, C.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and A. I. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1–6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rogomentich, F. J.

Rolland, J. P.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scopigno, R.

P. Cignoni, C. Motani, and R. Scopigno, “DeWall: A fast divide and conquer Delaunay triangulation algorithm in Ed,” Comput. Aided Des. 30(5), 333–341 (1998).
[Crossref]

Solgaard, O.

Sorg, B. S.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strathman, M.

Sun, J.

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tang, B.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tien, N. C.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tong, D. T. K.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tsai, M.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Urey, H.

S. T. S. Holmstrom, U. Baran, and H. Urey, “MEMS laser scanners: a review,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 23(2), 259–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vitkin, A. I.

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and A. I. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1–6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Walker, J. A.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wojtkowski, M.

Wu, L.

Wu, M. C.

Wu, Q.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xie, H.

Xie, T.

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with new MEMS mirror,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 9–10 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, V. X. D.

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and A. I. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1–6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W.

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Jung, D. T. McCormick, J. Zhang, L. Wang, N. C. Tien, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography by use of a two-axis microelectromechanical scanning mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163901 (2006).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Comput. Aided Des. (1)

P. Cignoni, C. Motani, and R. Scopigno, “DeWall: A fast divide and conquer Delaunay triangulation algorithm in Ed,” Comput. Aided Des. 30(5), 333–341 (1998).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Xie, H. Xie, G. K. Fedder, and Y. Pan, “Endoscopic optical coherence tomography with new MEMS mirror,” Electron. Lett. 39(21), 9–10 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (2)

S. T. S. Holmstrom, U. Baran, and H. Urey, “MEMS laser scanners: a review,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 23(2), 259–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S. Lee, S. Member, J. I. Dadap, S. Park, K. Bergman, N. H. Bonadeo, T. Chau, M. Chou, R. A. Doran, R. Gibson, R. Harel, J. J. Johnson, C. D. Lee, D. R. Peale, B. Tang, D. T. K. Tong, M. Tsai, Q. Wu, W. Zhong, E. L. Goldstein, L. Y. Lin, and J. A. Walker, “Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(2), 261–273 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Qi, P. A. Himmer, M. L. Gordon, V. X. D. Yang, D. L. Dickensheets, and A. I. Vitkin, “Dynamic focus control in high-speed optical coherence tomography based on a microelectromechanical mirror,” Opt. Commun. 232(1–6), 123–128 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing (1)

J. G. Fryer and D. C. Brown, “Lens distortion for close-range photogrammetry,” Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 52, 51–58 (1986).

Science (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Surg. Endosc. (1)

G. Berci and K. A. Forde, “History of endoscopy: what lessons have we learned from the past?” Surg. Endosc. 14(1), 5–15 (2000).
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D. Provenzale, “Screening and surveillance of gastrointestinal cancers,” in Gastrointestinal Cancers: A Companion to Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease, A. Rustgi and J. M. Crawford, eds. (Saunders Publishing, 2003), pp. 193–204.

J. F. Boer, “Spectral/Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” in Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications, W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, eds. (Springer, 2008), pp. 147–175.

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Figures (17)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) A double side polished silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer is shown. (B) PECVD is used to deposit a conformal silicon nitride on both sides of the wafer and the backside is patterned. (C) The backside of the wafer is etched with KOH to the silicon oxide stop layer in the location of the mirrors. (D) Phosphoric acid at 160 °C is used to remove the silicon nitride. (E) Metal and silicon trenches are etched down to the oxide layer. (F) HF is used to finish the release of the device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical microscope image of gold-coated micromirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Micromirror deflection angle for both (a) DC actuation and (b) resonant AC actuation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized deflection versus frequency for the micromirror’s outer (green, resonating at 399 Hz) and inner (blue, resonating at 472 Hz) axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The initial spatially non-uniform data with two actuation voltages and two-dimensional position data is input into the interpolation algorithm. The output is a densely spaced, highly linear scan pattern with the corresponding actuation voltages.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Uncalibrated image from time-domain OCT system of test checkerboard patterns.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images generated from time-domain OCT system of test checkerboard patterns.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical layouts for (a) time-domain and (b) spectral-domain OCT systems.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Time-domain OCT image of stair-step like structure of microscope cover glass slides.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectral-domain OCT cross-sectional image of a mouse ear before correction.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spectral-domain OCT cross-sectional image of a mouse ear with motion artifact correction.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) The distorted chess-board image; (b) the ground truth of (a).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The interactive interface of our system for calibration where the distortion image and the ground truth image are shown.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

One-ring neighborhood of a feature point.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Result comparison between the global and local de-warping. In comparison with the ground-truth image, the RMSE of the distorted image is 45.39; the result of global de-warping is 36.65; and the result of the local de-warping is 11.71.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Result comparison between the global and local de-warping. In comparison with the ground-truth image, the RMSE of the distorted image is 47.33; the result of global de-warping is 30.87; and the result of the local de-warping is 16.32.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Spectral-domain OCT image of the mouse ear after the local de-warping image processing.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r j = f j x 2 i=1 n f i x 2
W i =[ 1 0 d u i 0 1 d v i 0 0 0 ][ cos θ i sin θ i 0 sin θ i cos θ i 0 0 0 1 ][ s u i 0 0 0 s v i 0 0 0 1 ].
W i N i = N i g
W l f i = W k f i ,l, kp( f i )
min W i i=1 n W i N i N i g F 2 subject to  W l f i = W k f i ,l, kp( f i ).
x = i=1 n r i W i x
RMSE= d i 2 N

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